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GCSE: USA 1919-1941
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This source gives the impression that the queue is extremely long and appears everlasting, as they are queuing in front of a large poster outside. Therefore showing that they are queuing from inside the Government building onto the streets. Historians estimate that roughly 42% of Americans lived below the poverty line before the Wall Street Crash. This meaning they didn't have the money required for essentials such as food, clothing, heating and housing. The growth in industry in the 1920s did not create many new jobs.
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After the Wall Street Crash in 1933 the American economy collapsed and fell into a state of depression. There were a number of problems in 1933 - all of which stemmed from the slump which followed the Wall Street Crash.
It didn�t even pay off for the farmers to shift the harvest from the fields because of the low prices. A solution was needed which would help both working men and farmers. Because of the disastrous consequences that the depression had, welfare schemes were needed as a backup which would prevent and 'cushion� the effects of future depressions. In the early 1930s, America was in distress and needed urgent help. The person to help America out of the depression and on the way to becoming an economically strong and prosperous society was Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
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Franklin Roosevelt was first elected president in 1933. He immediately introduced the new deal to try to overcome problems facing the USA. Had the new Deal been successful by 1941?
One of them was to restore the public's confidence back into banks. This aim was dealt with quite successfully I believe as it improved the situation of people's faith in banks. In the depression, many people with savings in the bank, stayed alive by taking out their savings. But this led to a new problem. Some banks did not have enough ready cash to pay savers their money, so the banks went bankrupt. When a bank fails, savers with deposits in other banks, rushed to take their money out, thinking it would be safer to keep it at home.
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When Roosevelt became president he put his friend, Harry Hopkins, in charge of the Works Projects Administration (WPA). The purpose of the WPA was to give wages to people currently unemployed. By 1936 over 3.5 million people were employed on various WPA programs. This included the Civilian Conservation Corps. (CCC), the National Youth Administration (NYA) and the Public Works Administration (PWA) under Harold Ickes the Secretary of the Interior. Civilian Conservation Corps. (CCC) This was a program designed to tackle the problem of unemployed young men aged between 18 and 25 years old. The CCC camps were set up all over the United States.
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Source A refers directly to Prohibition creating "the greatest criminal boom in American History" whereas Source B says that "Gangsters like Dutch Schulz and Al Capone had turned the avoidance of Prohibition into big, violent business. Therefore it can be seen that both sources agree. The reason why Prohibition caused so much criminal activity and problems in American Society is also referenced in both sources. Again they do not explain this in the same way. Source A describes prohibition as producing an unrivalled amount of "widespread crime."
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Franklin D Roosevelt's New Deal - Why did the American people support Roosevelt in the 1932 election?
Roosevelt was a good public speaker and prior to the election he toured the USA giving speeches. It was these speeches such as source A that helped gain the people's support. He involved himself in his speeches "I pledge myself" he gives the impression he is going to get involved unlike Hoover. He uses emotive language that appeals to the people " to win this crusade to restore America." In his speeches Roosevelt plays on the comparison between himself and Herbert Hoover's do-nothing image. By incorporating this kind of thing into his speeches Roosevelt was sure to gain the people's support.
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What can you learn about Roosevelt from this Source? Explain your answer, using details from the source.
Though there are many things that can be learnt from source A about Franklin D. Roosevelt, there are still important things that cannot be learnt. We cannot learn whether the writer of this letter previously knew the President or find out who he or she was. Another important thing that we cannot find out from source A is the precise facts of what went on, i.e. was the house gong to be repossessed? Or what were his or her financial details?
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Franklin Roosevelt was first elected President in 1933. He immediately introduced the New Deal to try to overcome the problems facing the USA. Had the New Deal been successful by 1941?
Share prices dropped, businesses collapsed, and thousands of people were ruined. Banks were unable to artificially maintain the value of shares, as loaned money had not been repaid. Over five thousand banks became broke, which made people lose confidence in the banks as well. The loss of confidence and decline in demand helped cause the Great Depression. There was also a lot of overproduction, with a greater supply than demand. US producers found it difficult to sell goods, either abroad or in America. This was due to high tariffs on American imports in foreign countries, in retaliation to the tariffs on foreign goods coming into America.
