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GCSE: USA 1919-1941

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  1. By 1932 when Franklin Roosevelt became president there was definitely a need for a new deal to stop the American economy from reaching rock bottom.

    The timing of one of these so called business cycles is not predictable but the stages in them are. The four phases that are likely to appear in a depression are: Prosperity (Boom 1920s), liquidation (Wall street crash 1929 led to many businesses going bankrupt), depression (1929-32) and recovery (Roosevelt providing a 'New Deal')

    • Word count: 476
  2. Why was Prohibition introduced in the USA in 1919?

    Other states soon followed in setting up temperance groups such as Massachusetts and Connecticut in 1813. Prohibition gained its early supporters from the southern Bible belt and rural areas where it was believed that alcohol abuse was mainly in the rapidly growing industrial cities. The majority of these people were Protestants who believed in hard working values. Drinkers were thought of as bad workers and their habits offended the Christian morals of Protestants. By the 1850s individual states were already beginning to introduce bans on alcohol. In 1851 Maine was the first to place temporary bans on alcohol, a lead followed by many that led to 13 out of the 31 states having prohibition laws in place by 1855.

    • Word count: 618
  3. How useful is Source A for studying the spread of prohibition in the United States? Explain your answer using Source A and your own knowledge.

    In conclusion the map is clear and distinctive in its geography. It is easy to interpret but provides limited information to study prohibition in the whole of the United States. Study sources B and C. Historians wrote both, yet they give differing interpretations as to why prohibition was introduced in 1919. Why do these historians come to disagree about this issue? Explain your answer using Sources B and C and your own knowledge. Sources B and C are secondary sources, which are taken from books thus we can establish that they are unbiased sources, which have been thoroughly researched.

    • Word count: 3087
  4. Prohibition Sources Questions

    The portrait on the left corner shows the wife and child in despair over the poor state of their house with the quotation "The saloon is well named, poor mans club. It keeps its members and families always poor" which indicates the trouble men's families had when they spent most of their money on alcahol. This source wants to show that the families were firmly against the drinking of alcahol in any matter or form. Another opposition to alcahol would have to be the catholic regions in America in the view that they believed that America's violent problems came from the harnest of drunk revellors.

    • Word count: 4636
  5. The New Deal – Reforming to Preserve

    Within a few years, a fifth of all banks were closed. Around 15% of peoples money was lost. The dilemma was people lost all loyalty in the banking system and hid all their money at home. The day subsequent to Roosevelt taking office, he ordered all banks to close for four days. He then intensely searched every bank; if they didn't have enough capital behind them they were closed down. After 1933 the character of Roosevelt's reform changed from relief to recovery. Roosevelt's subsequently manufactured an additional economy act. This tried to cut back on government spending, so that it could be used to help the unemployed.

    • Word count: 2168
  6. How Roosevelt Won the Election Roosevelt Was Voted In For His First Term In Office In 1932?

    This made people feel closer to him and would have helped him gain votes. Roosevelt also understood the problems and hardships of people in both rural and industrial areas as he had experiences of both from earlier in his life. Because of this knowledge he aimed his policies at both types of life style. This is something that other politicians did not do, this allowed him to get votes from both areas and not having to rely on getting votes from just one. From 1928-32 Roosevelt was the governor of New York City. Being New York Cities governor allowed him to see more of the problems for city dwelling Americans especially immigrants.

    • Word count: 1559
  7. Use Source A and your Knowledge of the Period to Explain why People Supported Roosevelt in the 1932 Election.

    They were sick of Hoover 's opinions of 'rugged individualism' and 'laissez faire'. Roosevelt seemed to be a genuine and very strong candidate; he was a confident speaker and wasn't afraid of saying what he thought unlike many other politicians who dodged around the real problems. In his speeches he used his words to great effect, he showed his intelligence and experience, which encouraged the support of the American people. For example he used alliteration, 'destruction', 'delay', 'deceit' and 'despair'. He also linked his campaign to the idea of fighting, 'call to arms', 'win', 'crusade' and 'waging war', this encouraged the people to help him in his fight, it is their duty to fight for their country.

    • Word count: 5754
  8. Does the evidence of Source C support the evidence of sources A and B in Jarrow?

