- Join over 1.2 million students every month
- Accelerate your learning by 29%
- Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
GCSE: USA 1919-1941
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
Franklin Roosevelt was first elected President in 1933. He immediately introduced the New Deal to try to overcome the problems facing the USA. Had the New Deal been successful by 1941?
Share prices dropped, businesses collapsed, and thousands of people were ruined. Banks were unable to artificially maintain the value of shares, as loaned money had not been repaid. Over five thousand banks became broke, which made people lose confidence in the banks as well. The loss of confidence and decline in demand helped cause the Great Depression. There was also a lot of overproduction, with a greater supply than demand. US producers found it difficult to sell goods, either abroad or in America. This was due to high tariffs on American imports in foreign countries, in retaliation to the tariffs on foreign goods coming into America.
- Word count: 2189
Another reason why the Anti-saloon league opposed the sale of alcohol. By comparing the liquor traffic to the slave trade, the anti-saloon league managed not only to show how like the slave trade the alcohol problem could not be mended ('patched up with compromises') and needed to be stopped completely. But also managed to portray the seriousness of the problem, because of how serious a problem the slave trade had been. (2) Study Sources C, D and E. I believe the evidence of Sources D and E supports the message portrayed in Source C.
- Word count: 2201
How do the philosophies of President Hoover with those of President Roosevelt compare, in the effects these philosophies had upon America and in their approaches to relieve America of the Great Depression?
Summary of Evidence: The "Roaring 20's" was a celebration of the American dream of prosperity and life after WWI. President Hoover "seemed a perfect symbolic match for what Americans anticipated (Greenhaven Press 23)" for the new era, being a mining engineer and self-made millionaire. Technological process developed entirely new industries, worker's income increased significantly, and consumption of consumer products continued to grow. However, the stock market crash of 1929, known as "Black Tuesday," led to a downward spiral of devastating economic events that "revealed the limitations of both Hoover's leadership and the American prosperity....(Greenhaven Press 23)" "At its nadir, the depression paired individual rationality with collective insanity.
- Word count: 2389
As you can probably guess, the Germans were probably not the most popular people in America at this time. This anti-German feeling coupled with the fact that Germans ran the breweries in America affected the way people looked at alcohol for the first time; this was the first negative view on alcohol. This was one of the reasons why the American population wanted to boycott alcohol and start Prohibition. Christianity helped introduce Prohibition in the USA. For many years before 1919, religious groups had argued that drinking alcohol was wrong.
- Word count: 539
Only if he missed every ice burg and returned the ship to shore with no more damage on the vessel would he have been a complete success. There were so many ice burgs to dodge; I do not believe that it was possible for Roosevelt to be a complete success with his New Deal. I will discuss whether the New Deal was a success by looking at its successes and failures Success: The New deal had many success stories. Many of the Alphabet Agencies were successes.
- Word count: 1206
Source A and Source B struggle to agree on the causes of prohibition. I can, however see one similarity. This similarity is emphasised far more in Source B than A. It is that alcohol is evil and saloons were a bad influence on the men of America.
It however is strongly against alcohol. It starts by saying that alcohol was 'evil.' Source B, mainly explains how the law came to be passed and does not give any reasons for why it should have been passed. Source B also points out that Prohibition caused a major criminal surge turning the avoidance of the law into an extremely violent business. Both sources agree that Alcohol is evil and were in favour of Prohibition. b) The artists of Sources C and D are strongly for Prohibition and against saloons.
- Word count: 2328
Franklin D Roosevelt introduced similar schemes when he was State Governor of New York. One of the ways in which the new deal helped people was to create new agencies to share out money and start initiatives in many parts of American life, both rural and urban. Agencies were created such as the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) to help the suffering grain farmers of the US. The AAA bought surplus produce and destroyed it to get the market working again.
- Word count: 550
He was given the same power as if the country was under attack or in military conflict. This special session of congress lasted exactly 100 days (8 March - 16 June 1933) hence why it is known in History as The 100 days. During this time thirteen emergency laws were passed. The three main aims of the New Deal were: Relief, Recovery and Reform. Roosevelt introduced a series of government agencies to help America out of trouble. These quickly became known by their initials and were therefore called 'Alphabet Agencies.' Some Agencies contributed to more than one aim that Roosevelt had.
