- Join over 1.2 million students every month
- Accelerate your learning by 29%
- Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
GCSE: USA 1919-1941
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
By 1941 life had got better for many Americans. How far was Roosevelt responsible for this or was it due to other factors?
This was due to the fact that once America had developed all of the roads, playgrounds, parks and schools there was once again going to be a rise in unemployment and the depressions ill effects would continue. Until the European war (WW2)
- Word count: 425
Explain how both the long-term and the short-term causes contributed to the great depression in the USA.
An 8% increase in wages did not give the general public enough buying power to sustain the boom. The companies were taking money out of the economy but they were not replacing it through the workers salary. The market soon became saturated because there was a small market for luxury goods such as radios, cars, and vacuum cleaners. When the market became saturated the companies were forced to reduce production and by doing this they had to lay off some of their workers causing unemployment. If the companies had settled for less profit then the boom would have gone on for longer and the depression after it would not have been so devastating.
- Word count: 1705
Smugglers only had to worry about getting alcohol past the border-, which was very easy, as on a 20,000 kilometre coastline there was only 2,836 Prohibition agents which was not enough to enforce the ban. There was little co- operation from state police, as they also didn't support Prohibition. As no one was co- operating, obviously showed how unpopular Prohibition was, which was making it hard to enforce. This was a long-term reason, as not many liked or agreed with Prohibition from the beginning, to the time it ended.
- Word count: 1196
The first source was written under the title "success in 20th century affairs" so it is trying to how the success of prohibition. The second source is about the culture of the USA in the 1920's so it is going to use and explanation for prohibition that is based around the culture of the USA and why this affected prohibition. Question 3 The first source is reliable because it was taken in the 1920's. On the other hand its reliability is limited because a government agent could have taken it in the 1920's.
- Word count: 1136
Source C Is the complete opposite to Source B, it is obvious that this historian was against Roosevelt and what he had done. The historian may have the beliefs of a republican or though the tactics of Roosevelt were incorrect. He or she could also have been apart of a wealthy family furthermore did not gain from Roosevelt's New Deal. The historian comments only on negative aspects of when Roosevelt was in power and no positives at all. The person talks about Roosevelt using too much money of the governments and causing huge debts as well as making taxes prices higher.
- Word count: 3299
Use the sources and your knowledge of America history explain why there has been so much disagreement in the USA over the effects of the New Deal.
Farmers benefited from agreements like the AAA, TVA and CCC. Upper class people suffered from the New Deal as it meant they had to pay higher taxes and factory owners suffered problems in the Industry as workers were encouraged to improve their working conditions using the NRA and Black Eagle. To get a better answer to the question better we must see each case in more in depth. In 1933 Roosevelt set up some agencies to help the unemployed.
- Word count: 435
Because the Ford company was making, the industries from which they bought the materials to make the cars would also benefit. The iron industry benefited, Ford would buy iron from them and so they would have to make more iron and so would have to employ more workers. Then more people would earn and so more people would spend hence more money would go into the industry. The petrol industry would also benefit, so many people were buying cars a lot of people would buy petrol.
- Word count: 943
There were huge credit problems, banks failed as more people failed to pay mortgages, bankers kept money for themselves to invest in the growing stock market, banks stopped making much money in banking and so had to invest in other businesses. The other reason was the fact that the demand for American goods from other countries fell, this was because European countries started gradually building their agricultural and their heavy industries up again, American goods were too expensive for many international countries, European countries borrowed money from American banks to pay off wartime debts which increased indebtedness and High American protective tariffs took away trade.
- Word count: 1166
He had already been acused of doing nothing about the depression, whereas Roosevelt was prepared. He wanted to use full resources of the Federal Government to end the depression as soon as possible. Hoover seemed handicapped by his own views about individual freedom and failed to inspire the people with his confidence. People felt let down by Hoover, he had no answers and democracy began to pull through. Roosevelt was on the democratic side of the election, and was a good strong public speaker. He was a firm believer and thought that anyone who worked hard enough could become rich.
- Word count: 1489
Henry Ford also enforced their arguments as he pointed out that the majority of car accidents on the road were caused by alcohol. Finally in 1919 these minority groups achieved their aim when the US government passed the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. This law, known as prohibition applied to all liquor containing more then 0.5% of alcohol. However, by making drink illegal, the lawmakers encouraged the growth of a new world of crime in America. Although one would think that prohibition would enhance the difficulty of obtaining alcohol, liquor was actually very easy to acquire.
- Word count: 1158
2. Source B and C present two different judgements on the New deal. B was written by an American historian writing in 1945, and C is from a book, 'The Roosevelt Myth' by and American historian published in 1945. Source B, i think was written after Roosevelt dies. We can tell this by the way that the passage is written in the past tense that he was dead. The difference between each of them is very simple. Source B is telling me that there was a lot of self confidence in the New Deal because it says that during 1933 people will have remembered that the change form depression and discouragement to excitement and hope.
- Word count: 1583
The truth may have been stretched to make a joke of it and win people's support. I do not agree that this poster (source A) does not give any evidence about the Great Depression. It may not be reliable evidence but it does have some historical value. It presents evidence about the 'Bonus Army', the views of the Republican and Democratic Parties and the methods used by the Democratic Party to gain support. Question 2: Source B was written at the time of the Depression by an American actor, Will Rogers. It is quite accurate about what was happening, he says 'We are starving to death', which was actually happening at this time.