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Another reason why the Anti-saloon league opposed the sale of alcohol. By comparing the liquor traffic to the slave trade, the anti-saloon league managed not only to show how like the slave trade the alcohol problem could not be mended ('patched up with compromises') and needed to be stopped completely. But also managed to portray the seriousness of the problem, because of how serious a problem the slave trade had been. (2) Study Sources C, D and E. I believe the evidence of Sources D and E supports the message portrayed in Source C.
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How do the philosophies of President Hoover with those of President Roosevelt compare, in the effects these philosophies had upon America and in their approaches to relieve America of the Great Depression?
Summary of Evidence: The "Roaring 20's" was a celebration of the American dream of prosperity and life after WWI. President Hoover "seemed a perfect symbolic match for what Americans anticipated (Greenhaven Press 23)" for the new era, being a mining engineer and self-made millionaire. Technological process developed entirely new industries, worker's income increased significantly, and consumption of consumer products continued to grow. However, the stock market crash of 1929, known as "Black Tuesday," led to a downward spiral of devastating economic events that "revealed the limitations of both Hoover's leadership and the American prosperity....(Greenhaven Press 23)" "At its nadir, the depression paired individual rationality with collective insanity.
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Source A and Source B struggle to agree on the causes of prohibition. I can, however see one similarity. This similarity is emphasised far more in Source B than A. It is that alcohol is evil and saloons were a bad influence on the men of America.
It however is strongly against alcohol. It starts by saying that alcohol was 'evil.' Source B, mainly explains how the law came to be passed and does not give any reasons for why it should have been passed. Source B also points out that Prohibition caused a major criminal surge turning the avoidance of the law into an extremely violent business. Both sources agree that Alcohol is evil and were in favour of Prohibition. b) The artists of Sources C and D are strongly for Prohibition and against saloons.
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He seemed to be heartless and was a 'do nothing president.' Although he was heatless he did try, but did too little too late. Hoover tried to cut taxes and encouraged business leaders to cut wages. The raised tariffs also meant that however much Hoover tried no one would trade with the US. This meant that nothing could be changed to improve the country, apart from Roosevelt's ideas too spend government money to get people back to work. Everyone trusted Roosevelt because he was the governor of New York and had already started to get New York working again.
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Source A mentions that even before Prohibition that there was already a ban on alcohol in 23 states. Source A also express' feelings against German-Americans who were the dominant race in beer production. Source B does not say that there was an Anti-German atmosphere in America at the time. Source B acknowledges that Prohibition was used as a business but Source A fails to do this. Overall the two sources agree with each other in many ways but also disagree in many ways.
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His second step was the economy act which, cut government and armed forces pay by 15% and also the budgets of government departments by 25%, saving nearly a billion dollars, this was also put into to place straight away as congress voted in favour yet again. During his first hundred days as president Roosevelt bombarded congress with countless numbers of ideas for new acts and all in all 10 new acts were passed, dubbed 'The Alphabet Agencies' by many of Roosevelt's critics and opponents in a bid to make fun of them.
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These regular speeches became known as 'fireside chats'. One of Roosevelt next objectives was to help the poor. He tackled this problem by introducing the 'Federal Emergency Relief Administration'. They spent $500million on soup kitchens, blankets, employment schemes and nursery schemes, which were all designed to help the poor. High levels of unemployment were another problem Roosevelt intended to solve. He did this by setting up the (CCC) 'Civilian Conservation Corps', which was aimed at young unemployed men. Around 2.5million young men were helped by this scheme, which gave them work on environmental projects.
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Unemployment was a major problem in America in the 1930s. the '100 days' act was going to deal with this in many ways. firstly immediate relief for the unemployed through a 500 million dollar Federal aid. This aid was only temporary so he introduced huge public work schemes to keep unemployment down. The three main work schemes to provide jobs were, The Civilian Conservation Corps (C.C.C.), The Civilian Works Administration (C.W.A.) although The C.W.A. was replaced by the Works Progress Administration (W.P.A.)
