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GCSE: USA 1919-1941
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However the mood of America was rapidly changing. Most the American people wanted to end of the 'entanglements' in European affairs that did not concern them. The Republican Party shared this view and argued against Wilson's vision and had won a vote was cast in the senate and America's joining of the League was not ratified. AMERICAN ELECTIONS In the 1920 presidential election, Warren Harding, the republican candidate was elected due to 61% vote. He won with slogans 'America first' and bringing back America to 'normalcy'. As a result, America cut all ties with Europe and went back to isolation (Staying out of foreign affairs).
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Roosevelt uses this political tactic to make him seem heroic and that the American people and their own welfare, is more important than his election campaign. 2) Source B and C's content differs enormously in terms of their judgement on the New Deal, however, they do have their similarities, as both were written post New Deal, and both were written by American historians. Source B begins with asking what were 'the major achievements of the New Deal?', showing how it is going to be pro New Deal but also it is therefore going to 'cherry pick' evidence in order to show just the achievements of the New Deal.
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Overall, the 2 sources agree on most facts, despite the reality that they state different things relating to relatively minor details. b) Study sources C and D. Were the artists of these two posters for or against prohibition? The artist of the poster in source C is ostensibly for prohibition - their poster appears to suggest that alcoholism is a clear "evil". In the bottom-right hand corner of the picture, there is a smaller picture of a woman and child - The woman is crying and the child has no food.
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An industrial revolution In the 1920s, the use of electric power allowed the industry to develop. In 1912, only 16% of the US population lived in houses with electricity however the number rose to 63% in 1927. This increase allowed the sales of electrical products such as ovens, washing machines and radios to increase. The 1920s also boosted the gas (four times as much) and oil (twice as much) figures. The Ford Model T has an immense effect on US life and industries. Henry Ford had invented a system of mass production through a production line.
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A short period later, President Hoover at the time reassured the country that prosperity was coming again. He cut taxes to make people buy more goods and by mid 1931 production of goods started to rise again slightly and there was hope that the situation was resolved. President Hoover was incorrect. It was the worst depression that was 'just around the corner' meaning that it was going to happen, and happen quickly for a number of reasons but mainly it was because the crash had destroyed the one thing that was important to the prosperity of the 1920's (which made that prosperity happen which was confidence).
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Both of these agencies had a immensely significant impact on the amount of Americans who were unemployed at this time, as both generated vital short term jobs. Secondly, there was a substantial amount of agencies, as well as a number of acts, which were introduced in order to restore the prosperous nature of both industrial & agricultural businesses which both had been on the receiving end of the new-found bankruptcy which gripped the country. An example of an administration which helped to contribute to this restoration would be the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA).
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Prohibition. Sources A and B are from the same time period, the 1970s. This makes them secondary sources. The sources talk about Prohibition and the effects it had on the USA.
Source A contains a lot more on what some of the possible causes of prohibition were? Source B contains one or two of those in source A. This suggests that source B had a bias tone. An example is how the author refers to alcohol; "the great evils". Source B also seems to be opinionated and unbalanced. From studying the two sources in detain the conclusion I have put together is both sources agree with prohibition to an extent, but they also disagree with it.
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Both of the sources are from after prohibition this makes them more reliable. In conclusion, both sources agree with one another why the amendment was sighed as the both agree that prohibition caused modern histories biggest criminal boom. They also agree that the anti-saloon league had a lot to do with getting the amendment singed. B) Study sources C and D Were the artists of these two posters for or against Prohibition? Source C is a cartoon by the WCTU "the women's Christians temperance union".
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The most obvious of these being that, even with both sources A and B agreeing that alcohol is a negative substance; source B is far more dramatic in its wording. Source A describes the related and illegal saloons as "a bad influence"; however source B is far stronger in its description of alcohol, "one of the greatest evils of the time". In this way, the two sources disagree in their extremism for prohibition, due to its depiction of alcohol. In conclusion, source A and B agree only to an extent; however it can only be argued that they do not agree completely, as they do differ in certain ways.
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In this way prices could rise, and farming would recover. The industry was helped. Two important agencies were set up by the National Industrial Recovery Act. The Public Works Administration, it used skilled industrial workers, unemployed on large-scale building projects. And, right was given to workers to go on strict together for fair wages. This gave a massive improvement to trade unions; they could now organise in industries where they had been excluded before. The act created another agency called the National Recovery Administration too.
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People queuing up for food a was just another image of the past. Millions of people got relief, food, clothes and shelter, and it was this emergency relief that prevented them from starving. Many ordinary people were helped with government social security and welfare schemes. This wasn't just for emergency either, it continued in the future. The most affected by the depression were farmers and Roosevelt made sure they were looked after in the New Deal. By the mid 1930s farmer's incomes were rising, especially those with larger farms. Farmers definitely benefited. The New Deal assisted in letting farmers and home owners to stay in their homes.
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At the top of the poster the title reads 'the poor man's club'. This means the families of the men go to this bar remain poor because the men spend all their weeks' wages on alcohol. This point is repeated above the image of the wife and child the caption reads 'the saloon is well named 'the poor man's club' it keeps its members and their families always poor'. This image is distressing and is aimed to get sympathy for the families of these men and gain support for prohibition.
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This made Roosevelt win the election by the biggest majority for over ninety years. The source supports FDR in the election; this is because the source shows that Roosevelt wanted the New Deal to work for the American people. In the source it says that 'Give me your help, not to win votes alone, but to win in this crusade to restore America'. This quote suggests that FDR wanted people to help him help America and make it a better place.