    Source C supports Sources A and B because it supposedly shows unemployed men in Jarrow in 1932. From Source B we know that in 1932, 6,793 workingmen were unemployed, out of a possible work force of about 9,700. The photograph shows some men, who appear to be standing in the street, looking bored, because they are unemployed. They are wearing typical workman clothes, except for one man, who is wearing a suit, and could be a company manager. The standard of dress is quite poor, and very assorted, as shown by the man who appears to have mixed his clothes,

    • Word count: 675
  9. The boom of the 1920's would scarcely have been possible without the automobile industry. Discuss

    Henry Ford used mass production techniques to help build cars quickly and cheaply. His assembly line took the work to the man and not the man to the work so that people did the same job to a high standard on each car. Because they only needed to be trained on one aspect of the job they were unskilled workers, and didn?t need to be paid as well as more skilled motor manufacturers; however, as the hours were long and the work was intense, Ford increased wages to a huge $5 a day, the highest in the country to attract workers.

    • Word count: 780
  10. Revision Notes - the USA in the 1920s and 30s.

    Cars also created new opportunities, like motels, more roads, and petrol stations. * Mass Production-Standardisation, so all parts were the same. Division of labour split up the work, so that one person would do the same specific job, and moving assembly lines meant that a conveyor belt carries products to the workers. * Confidence-Americans felt very confident, meaning they would be more willing to spend their money. Hire purchases-borrowing money to buy goods. Americans also felt confident in investing in the stock market.

    • Word count: 4674
  11. Were the policies of the Republican Governments of the 1920s the most important reason for the boom in the USA?

    The first policy that the republican government believed in was the policy of ?Laissez Faire?. The policy meant that government did not interfere a lot with businesses because they kept the corporate tax low meaning that the businesses got to keep l lot more of their revenue. This led to the boom as more businesses opened because it was more profitable and this in turn led to more wealth for the government. Another government policy was that ?Rugged Individualism? and this was the belief that people worked hard to earn money hence they should keep most of it and this was implemented by keeping the income tax low.

    • Word count: 1121
  12. USA: 1919 1941 Revision Notes

    plastics and glass, helping create buildings such as skyscrapers * Wages increased along with profits, more people could spend more on consumer luxuries * Electrical power made widespread, usage of oil doubled * People were confident and now prepared to buy American goods and invest in the American economy * Prosperity was a right, not a privilege: people encouraged to spend Return to isolationism: * The US economy was increasingly protected by government intervention in the forms of tariffs * Quota system for immigration, closing the ?Open Doors? policy The Boom & Industries that benefited: Motor industry, building works, stock

    • Word count: 2049
  13. Was the Sacco and Vanzetti case the worst case of intolerance in 1920s America? (16)

    Segregation was widespread in society, such as separate drinking fountains for whites and blacks, as well as the fact that black Americans were often the first to be laid off during harder economic times. The black population was also denied the ability to vote, undermining the ?democratic? basis on which the USA was founded upon. The black American community also became victims of large scale violence, such as the KKK which sought to terrorise black people, using violence and carrying out their own version of justice such as lynching in order to intimidate foreigners, who they believed to be inferior, as well as various kidnappings and murders.

    • Word count: 1292
  14. Were the Republican policies the main reason for prosperity in the 1920s?

    Also America s idea of isolationism helped boost prosperity because they weren?t using any of the economy money for weapons as they weren?t in the war at the time but were making money to boost the economy. Also because of this USA became the leading world producer and made lots of profits used in investment. Additionally, the Republicans introduced protective tariffs .These tariffs helped to boost prosperity because it was expensive for foreigners to dump cheap goods in America. This made some profit as foreigner had to pay extra tax to sell stuff in the USA.

    • Word count: 917
  15. The Great Depression

    The following depicts and analyzes the four main causes that economist believe lead to the demise of the Great Depression which are, the Stock market crash, banking panics and monetary contradiction, the gold standard, and international lending and trade (Bernstein). People thank declines in consumer demand, financial panics, along with misguided government policies to the dismay of the drastic decline of output. The decline of economic output was mainly due to a decline in aggregate demand (Bernstein). One of the main causes that contributed to the Great Depression?s radical decline of economic output was the New York stock market crash of 1929 (Romer).

    • Word count: 1707
  16. How far was Roosevelt himself responsible for his election victory in 1932? Explain your answer.

    Hoover was very unpopular. He did not acknowledge the depressions existence he didn?t admit there was a problem as he claimed in his speech delivered on the 26th of October a week after the depression started. This meant that people who were suffering through unemployment and homeless were annoyed that Hoover was not even admitting there was a problem which meant he would not help them. In 1932 United States veterans went on a ?Bonus March.? The soldiers from WW1, who had been promised a bonus that would be paid to them in 1945, wanted to receive the bonuses early because of starvation and homelessness.

