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GCSE: USA 1919-1941
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Prohibition. Source A is from an American history book it was published in 1973. Source B is from a book about American history and it was published in 1979. Both sources clearly agree on prohibitions consequences,they clearly agree that after the law
Overall sources A and B are both quite similar they both agree that prohibition was a failure. Although they both disagree on some factors. In source A there are many reasons as to why prohibition was introduced, in source B there is only one. b) In source C and D both artists are for prohibition. They both strongly criticize alcohol! In source C the bar tender is described as a fat wealthy German, which shows that he is quite well off and he is portrayed in such a way, that it looks like he is robbing people who buy alcohol.
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European countries retaliated by putting tariffs on American made goods but infact had very little impact on the American economy because internally they were doing so well. The main turning point of the boom was the First World War and American Isolation. In the First World War America lent millions of pounds to countries like Britain they would then be paid back with interest on top of the original money. America also exported many of its good and products such as munitions and natural resources which it had lots of to Britain and France.
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I feel he was leading America to a road of socialism and opponents found it easy to criticise him for this. These were all unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (the biggest opponent) because his laws ran into numerous states, radicals who found he was still not doing enough for the "forgotten men" and those in need, The rich who left out the new deal which only helped homeless, poor, exploited and the working class. One of the reasons opposition found it easy to conflict against his new deal laws were because he was beginning to form into a dictator rather
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Prohibition was a disaster waiting to happen How far do you agree? I feel the Prohibition act of January 16th, 1919-20 seemed like a good idea to start with and therefore strongly agree with this statement, I think the law had to be executed becaus
Socially American families were being ruined by alcohol because fathers were substituting spending money on essential things like Education, Food, and Clothing for alcohol and it was becoming an increasing problem, this put pressure on women to supply for their families and the group anti-saloon was formed by women as a result. Pressure groups carried large action towards prohibition, two major groups such as the anti-saloon group and the Women Christian temperance union highlighted key problems with alcohol and mainly focused on the problems it caused for families in particular and how drinking was against God 'work of the devil',
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Eleanor disliked s*x, but despite this they had six children, with the first four being in rapid succession. (Wikimedia Foundation Inc.) In 1921, while on vacation with his family, Roosevelt awoke one morning and got out of bed, to find that his right leg would not move, soon after, his left. Then he fell to the floor. He crawled his way back to his bed. FDR was diagnosed with a paralytic illness, known as polio. He had symptoms like fever, protracted symmetric, ascending paralysis of the upper and lower extremities, facial paralysis, bladder and bowel dysfunction, numbness, and dysesthesia.
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Also, many Jews were immigrating to America because of the build up of the Nazis in Germany. Furthermore, many Italians went to America due to persecution in Italy and to escape its fascist political views and government. The USA promised freedom in many ways, such as they were free to practise their religion and have a freedom of speech and press, therefore this pulled mainly young hopeful people who wanted to live life freely, to the USA and as a result of persecution in many countries, a massive amount of immigrants came to the USA to start over in life
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The beginning of his first term is famously known as 'The First Hundred Days'. During these days, Congress granted every request Roosevelt asked, allowing him to behave much like a dictator. Roosevelt understood that Americans would be worried and confused about the New Deal, so he spoke to them through 'Fireside Chats'. These were a series of 30 radio speeches in which explained what he was doing to deal with the Depression. Nothing like this had ever been done by a President before. On his first inaugural address Roosevelt placed the blame for the Great Depression on bankers, and proceeded to close all banks in America until he could pass new legislation.
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It was a vicious cycle people had no money because they had no jobs therefore they couldn't buy any goods so the companies had to cut costs (sack workers). During this period unemployment skyrocketed and rose to whole new levels. In 1923 24.9% of Americans were unemployed; this doesn't seem a lot however a country over 10% is deemed to be in trouble almost 25% is catastrophic. These people had little hope; they weren't able to keep up payments up on their mortgages so lost their houses they started to feel the consequences of gambling on the stock market, they were left with debts to stockbrokers where they had bought on the margin.
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The Civil Rights Movement achieved a great deal in the 1950s and 1960s. Do sources A to E prove that this interpretation is correct?
