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GCSE: USA 1919-1941
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This kind of thought had spreaded through out America. Thousands of illegal saloons called the 'Speakeasies' were secretly opened in cellars and back rooms. They had names like 'Dizzy Club' and the 'Sligo Slasher's'. Drinkers had to give passwords or knock at the door in code to be let in. Speakeasies sold 'bootleg' alcohol. Those who supplied illicit drink were nicknamed as 'Bootleggers'. The 'Speakeasies' smuggled huge quantities of alcohol across the thousands of miles of border between Canada and the USA; from the British Islands of the Bahamas to Florida; and across the US-Mexico border.
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American President Roosevelt and German leader Hitler faced political and economic problems during the 1930s and dealt with them in similar and dissimilar ways.
Roosevelt, on the other hand, was a Democratic leader in a liberal country. This meant that, because the people had a right to vote, other parties were opposing Roosevelt and the Democratic Party. The opposing Republican party were resisting the ideas and mechanisms Roosevelt used to assist economic problems. Many republican judges had accused Roosevelt of being extravagant with his economic strategies and destroyed his plans. People described Roosevelt as being "wishy-washy and because he seemed to have no firm opinions 'the cork screw candidate' " (White, 1986: 56).
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There were more than 100,000 saloons in the country, many of them permitting gambling, prostitution, sale to minors, public drunkenness and violence. The only way to protect society from this threat was to abolish the "drunkard-making business". The crusade to ban alcohol was backed by aims and beliefs that it would end the corruption, promote morality and reduce crime. Workers would be more focused and productive and people would have more respect for what's right. Poverty might decrease with less money being wasted on alcohol and now that alcohol couldn't be obtained in society, the cities couldn't breed alcoholics.
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What measures did Roosevelt introduce in his 'New Deal' to bring recovery in banking, agriculture and industry? How successful were they by 1939?
He explained his actions in a simple and direct way, and asked Americans to work with him. Roosevelt's broadcasts were astoundingly successful, none more so than the first one, which dealt with the important issue of the banks. In becoming President, Roosevelt's most urgent problem was to rescue the banks. Since 1930, over 5000 banks had been forced to close down, and the banking system was on the point of collapse. This is because savers had withdrawn their money and businesses had not been able to repay bank loans. Therefore immediately FDR, ordered all of America's banks to close and remain closed until they had been checked fully. This closure was known as a "four day holiday".
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vigorously lobbied for prohibition. The WCTU supported prohibition because intoxicating drink was seen as a threat to family life. Drink was seen as responsible for many crimes and acts of violence, especially from men. Forcing Kansas to become to first state to introduce prohibition in 1870, the membership of the WCTU was mainly middle-class. Their ambition was to replace the saloons with coffee-houses. The writer Edward Behr believed that the WCTU was out-of-touch with the working class and also with the immigrants who sustained much of the demand for alcohol.
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Only if he missed every ice burg and returned the ship to shore with no more damage on the vessel would he have been a complete success. There were so many ice burgs to dodge; I do not believe that it was possible for Roosevelt to be a complete success with his New Deal. I will discuss whether the New Deal was a success by looking at its successes and failures Success: The New deal had many success stories. Many of the Alphabet Agencies were successes.
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He was given the same power as if the country was under attack or in military conflict. This special session of congress lasted exactly 100 days (8 March - 16 June 1933) hence why it is known in History as The 100 days. During this time thirteen emergency laws were passed. The three main aims of the New Deal were: Relief, Recovery and Reform. Roosevelt introduced a series of government agencies to help America out of trouble. These quickly became known by their initials and were therefore called 'Alphabet Agencies.' Some Agencies contributed to more than one aim that Roosevelt had.
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Overall, Prohibition had not stopped anyone from getting alcohol at all. Prohibition Agents were appointed by Washington, whose job was to seize alcohol, destroy it were found, and to try and stop illegal acts like bootlegging from happening. Any liquor they did retrieve was only a fraction of the real total throughout the country. Prohibition Agents had a difficult occupation; trying to enforce a law that no one took seriously. The job was so hard that if it couldn't be enforced then how would it work? The law was extremely unpopular in most urban states, and with all the criminal activity going on, like the speakeasies and the bootleggers, it was impossible to police.