- Word count: 1030
This helped the boom because many people made money from this Bull market, which in turn helped the American economy. Buying on the margin was another part of this boom. It allowed people to buy shares that they would otherwise not have been able to afford. This was allowed because the banks thought that they would always get their money back as the share prise kept rising. The confidence of the American people played a major role in the economy of the 1920s.
- Word count: 841
Overall, Prohibition had not stopped anyone from getting alcohol at all. Prohibition Agents were appointed by Washington, whose job was to seize alcohol, destroy it were found, and to try and stop illegal acts like bootlegging from happening. Any liquor they did retrieve was only a fraction of the real total throughout the country. Prohibition Agents had a difficult occupation; trying to enforce a law that no one took seriously. The job was so hard that if it couldn't be enforced then how would it work? The law was extremely unpopular in most urban states, and with all the criminal activity going on, like the speakeasies and the bootleggers, it was impossible to police.
- Word count: 1511
B Study Sources C and D Were the artists of these two posters for or against prohibition? Both sources C and D are supportive of prohibition. Source C is a poster campaigning against alcohol, it was published in 1910. It shows a working class man handing over his wages in exchange for alcohol. There are a number of captions in the cartoon and it is title "slaves of the Saloon". This is implying that the saloon dominates the people that go there.
- Word count: 3133
The rush to withdraw money from banks helped them to bankruptcy even quicker, so in the end the only group with any assets of value remaining were the landowners, since the investors had gambled and lost. The very wealthy in turn, by holding so much of the wealth to themselves helped to widen the gap between wealth and poverty. The only effect would have been that they may have lost some of their investments, of which they would both have had relatively few and probably of these few, the companies concern would have been hit less badly than most.
- Word count: 1961
The names of some of these more modern ships were Syren, Eagle and the Banshee. They were called greyhounds. They called them thus for their speed and camouflage. The vessels had a low silhouette a shallow draught, and burned smokeless coal. Rum running is when you transport liquor to a given destination. During the 1920's with the Volstead act, Woman's temperance movement and prohibition it was impossible to legally get alcohol. So rum running was used to transport liquor to other destinations. As you can imagine, this business was lucrative because it was illegal. The preferred drink was liquor, the demand was for liquor and also you could make $2000 on a bad day/night of rum running, so people found a way to alleviate customers of their alcoholic woes.
- Word count: 1292
This showed that the American peoples trust had been restored especially with banks and with Roosevelt. Although this provided immediate relief and recovery for the American people, the New Deal had more long-term plans. Roosevelt set up 'alphabet agencies' to tackle the unemployment problem that was dragging America into recession. The biggest agency being the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) brought in codes to tackle minimum wages, maximum hours and better working conditions. However, results were mixed. Large company firms dominated the industry and would sometimes not allow for such codes to be passed in their company.
- Word count: 1421
'Life did get better in the 1930's' How far was Roosevelt responsible for this? How far was it due to other factors?
These included over 12 million people unemployed, one million homeless and numerous bank failures. In his first one hundred days in office, Roosevelt introduced many new ideas. He closed all the weak banks and loaned government money to the stronger ones to increase trade. He controlled the stock markets and gave the Americans renewed confidence in the whole economy system. Most of this work was carried out through agencies set up to do the job. They were called the alphabet agencies., because they were always known by their initials. There were nineteen alphabet agencies.
- Word count: 769
He seemed to be heartless and was a 'do nothing president.' Although he was heatless he did try, but did too little too late. Hoover tried to cut taxes and encouraged business leaders to cut wages. The raised tariffs also meant that however much Hoover tried no one would trade with the US. This meant that nothing could be changed to improve the country, apart from Roosevelt's ideas too spend government money to get people back to work. Everyone trusted Roosevelt because he was the governor of New York and had already started to get New York working again.