- Word count: 1356
This lowered the family income by a considerable amount and as a result, women and children starved at home whilst the man was drinking at the saloon. Also many families had to carry the burden of poverty because their family income decreased due to the money going to the saloons. In addition, there were also people who would drink hard liquor from early morning until late in the night. This meant that they would be drunk the whole day and most probably likely to cause problems around their surroundings.
- Word count: 778
As a result nobody could withdraw their money so there was some money left in the economy. One of the main aims of The New Deal was to rebuild people's confidence, if FDR could do this, it would help a great deal with the other aims of The New Deal. To help society to get back up on it's feet, the government and FDR lent out money left, right and center. Money was lent to businesses in order for them to expand and therefore be able to take on more workers who would then be earning money and so reversing the spiral effect.
- Word count: 981
So it can be useful in some ways. It is also useful in the way that Martin Gilbert, the author had nothing to gain form this by showing a biased opinion, so it can be more reliable. I think that this map is aimed to be use by GCSE students who are studying prohibition in school and have some background information as some is missing, but if this were given to a 6year old child I feel that s/he would not understand or be confused about the map.
- Word count: 2927
The sources that I believe are exaggerating the depression are 1+2. Source 1 says that most families were impoverished by the depression and that they let their standards slip. This is quite believable but the book was written to make money and there for the facts are likely to be exaggerated. Although Orwell did travel the country researching I do not believe that this is the most reliable of sources. Source 2 was also written to make money. It gives a very bleak picture of life on the dole going into detail about the poor standards of living people were enduring and what they were thinking.
- Word count: 536
The CCC or the Civilian Conservation Corps was set up to provide work for young men as well as improve the country's natural resources. Young men between 18 and 25 were employed to do conservation work in the countryside. The work included things like tree planting, stopping soil erosion, strengthening riverbanks and cutting fire breaks in forests. The CCC was run by the army they also ran the camps that the men lived in, by early summer 1933 about 1,300 CCC camps had been set up and the jobs were done for pocket money of a dollar a day.
- Word count: 825
Did Roosevelt’s upbringing, background and character make it easy for him to understand the concerns and fears of the ordinary Americans?
At the age of 14, Roosevelt was forced out of his cocoon and sent to Groton, a private boarding school, where life was very much tougher than he was used to at home. Pupils had no privacy and washed in cold showers, but they were taught the Christian faith and to help others less fortunate than themselves. He was greatly inspired by the headmaster, Dr Peabody, and followed the principles learned at Groton throughout his life.
- Word count: 553
Many investors lost what little confidence they cherished and were unwilling to continue to invest. This led to the remainder of factories closing and unemployment increasing. By 1930 four million people were unemployed in America, this increased to six million in 1931 and twelve million in 1932. The production rates had reduced sharply too. America did not have any scheme of unemployment insurance or social security and people began o turn towards charities to help them. "Breadlines" became popular and many people would cue for hours in order to receive the charity of some bread and some soup.
- Word count: 1284
They thought this could damage America's army. America banning alcohol was largely due to their intolerance as a country. America's society had always shown intolerance towards blacks, immigrants and communists. America was also an isolationist and avoided entering World War 2. There were so many nationalities in their country that it was too hard to decide whose side they were on. America refused to join the League of Nations. Some of the first states to become dry by 1914 were states which were mostly southern. These were often r****t and banning alcohol was another form of them taking freedoms away from black people.
- Word count: 1281
Use Source A and your knowledge of the period to explain why people supported Roosevelt in the 1932 election.
People were shocked by the violence and critical of the government's response. The Republicans, lead by President Hoover did not believe in interfering in business to promote prosperity, he claimed that it was the government's job to encourage rather than to spend.
- Word count: 401
Once elected, Roosevelt had many problems facing him and his party that the American people expected him to solve. * Most of the populace was unemployed. Over 12 million Americans did not have a job, and this figure was increasing by 12,000 every day. Families relied on charity to stay alive and breadlines were common in every city. * Over 1 million people were homeless. In 1932, 250,000 Americans stopped paying their mortgages and were evicted from their homes. Because of this, many became 'hobos' or tramps while others moved to waste ground to build huts from scraps of wood and metal, these unhealthy camps were known as 'Hoovervilles' after Herbert Hoover.
- Word count: 1314
Although this does provide some information, there are problems with the map. It doesn't show which states were dry form 1915 until 1933 when prohibition was abolished. There was a wave of prohibition on the 16 of January 1920, when prohibition was enforced. This became the 18th Amendment to the US constitution to ban all forms of alcohol, the production, the sale, and even the possession of it could lead to heavy penalties. This was suppose to help mend the 'problems', such as the 'flappers', who were seen as a disgrace to all 'decent Americans.
- Word count: 2245
Hoover believed in a 'Laissez faire' style of government, which assumes that problems will eventually sort themselves out without any interference from the Government. He also told American citizens who did not have a job that they should simply go out and find one. This was of course very unpopular with the American citizens because there simply were not enough jobs available, and they were becoming even less as the downward spiral of the American economy continued.
- Word count: 405
Many of these inventions had been made due to the fact that electrical goods were more common among the working class. Not all people in America had access to all these new products because at the start of the 1920s they would have been expensive so black Americans and the farmers wouldn't have been able to afford them due to the low paid jobs that most of them had. It was unusual for a black American to have received a proper education, which forced them to take cleaning jobs and working on farms these jobs were not skilled jobs because they were generally manual labour.
- Word count: 992