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The rush to withdraw money from banks helped them to bankruptcy even quicker, so in the end the only group with any assets of value remaining were the landowners, since the investors had gambled and lost. The very wealthy in turn, by holding so much of the wealth to themselves helped to widen the gap between wealth and poverty. The only effect would have been that they may have lost some of their investments, of which they would both have had relatively few and probably of these few, the companies concern would have been hit less badly than most.
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The names of some of these more modern ships were Syren, Eagle and the Banshee. They were called greyhounds. They called them thus for their speed and camouflage. The vessels had a low silhouette a shallow draught, and burned smokeless coal. Rum running is when you transport liquor to a given destination. During the 1920's with the Volstead act, Woman's temperance movement and prohibition it was impossible to legally get alcohol. So rum running was used to transport liquor to other destinations. As you can imagine, this business was lucrative because it was illegal. The preferred drink was liquor, the demand was for liquor and also you could make $2000 on a bad day/night of rum running, so people found a way to alleviate customers of their alcoholic woes.
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This showed that the American peoples trust had been restored especially with banks and with Roosevelt. Although this provided immediate relief and recovery for the American people, the New Deal had more long-term plans. Roosevelt set up 'alphabet agencies' to tackle the unemployment problem that was dragging America into recession. The biggest agency being the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) brought in codes to tackle minimum wages, maximum hours and better working conditions. However, results were mixed. Large company firms dominated the industry and would sometimes not allow for such codes to be passed in their company.
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Dr Townsend's aims were focused on the elderly. Many savings were lost when the banks collapsed. Townsend's idea was to provide a pension of $200 per month. Father Coughlin set up his own National League for Social Justice in 1934. He attacked bankers and Jews. He also made personal threats on President Roosevelt. Women hardly benefited from the New Deal, most of the New Deal was aimed at manual and construction labour, in those days only seen as the work of men. During the 1930s the number of women unemployed went down, this was due to them being seen as cheap labour, their wages were half of what the men earned.
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Source B says how there were 1500 prohibition agents, and this would seem like a lot of people to enforce prohibition but from my own knowledge I know that this was never enough agents to properly enforce the law, there was also the 30 000 speakeasies across America which were not closed, this is because there will always be a demand for alcohol and it is such a big business. Source C is a picture of a man at a bar, he is handing over his week's wages and the slogan is 'a club member in good standing paying his
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I believe the brewing industry and the Prohibition movement were closely related. If they preserved grain for the war, then Prohibition might have not been introduced because to win the war was their main aim and was more important than Prohibition. To conclude they both agree on the fact that Prohibition was a measure designed to reduce drinking by eliminating the businesses that manufactured, distributed and sold alcoholic beverages. But to a certain extent, they had the same ideas of how to win the war (by 'preserving grain for food'). I believe facts like this encouraged prohibition, therefore, the sources back one another up as well as agree with one another.
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Question a) Source A and B discuss the issues which led to the introduction of Prohibition. Source A is from an American history book published in 1973. Source B is from is also from an American history book, it was Published in 1979. Source A does not come to a conclusion on what Caused prohibition to come into place, Source B on the other hand, Quite blatantly blames the Women's Christian Temperance Union and The Anti-Saloon League. Source A and B both agree that a criminal Boom occurred because of the prohibition of alcohol but source B Does not place
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Prohibition - What can you learn from Source A about why the Anti-Saloon League opposed the sale of alcohol?
We are also told that several states had already passed prohibition lows in the 19th Century, and that there was a National Prohibition Party who opposed the Presidential election in 1892. Source B tells us that during World War I, grain that was used in brewing was needed for food so therefore its use in the manufacture of alcohol was banned in 1917. Information extracted form Source b tells us that beer drinking was associated with the Germans. Mainly because many Germans that immigrated to America worked in the brewing industry and as there was hostility towards Germany due to the war prohibition received a boost.
