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GCSE: USA 1919-1941
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How Important Was Henry Fords Contribution to Americas economy and Social Developments in the 1920s?
This change was because he had a strong policy of standardizing all the cars he made. Because of this policy the Model T was extremely popular among Americans of different social statuses. It was a car that could be used in cities and countryside, this enabled farmers to be able to travel to towns and sell their goods while it also gave a sense of immense freedom to the rural part of America.
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Additionally, they started putting taxes on imported goods which promoted the purchase of national made items, hence helping American producers. This measure also had a negative side as it had a high risk of deteriorating international trading between the United States and other European and South American countries. Moreover, they did not interfere with people's businesses, neither had they put any restrictions on financial institutions and banks which gave them more freedom and money to spend and therefore have a greater profit.
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Spending and government intervention became the new economic way out of trouble and Roosevelt established the alphabet agencies to help agriculture, industry and unemployment. The AAA,(Argricultral adjustment administration) CCC(civilan conservation corps) snd others were set up.. The tennesse valley authority-(TVA) was particularly successful in providing hydroelectric power.There were many successes of the first new deal such as it stabilised banks and the system of credit.
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The Roaring Twenties was a time of prosperity and enjoyment. It was a time where the old and new generations differentiated the most.
This growth led to increasing economic consumption, especially among the upper class and upper middle class. They bought cars, entertained more lavishly, spent money going out on the town, including to changing forms of entertainment. During this time credit had also come into play. The lower middle class and the lower class could now use credit to buy houses or tools to farm. This increased the amount of spending done by Americans. The entertainment industry changed drastically.
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In this piece of coursework I will be discussing why Franklin D Roosevelt needed to introduce the New Deal.
Hoover who was currently president at that time belonged to the Republican Party and traditionally the Republican Party is favoured by the upper classes. The Republican Party believed it wasn't the government's role to interfere too much in the everyday lives of its citizens; this policy is known as "laissez-faire", meaning leave alone. One of the main reasons to why Hoover became president of the United States of America was due to his efforts in the First World War when he helped to feed starving people.
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Why was there an economic boom in the 1920s? There were many reasons that caused the economics boom in the 1920s in USA.
This advantage was why USA was exporting all kinds of goods to Europe, Latin America and the Far East. More and more industries are developing ways of more efficient and productive ways of producing their product. Another major cause was the First World War. During this period Europe had some of the most successful industries in the world. But the war stopped the growth of these industries. America produced and sold lots of war related goods and weaponry such as arms, munitions and explosives to Britain and France. The war also caused other great demands such as massive amount of food, plastic and other materials.
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America changed from isolationism as they had intervened in a war, and not avoiding disputes related to war. The main reason was that USA wanted to eliminate n**i forces, and having a reason to retaliate again Japan for ruining American business with Manchuria. From 1946 - 1971 America tried to contain communist forces where USA intervened in the Korean War (1950 - 1953) and the Vietnam War (1964-1965). In both wars, USA tried to stop spread of communism from the North to South.
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The prosperity of the 1920s bought a change in lifestyle for many Americans: more people owned their owned their own homes and cars, and had labor-saving devices to help with housework.
The life of the cars had a big impact on people life and how they lived it. It opened new doors for the freedom to travel, whether to visit friends or take day trip to the cities. These also led to people moving out the city and live in the suburbs during the 1920s because they could drive into work. The new invention led to young people escaping their parents and go off to cinemas or clubs. However, not everyone enjoyed the cars as the many young people did. Many thought that it was leading to a moral decline in young people, giving them the 'opportunity for s****l freedom'; others blamed it for making crime easier.
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Furthermore, as more people began to drive cars, more roads were paved which led to further jobs on construction opening up and this meant more people had money to spend. This was a cycle of prosperity. Additionally, people spent money on new technologies such as the 'Hoover', cookers and radios as 70% of towns and cities in 1929 had lighting and electricity in homes. Skyscrapers were built which implied the great wealth and prosperity of the nation at that time.
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Furthermore, the WCTU also campaigned for women's suffrage and anti-prostitution, thus many women supported them. Additionally, WCTU campaigned in schools to persuade children that alcohol was bad. This was successful as children were easy to persuade and they were the future generation thus they would not support alcohol. This meant that Prohibition gained a wider audience and led to more 'dries'. As a result Prohibition was introduced due to organisations such as the WCTU, who used other methods as well as temperance. Furthermore, Prohibition was introduced due to the ASL's propaganda. They printed lots of propaganda, portraying alcohol to be the root of all evil.
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In 1915, a new group was founded under the same name. It was initiated by films such as The Birth of a Nation and anti-Semitic newspaper accounts surrounding the trial and lynching of accused murderer Leo Frank, a Jewish man accused of the r**e and murder of a young white girl named Mary Phagan. Unlike the first, this second Klan moved to maintain the dominance of white Protestant morality against challenges from criminals, bootleggers, disreputable sinners, and more generally over blacks, Catholics, and Jews. This group in the 1920's operated openly, and consisted of about 4 million members at its peak.
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The author used slogans, and over exaggerated the picture to influence the people for prohibition; it is also clear that the author feels family is very important, which is why they feel prohibition it a good thing.
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Life did get better for many Americans in 1930s. How far was Roosevelt responsible for this, or was it due to other factors?