In other states such as Mississippi and Alabama there were no black students at all. Source B further highlights the difficulties in the desegregation of schools. It shows the scene outside Little Rock Central High when Elizabeth Eckford was entering. There is an angry mob of white people surrounding her and there were even National Guards in place to prevent her from entering the school. This was probably taken by a member of the black community for propaganda purposes and portrays Elizabeth in a dignified way and shows the determination of the black people. Even so it does show the truth of what happened at Little Rock as the photo wasn't staged and it's a genuine reflection of the attitude of some, though not all, whites in the south towards integration.
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The second poster shows a man handing over a bag labelled "weekly wages" the title at the top reads "the poor man's club" the poster is branding the saloon the poor man's club showing how the high payments for beer and alcohol keeps its "members" or customers always poor, the pop out circle at the bottom of the poster shows the his family sat at home, the mother weeping at the table, and the small child looking into an empty bowl.
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Did Roosevelts upbringing, background and character make it easy for him to understand the fears and concerns of the ordinary Americans?
The lonely childhood that he endured could suggest a slight resentment towards the people of his class. Maybe FDR did not feel mistreated when he was still a small boy, but when looking back on his childhood in later life he may have felt that he had been inadvertently treated with unkindness The education that FDR received certainly would have had a huge impact on his character and his opinions. He had come from a very wealthy and privileged background, so when he was fourteen he attended the private boarding schools, Groton. Despite the excellent standard of teaching that he was receiving, FDR remained unhappy at school, mostly because he did not fit in with the other students due to his lack of talent in sports.
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Prohibition. Source A believes that it was "the influence of the Anti-saloon league" and source B believes that prohibition was "led by the league". Both sources are of the opinion that prohibition led to an increase in crime. This is shown in source A, "
Were the artists of these two posters for or against prohibition? I think that posters C and D are for prohibition. Both posters show the men wasting all their money on alcohol in saloons, rather than spending it on their families. In source C you can see a man handing over a bag of money. It is clear that the author's want to show that families are very important, which is why they feel prohibition is a good thing. For example, In the bottom corner of source C, it shows one man's family made poor from the saloons, there's the man's wife, lying on the table with nothing and looking very depressed.
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Roosevelt wanted to shrink the gap to once again bring America together. Roosevelt thought the New Deal could combat these problems. He introduced The Fair Employment Act which required that all federal agencies included in their contracts with private employers a provision obligating the employers not to "discriminate against persons of any race, color, creed, or nationality in matters of employment." Also The National Housing Act was passed by Congress in 1934 and set up the Federal Housing Authority (FHA). This agency encouraged banks, building and loan associations, to make loans for building homes, small business establishments, and farm buildings.
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The caption beneath says 'A club member in good standing, "paying his dues"' this is supposed to be a sarcastic remark, 'in good standing' as the man can hardly stand as he is drunk, and he is handing over his weekly wage 'paying his dues' this means he is obviously paying money but for doing this he having to pay for his mistake, by leaving himself and his family with nothing. The bar man is accepting the mans money with a smile on his face and has one arm out in a welcoming fashion, accepting the money.
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This helped him win the 1932 election because most Americans needed a caring president to improve their current indecent situation so they would all vote for him since he was prepared to give them what they needed. Roosevelt was also brimming with new ideas, for instance, his 'New Deal' had 3 simple aims: Relief, Recovery and Reform. He said: "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people" and this brought a new hope to the American people because it made them feel that Roosevelt was going to turn their situation around.
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Use the sources and your knowledge of American history to explain why there has been so much disagreement in the USA over the effects of the New Deal.
The photograph in source D also supports the Republican view. It was taken in 1937 when Roosevelt stopped spending. It shows many people queuing up for government help and this tells us that deficit spending did not solve the unemployment problem because as soon as Roosevelt stopped spending, America went into a second Depression. Source E also supports the Republican view as it shows a "New Deal Pump" with many leaks in it. The many leaks in the pump tells us that although a lot of water, representing money, was put into the pump, most of it was wasted.