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Some people were setting up their own 'moonshine' (home-made whisky). Many went to the illegal bars called speakeasies. The demand for illegal alcohol opened up a brand new trade for American gangsters to control which was even more worrying. Gangs in the major cities fought to supply the speakeasies with 'bootleg' alcohol smuggled in from Canada, or manufactured illegally in the USA. Al Capone was one of the biggest gangsters and he took over Chicago and made $60 million a year from bootlegging. He said 'Prohibition is a business; all I do is supply a public demand'. His gang was like a private army, he had 700 men under his comman, many of them armed with sawn-off shot guns and Thompson sub machine guns- 'Chicago Capone's rivals were slaughtered.
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FDR said he would do the opposite if elected. He said that he would bring in the New Deal and give the American population lots of support. He said he would get rid of 'rugged individualism' that a lot of the American population hated. Being a Democrat he promised a lot of support for the poor, which was a vast majority in America at the time due to the depression. He also promised to help the unemployed, which again, was a vast majority in America. As I said before, the poor and unemployed made up a large number of the population of America at the time and FDR gained a lot of support by promising to provide these people with support.
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2 However as we were to later find out, although alcohol consumption was halved during the dry years, as a whole Prohibition was a failure, if the comment made by John F. Kramer were true how did the failure come about? This essay will look into the reasons as to why prohibition failed, and whether there ever was a chance it was going to succeed or was it doomed to fail right from the start? It will also look at what happened to America as a result of the failure of prohibition.
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It spent $500 million on soup kitchens, blankets, employment schemes and nurseries. The Civilian Conservation Corps was aimed at tackling unemployment, particularly the unemployment of young men. It provided a limited period of six months work for those who could not find work. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration looked at the long term problems farmers faced. American farmers had been badly hit by the depression and could not sell their crops which meant that many were forced to migrate. The AAA aimed at reducing farm production to force prices up. It also helped farmers to modernize and use farming methods that would protect their land.
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were corrupt. They accepted bribes from the gangsters to 'turn a blind eye'. This stretched to the extent that, in Chicago, Al Capone had control over the mayor. However, these two sources do disagree on certain points. Source A gives other reasons besides the 'Anti-Saloon League' for why prohibition was introduced. One of these reasons is the 'bad influence of saloons'. Another was that, in 1917, a war was being fought in Europe and 'the wartime concern for preserving grain for food'.
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Use Source A and your knowledge of the period to explain why people supported Roosevelt in the 1932 election.
With Roosevelt's last phrase in the source, "with confidence we accept the promise of the New Deal." This sentence shows how Roosevelt is trying to get the support of the public in order to secure his place in the 1932 election. By this speech it shows why people supported Roosevelt in the 1932 elections and not Herbert Hoover. In 1932 America was undertaking a major period of depression and it was not uncommon for people to connect this depression with Herbert Hoover. People did not support Herbert Hoover because they blamed the depression on him, an example of this is how they would call the poor shantytowns within America, 'Hoovervilles'.
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'The causes and effects of the great depression caused equal suffering to all of the people in Britain during the 1930s' do you agree?
However I think this source is reliable because it shows government statistics. This source is economic because of the mass unemployment which leads to a decrease in the income of families. Source 2 Source 2 is a graph showing the percentage of workers unemployed in four different regional. I know the four regions had different experience in 1937. Out of the four towns in the graph I can see that Jarrow had the highest rate of unemployment at 68% I know that Jarrow had suffered from the shipyard because it only had one main employer the palmer's shipyard when this closed the towns hit hard by unemployment.
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This is exactly what happened in America. Some shareholders began to lose confidence and believing that the prices of shares could not continue to rise forever, decided to sell. This hence triggered a panic and so many shares were sold during 24th October 1929 that by Tuesday 29th October the share prices continuously fell and in the process, people began losing vast amounts of money, creating bankruptcy. This is due to the fact that too many people thought that share prices could only go up, which encouraged them to invest more than they could afford in the stock market.
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So, Western industrialization was spurred both by the quest for prosperity and for self-defense. In the words of President Eisenhower, we in the West were building "a military industrial complex." During this epoch of rapid industrial growth Westerners started to change their values. The idealism of leaders like Truman and Churchill was overtaken by the desperate rush to acquire material possessions. Americans began to believe that happiness could be purchased. We polluted other countries with what Ullrich refers to as the "European myth" that material wealth brought happiness.
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The shares rapidly decreased in price and inexperienced Americans panicked and sold their shares at a ridiculously low price. This caused the stock market to collapse and these changes in events struck the whole of America into a depression. The depression in America affected almost the whole of its population if not all the American people. The collapse of the stock market left millions of Americans in huge sums of debt, which they owed to the banks. A drop in wages or unemployment fuelled the problem further as Americans could not keep up their payments, which in turn affected shops and factories.
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Roosevelt was supported as he gave a hope to a failing country. Hoover's policies had been in effect for 3 years and had not worked. In fact they had worsened the situation. Roosevelt was the obvious choice, as he offered a new hope to every American, and most importantly new ideas, and even if they were unproven to be effective, were better than the ideas of Hoover, which had only failed. In conclusion, I believe that Roosevelt got more support in the 1932 election because he offered a new hope to the American people and he gave people the motivation they needed to reform the state that the failing country was in.
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