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The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) was the government's main weapon in saving the industry. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was made to help young unemployed men. Whilst living in camps the men carried out work, they planted new forests and helped solve flooding. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) helped to solve unemployment. Hundreds of schemes involving building new hospitals, roads and schools were created. The Social Security Act set up pension schemes and unemployment insurance. To help farmers in drought-hit areas the Resettlement Administration (RA)
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The artists were very much in favour of prohibition. In source C the artist is trying to say in the end all the breadwinners will be slaves to alcohol. In source C there is a cartoon of a lady's husband going to a saloon and giving all his wages for a drink of alcohol. The man's wages in the cartoon are symbolised by the bag with the dollar sign on it. On top of this it says "the Poor Mans Club" which suggests that all men come to the saloon with the lot of money and leave feeling very drunk with no money in their pockets for their families.
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The Depression. Germany was affected the most by the Great Depression. Agricultural prices fell. This brought poverty to the countryside. The Wall Street Crash meant the withdrawal of the USA loans. This hit Germany worse than other countries. Unemployment rose to 5.5 million in 1931. Also in 1931 the five major banks crashed in Germany. Because of this many businesses failed and most middle class people lost their savings. The Depression brought Hitler and the Nazis to power. One of the many reasons for Hitler becoming leader was because he promised to tear up the Treaty of Versailles.
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Source A says it was the Anti-Saloon League. Source A states that the banning of alcohol went against public wishes, but source B just quotes Al Capone as saying there was a "public demand" for alcohol. Source A says that the consequence of Prohibition was the biggest crime book in American history but source B just refers to "big violent business" as a consequence of Prohibition. Source B is from an American History book published in 1979. Many of the brewers were of German descent. Campaigners argued that it was patriotic to close breweries down.
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The alphabet agencies could have done better than give people useless jobs. Roosevelt also did little to help farmers and black people who were already bad off before the depression. Farmers were not well off because of the tariff wars, and the 'dustbowl'. The tenant farmers suffered the most, as they didn't own any land and the black people who were suffering because of their lack of civil rights at the time. The New Deal did succeed in lowering employment to a degree, and partially reversed the spiral of depression, and before he lowered the level of spending the economy was well on its way to the pre-crash levels.
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because the rich invest in shares for example and received money that way and become richer where as the poor had to use most if not all to support their families so they weren't getting richer, if you add that to the fact that with the rich buying more consumer goods the prices of the before mentioned goods would have increased making it even less likely that the poor could afford them without making them poorer. This meant that the gap between the two sets of people increased so when it came to buying consumer goods the rich bought all
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It gave independence and excitement. Young people had the chance to be away from their parents. The car enabled people to see new ideas. However, not everyone could afford a car as they were expensive, it was middle- classed people who could afford them. Another new invention was the radio. The radio also lead to the twenties being roaring. The radio enabled people to know about the outside world without going anywhere. It gave people excitement they could know about whatever they wanted; sport, music, etc. The radio provided people with new types of music for example Jazz was one of them.
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‘The Labourers’ Revolt (Swing Riots) in the Andover area was more ferocious than anywhere else in the south’Do you agree with this interpretation?
We know that these things happened because the labourers were revolting for better wages. The source may also be reliable as it was written by an historian writing about the swing Riots in the Hampshire Review. I agree that the Swing Riots may have been more ferocious than anywhere else in the South as source B shows than Hampshire as a whole had over one hundred disturbances over a period of two years, which is the highest amount of riots in the south. This source is also likely to be reliable because it was written for a textbook for schools in 1985 so the source is very likely to be unbiased also the source contains facts as numbers so this makes the source more reliable.
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Another financial success of the New Deal was the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC). This was set up to help those in danger of defaulting on their home mortgage to lend money at low rates of interest. It bought people's mortgages from banks and allowed them to pay money back over a longer period of time. 1 fifth of all urban homes were soon bought through the HOLC. Help was also provided for the desperately poor, states were given $500 million and money was spent on nursery schools, soup kitchens, blankets and small-scale employment schemes.
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