Roosevelt also used the radio and broadcasted what he would be going to do many Americans. So this made Roosevelt to gain trust of many Americans in order to make them grow their confidence with Roosevelt. Franklin D Roosevelt also claimed to rescue the banking system in order to prevent it to corrupt. In addition, he prepared a large sum of government money to relief the disadvantaged.
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The higher the demand for raw materials and natural resources, the higher the amount of factories being built. As the consumer demand became greater, not only were more consumer goods being produced e.g. - fridge, radio and car, more skilled workers were being employed on high wages. This easily led to more money being available to invest and also more taxes being paid to the government. Confidence was key for the right to prosperity. This was also the most important factor because it triggered all the other causes.
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The Economy Act - Roosevelt cut the pay for everyone working for the government, army, navy and air force by 15% and saved a nearly 1billion dollars to be re-invested into the economy, these tough measures were needed for people who were unemployed or having financial crisis's this money was extremely important so that the economy could make a slow but steady recovery.
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Al Capone was viewed by the authorities in the USA as public enemy number one. Do all the sources and your own knowledge of US society in the 1920s and 1930s support this view?
Some people thought of Al Capone as Robin Hood because he helped people in need. An example of this is when Al Capone helped a man in Chicago who owned a dry cleaning shop. He used the man's dry cleaning shop as head quarters for selling alcohol. In return Al Capone sold the man alcohol for twelve dollars a gallon and allowed him to sell it on for eighteen dollars a gallon. This also shows that Al Capone was a charitable man.
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Life did get better for many Americans in the 1930s. How far was Roosevelt himself responsible or was it due to other factors?
The aims of the New Deal were: Relief; to help the unemployed, Recovery; to rebuild the economy and Reform; to create a fairer society. The first New Deal was emergency and temporary. It was made quickly to try and stop the crisis. FDR set up what were know as 'alphabet agencies' these including organisations like the WPA, AAA, CCC, TVA, BA. These acts worked well and created emergency relief for the worst hit and much needed jobs. They were quick to act on the problems and produced the intended results fast.
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FDR was a naturally charismatic man you could appeal to the American public. When he developed polio he gained a true insight to the concerns of the public and was able to use that to develop ways in which to help them, which is exactly what they wanted. FDR was an enthusiastic and confident campaigner who was hugely likeable and convincing. In FDRs upbringing and early education he would have had strong morals instilled into him and be taught a sense of public service, this would have later given him the determination to succeed.
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This suggests the Prohibition officers had scared the public into not breaking the law as they knew they would be caught. Another point is that the number of illegal stalls seized increased from 1921 where the number was 9,746 right on through to 1929 where it was 15,794. This indicates success because it means more Prohibition officers are taking their work seriously and enforcing the law. The source shows the activities of Federal government agents enforcing Prohibition. Federal agents are less likely to be corrupted than run of the mill policemen.
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encouraged to buy shares and credit, after that companies and factories were not doing as well due to the fact that they had less demand which meant they had to make fewer goods which then meant then people were made unemployed. By 1928 the people that were 'in the know' started to sell their shares, and finally on October 1929 (Black Tuesday) panic set into people so they started to sell all their shares which caused the stock market collapse.
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Source 'a' and 'b' agree that the anti-saloon league were actively involved in the prohibition coming into place. But 'a' goes in further and explains how the absence of men may have been a reason as to why the woman's Christian Temperance union was influential in the campaign 'a' states: 'at a time when a large number of men were absent in the armed forces'. This makes the suggestion the league would have not been as effective with more men to stand up against their 'crusade' and they wouldn't have gained the support, and influenced prohibition, with men present.
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Use Source A and your knowledge of the period to explain why people supported Roosevelt in the 1932 election.
Roosevelt displays his determination to make life better in his electoral speech when he states "This is more than a political campaign: it is a call to arms." This shows that he feels the election is no longer about earning votes and party policies anymore, the country is now at war with the Great Depression and all Americans must work together with Roosevelt to fight this war. He goes on to say he needs everyone's help "...to win in this crusade to restore America" which emphasizes his determination to win and this gave Americans confidence that with his plan of the New Deal, they will "win".
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The cartoon also shows only a tiny amount of water coming out of the New Deal Pump which tells us that despite government spending, little progress is made in improving the lives of Americans. The cartoon also shows an old taxpayer carrying many buckets of water. This shows that the taxpayers are overburdened with taxes and many of their tax money are wasted when they put it into the New Deal Pump. Thus, this cartoon is showing that Roosevelt is spending too much and doesn't have a plan to bring America out of the Depression so most of the money is wasted.
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As Japan's allies, Germany and Italy fell, Japan was not far behind. The first reason is because of their navy and aircraft. They were low on the amount of planes and ships, and they could barely control the skies and the seas. Resources like food were being exhausted and being taken away from civilians in order to use it all on the war.
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study sources 1 and b. do these sources prove that the crash and the depression were the responsibility of the republican party and its leader?
This is what the Americans wanted to hear because everyone who gained money wanted more, and people who was in poverty liked to hear that America was getting rid of poverty, because they thought that Hoover would help them get out of poverty if he was elected president. No one could predict the coming of the Wall Street crash when the world got lunged deep into debt, and Roosevelt used this to his advantage "millions of our citizens cherish the hope that their old standards of living have not gone forever."
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