- Word count: 2144
His government had adopted his predecessor's 'laissez-faire' policies, which said that "...the sole function government is to bring about a condition of affaires favourable to the beneficial development of private enterprise." Yet what made Hoover believe in this government philosophy? To answer this question, we must look into his background before coming to power. Hoover was orphaned at 8 years of age, and lived in poverty with an uncle until he was 17. His uncle had taught him to work hard for what he wanted, to have guts and determination, and to always stick to his principles, no matter how hard it got.
- Word count: 4024
Dr Townsend's aims were focused on the elderly. Many savings were lost when the banks collapsed. Townsend's idea was to provide a pension of $200 per month. Father Coughlin set up his own National League for Social Justice in 1934. He attacked bankers and Jews. He also made personal threats on President Roosevelt. Women hardly benefited from the New Deal, most of the New Deal was aimed at manual and construction labour, in those days only seen as the work of men. During the 1930s the number of women unemployed went down, this was due to them being seen as cheap labour, their wages were half of what the men earned.
- Word count: 1206
What are the strengths and weaknesses of source A as an interpretation of the role of Roosevelt in the New Deal? Explain your answer using source A and knowledge from your studies.
Also, by studying the source we learn that Roosevelt wanted to help "ordinary people". Roosevelt once said that he wanted to help the "ordinary people at the bottom of the economic pyramid". We know this statement to be largely accurate as we know that Roosevelt did, In fact, help the "ordinary" people. Another strength of the source is that it was produced in 1989, by James T Patterson. Patterson benefited from hindsight as he could see for himself the impact Roosevelt had on "the people" in the long term.
- Word count: 990
Source A mentions that even before Prohibition that there was already a ban on alcohol in 23 states. Source A also express' feelings against German-Americans who were the dominant race in beer production. Source B does not say that there was an Anti-German atmosphere in America at the time. Source B acknowledges that Prohibition was used as a business but Source A fails to do this. Overall the two sources agree with each other in many ways but also disagree in many ways.
- Word count: 2505
His second step was the economy act which, cut government and armed forces pay by 15% and also the budgets of government departments by 25%, saving nearly a billion dollars, this was also put into to place straight away as congress voted in favour yet again. During his first hundred days as president Roosevelt bombarded congress with countless numbers of ideas for new acts and all in all 10 new acts were passed, dubbed 'The Alphabet Agencies' by many of Roosevelt's critics and opponents in a bid to make fun of them.
- Word count: 2795
If the man's wage was wasted on alcohol then the family would suffer. It was being claimed by these groups that alcohol would turn a man against his family and give him the potential to be violent towards them. We are able to see that the Church backed Prohibition because a leading member of The Woman's Christian Temperance Union founded by Emily Huntington Miller used the wide spread Church network to contact other women across the country and spread the word on Prohibition.
- Word count: 3720
Source B says how there were 1500 prohibition agents, and this would seem like a lot of people to enforce prohibition but from my own knowledge I know that this was never enough agents to properly enforce the law, there was also the 30 000 speakeasies across America which were not closed, this is because there will always be a demand for alcohol and it is such a big business. Source C is a picture of a man at a bar, he is handing over his week's wages and the slogan is 'a club member in good standing paying his
- Word count: 1045
These regular speeches became known as 'fireside chats'. One of Roosevelt next objectives was to help the poor. He tackled this problem by introducing the 'Federal Emergency Relief Administration'. They spent $500million on soup kitchens, blankets, employment schemes and nursery schemes, which were all designed to help the poor. High levels of unemployment were another problem Roosevelt intended to solve. He did this by setting up the (CCC) 'Civilian Conservation Corps', which was aimed at young unemployed men. Around 2.5million young men were helped by this scheme, which gave them work on environmental projects.
- Word count: 2102
During the 1920s the United States of America experienced an economic boom in which many Americans but not all shared a plentiful supply of raw materials, the boost helped America become the richest country in the world.
Other products were starting to be mass-produced like radio sets, telephones, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, washing machines and ovens. These products were new on the market and the Americans liked the look of them and the sales rocketed. More and more people were buying new products for cash. The people who could not afford to pay up front could now pay on credit. If they want a new car and could not afford it they could pay it over a year in instalments.
- Word count: 801