    • Word count: 600
  17. Without the new automobile industry, the prosperity of the 1920s would scarcely have been possible.Agree or Disagree?

    Because the assembly line made producing cars cheaper, other factories used the technique to produce their goods, for example radios, at a cheaper price, so more people would buy them. The idea of the assembly line alone helped to further the boom. The automobile industry involved so many other industries and helped to keep them running. To make cars, lots of different materials were needed; steel for the chassis, rubber for the tyres, leather to upholster the seats and glass for the windows.

    • Word count: 1059
  18. Was the New Deal a success? (Source based questions)

    A ?call to arms? was Roosevelt?s manner of saying that America need to act against the Depression instantly. ?This crusade to restore America? demonstrates the fact that Roosevelt is keen to work hard to do whatever it takes to bring America back to the superpower it was considered to be. ?Waging war? shows both Roosevelt?s intention to play a dynamic role in the governing of America and also the austerity of the situation and its possible consequences. Roosevelt goes on further to enforce his strategy of ?action, and action now? by announcing himself against delay (whilst Hoover insisted ?prosperity was just around the corner?).

    • Word count: 3993
  19. How successful was the New Deal?

    The National Recovery Administration (NRA) also helped the financial reform by creating a code in which would guarantee fair wages and conditions for workers. The companies who agreed were favoured with contracts. This created a partnership between the government and the industry and reduced destructive competition and to helped workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours. The Public Works Administration (PWA) was another New Deal agency which concentrated on employing unemployed skilled industrial workers work on constructing large scale public building schemes like bridges and dams.

    • Word count: 1348
  20. American Depression

    So, he decided to cut their throats and threw them down the canyon. It was a tragedy that he could not afford to rear the sheep and he would not let the sheep starve which showed the relations between him and his sheep at that time. The cause of the over production was due to the effects of the Depression. Americans suffered from the poverty which finally led to the under-consumption. This showed that poverty can cause under-consumption and at the end over-production.

    • Word count: 664
  21. To what extent was the Wall Street Crash caused by speculation?

    Republican policy may also be at fault to an extent for the crash. Republican Herbert Hoover?s ?Laissez-Faire? attitude to economics meant that there would be little or no intervention from the government to try and correct the crash. This was a problem as banks were failing and people were being put into poverty; meaning the downward spiral continued as more and more people couldn?t spend money on consumer goods: something that fuelled the American boom of the 1920s. Another factor, some would say, was the problem of the declining export market.

    • Word count: 840
  22. Hollywood in the 1920s

    As mentioned, the first film produced inside Hollywood was made on 10 March 1910. This was the decade that Hollywood began its life as a ?film-making town?. Director D.W. Griffith made a 17-minute film called ?In Old California? in Hollywood, filmed around the town itself. Griffith was sent to the area with his troop of actors, originally filming on a lot in Los Angeles, before moving on to Hollywood, enjoying the friendliness and the enjoyment of the community towards the filming of his movie, about Mexican occupied California. Throughout the decade, studios from the East Coast (predominantly from New Jersey and New York)

    • Word count: 799
  23. Use source B and your knowledge of the period to explain why people supported Roosevelt in 1932 election

    By the speech he gave saying that ?to win in this crusade to restore America?, showed the obvious enthusiastic, which people thought that Hoover possibly could not restore America and had no potential to fix the situation, in addition to this Roosevelt was their only hope. ?I am waging war against destruction, delay, deceit, despair?, implies to his determination and willpower. Moreover, Roosevelt had overcame polio, therefore it exceptionally supports his speech because it also conveys to his determination to overcome polio, hence people think that he would certainly be able to do as he pledged, giving tremendous inspiration to the citizens, who were in troubles.

    • Word count: 520
  24. "Was Gangsterism the most important problem in America in the 1920s?"

    This, together with social inequality and r****m, resulted in increased tensions across the nation. In this essay I will be exploring the problems that people faced during the 1920s. Furthermore, I will be stating whether it had a large impact on society or not. The first problem I will be looking at that people had to deal with is r****m. Many blacks lived in southern USA, or otherwise known as the Deep South. They lived in poverty, mostly farming cotton or tobacco. Many were sharecroppers, which meant they had to give a share of their crop to the landowner from whom they rented the land they farmed.

    • Word count: 1102

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