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Source B also agrees to the fact that prohibition was inevitable because even though the government pressurised to make prohibition a success by introducing the first prohibition commissioner and bringing in 1500 agents, they banned alcohol manufacture transportation and sales completely. By the time the Commissioner and the agents started their work the bacteria of alcoholism spreaded the whole America. By 1928 there were more than 30,000 speakeasies in New York itself. With the Power and wealth of Al Capone and the people addiction it was almost impossible to make prohibition a success.
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However, in an effort to boost the American economy, the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act was approved in 1930. This act raised taxes on products that had been imported from other countries in order to encourage people to buy American-made products. Instead, it caused other countries to raise taxes on products exported from America in retaliation, which ended up having negative effects on the global economy. Hoover believed the solution lay in volunteerism, "I am willing to pledge myself that if the time should ever come that the voluntary agencies of the country together with the local and state governments are unable to find resources with which to prevent hunger and suffering ...
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Source B is an extract from a book about American History, published in 1979. It again gives reasons for the introduction of prohibition and then goes on to speak of the consequences. This also supports the view that prohibition would fail because of the lack of force the government were prepared to put in to stop alcohol in its tracks. It says that only 1500 prohibition agents were appointed however goes on to say that by 1928 there were more than 30,000 speakeasies in New York alone, making it an impossible task for the small minority of agents in the entire country to control the crime wave.
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So it was acceptable to have separate schools for blacks and whites as long as they had equal facilities. The NAACP took the Topeka school board in Kansas to court as a test case. In "Brown vs. Topeka, Kansas", NAACP argued that it was simple logic that it was sensible to send seven year old Linda Brown to her nearest school locally instead of an all black one which was several kilometres away. Chief Justice Earl Warren gave his verdict of the court.
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To what extent was the increase in hostility towards immigrants in the U.S.A during the 1920s due to fear of revolution?
The fear of revolution by many Americans was a major factor leading to the increase in hostility towards immigrants during the 1920's. In 1917, revolution took hold of Russia as Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized power. One of the main beliefs of communism was to spread its ideologies and beliefs throughout the world, using the slogan "workers of the world unite". At that time, many Americans believed that Russian and Eastern Europeans were emigrating to the U.S.A to start a revolution. In 1919 there was a huge wave of strikes across the U.S.A, and a full national strike of steelworkers.
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Ever since the 1860's and 1870's, the American Industry had been growing quickly. By the time the First World War came about, USA led the world in most areas of industry. It had large steel, coal and textile industries. It was leading in the biggest oil producer. The USA was also developing new technology quickly and providing it in its masses such as motor cars, telephones and electrical lighting. Its newer industries such as chemicals where growing fast. Its new film industry already led the world. The managers of these industries were increasingly skilled and professional and they were selling more and more of their products, not just in the USA but in Europe, Latin America and in the Far East.
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In the first hundred days of his presidency Roosevelt sent 15 proposals to congress and all 15 were adopted, he did just about everything in his power to get the USA out of the depression. A good example is the closing down of all the banks and having allowing only 5000 trustworthy by to reopen which were supported by government money, trying to bring back confidence back in America. Despite the great efforts that Roosevelt put in to help the USA emerge from the depression, there was still opposition to the New Deal suggesting that it was doing too much or too little.
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Source B is an extract from the book "13 days" written by Robert Kennedy in 1968. Source B is showing his account of what happened on the 16th October 1962, when President Kennedy told him about the U-2's photographic mission. Source B is useful to a historian studying the Cuban Missile Crisis because it is written by President Kennedy's brother so the information would be quite accurate as he is someone close to the President. We know the President and his brother were close as Robert Kennedy was the first person the President phoned to ask for advice; this may have been because he wanted advice from someone he trusted.
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Secondly Roosevelt was shown to be a man that was liked by the American public, this is because of the amount of mail the white house received and also the amount Roosevelt replied to. This proves that Roosevelt was appreciated in the United States. 2. Sources E and F are both sets of statistics Which of these sources is the most useful to an historian studying the impact of the new deal on the USA? Source E shows unemployment in the United states was rising very quickly after the wall street crash happened in the 1929.
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