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Which was reserving grain for American Troops during World War One? Which were a problem and the American people felt it more important to feed their troops than to make alcohol, which wasn't as important. Plus another added bonus was that manufacturing breweries were also known to be German. So since there was a war going on against Germany there was an anti-German thing creeping up. Which also pushed the lead up to the Prohibition? Source A's second paragraph describes the consequences of the Prohibition and that was that it created a massive criminal boom in America which caused problems for the law.
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This is done so that readers are sympathetic to his wife who is trying to bring up their small child. Not only is he affecting himself, he is being irresponsible in not providing for his family. The caption 'the most expensive club in the world to belong to' also creates a negative response towards alcohol. By drinking a man looses not only his money but also his respect within the community and family. Source D is also for prohibition. The children whose father is in the saloon have to go without necessities such as 'shoes and stockings and food' as any money earned is spent on covering their father's drinking habit.
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In Source A it says that alcohol caused the biggest criminal boom in history and 'widespread crime', however, in Source B, it says that Al Capone said 'Prohibition is a business, all I do is supply a public demand'. Source B describes the doings of big gangsters such as Al Capone as business whereas Source A calls it crime. Al Capone was a gang leader and made millions from dealing with illegal alcohol. The reason for the referral to the behaviour of gangsters and bootleggers as crime seems to make the comments more personal and involved with the reader this
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The voters supported what Roosevelt was trying to do and re-elected him in 1936, 1940 and 1944. The job creating schemes that Roosevelt created were successful and unsuccessful. There were some that worked well and there were some that made more problems. Different sections of the American society had different views on certain schemes. The first alphabet agency to be set up was the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). The CCC gave work to unmarried men aged 18 to 25 whose parents were out of work. The agency was run by the army and the US Forestry Service, which set up camps in America's woods and forests.
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In both sources he is talking about the same situation however he is clearly giving two very different answers. This may have some thing to do with the time at which these two speeches were given source C was given when he was in the running to be president and so was talking to the people of America trying to win their votes with propaganda. Whereas source D was given just before he was in the running to be president.
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This letter might have been picked by the President because of its attitude to the new deal and it's pro Roosevelt campaign. This letter might be fake evidence made by Roosevelt to boost his popularity and show Americans how much he is doing for them. This is because Roosevelt was a democrat and is hated by the powerful and wealthy. He would face a hard challenge from the powerful republicans, who had always the support of rich business because of their policies on the economy and (laze e fair)
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After Roosevelt's inauguration and final instatement in 1934, the outlay rose dramatically - from $4.6 billion to $6.7 billion. This corresponds with the start of the New Deal that Roosevelt began on the same year. The spending reached a peak in 1936 when a total of $8.2 billion was spent on regenerating the economy and the number of unemployed had fallen by 2.3 million people in just two years. It fell again the following year, bringing the number of unemployed down to 7.7 million in 1937; thus the spending is cut the subsequent year as Roosevelt was advised not to take government funds 'into the red' for a further year considering the reduced number of unemployed.
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The text also suggests that men are victims as their dependency "ruins their own lives." The text includes a 'real' situation of a woman having to ask the husband to come home further illustrating how alcohol not only ruins family life financially but the warmth, stability and love within a family also diminishes due to the males fixation on the drug. From the last sentence of the source we can infer the Anti Saloon didn't believe in responsible drinking and therefore the sale f alcohol "cannot be mended, and therefore must be actually ended." 2.
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This was because people believed that after his trouble, he would understand the problems of others in trouble. Roosevelt used certain policies and tactics to appeal to the people of America. He went around the USA giving speeches, including his fireside chats he broadcasted over the radio. At the time, America was suffering from Depression caused by the effects of the Wall Street Crash, mainly the unemployment created. The people of America liked the idea of the New Deal as the qualities of plan offered Americans some form of a rescue from the Great Depression, as he promised to get people back into employment.
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