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GCSE: USA 1941-80

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 6
  • Peer Reviewed essays 4
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Who was to blame for the Cold War?

    4 star(s)

    caused the Cold War; the "Revisionist" idea that "American policy offered the Russians no real choice...either acquiesce to American proposals or be confronted with American power or hostility" (McCauley 90) which blames America for the war; and a "Post-Revisionist" combination of the two, with both America and Soviet Russia to blame. Since both the Orthodox and Revisionist views have proof is confirmation that the Post-Revisionist viewpoint is correct. One of the primary differences between the attitudes of America and Russia originates from the happenings in each nation during WWII.

    • Word count: 1516
  2. Peer reviewed

    The NAACP was the organisation that achieved most for African Americans during the 20th century. Do you agree?

    4 star(s)

    groups demise in 1930 after Garvey's imprisonment for fraud; and in the 1930's the US Communist party supported unionisation, provided legal support (e.g. the Scotsboro boys), and encouraged boycotts of the businesses of racist employers- however "Red Scare" that was to some in later decades (the seeds of which were already present) meant that the party's influence as a whole could not be significant. The trade unions themselves often represented groups of workers that AA's would fall into (i.e. "bluecollar" workers), although not necessarily African Americans in those groups: black membership was low until the 1930's, when large numbers became

    • Word count: 1718
  3. Peer reviewed

    Watergate scandal

    3 star(s)

    They were not stealing from the offices, but instead planting electronic bugging devices. One burglar turned out to be a former member of the CIA (the government's secret service). At this stage no one made any direct connection to CREEP or Nixon. Two reporters felt that the "true" story had not been uncovered, and so trailed their own inquiries. Two reporters from the "Washington Post", Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, uncovered some facts which proved very embarrassing to the White House. All five burglars were employed by CREEP and the CREEP fund was controlled at the White House.

    • Word count: 1425
  4. Peer reviewed

    Who was the most influential figure in the Civil Rights Movement in the USA in the 1950s and 1960s? What impact did he/she have?

    3 star(s)

    Graduating from Crozer Theological Seminary as class president in 1951, he then did postgraduate work at Boston University. King's studies at Crozer and Boston led him to explore the works of the Indian nationalist Mohandas K. Gandhi, whose ideas became the core of his own philosophy of non-violent protest. That same year the Supreme Court of the United States outlawed all segregated public education, and in the wake of that decision, the segregated South was soon challenged in every area of public adaptation.

    • Word count: 1139
  5. Robert MacFarlane and the fall of the Soviet Regime

    McFarlane initially played several more minor roles under Reagan's administration and started implementing his political ideas. He started his political career under Reagan as Counselor to the Department of State, which assisted then-Secretary of State Alexander Haig in foreign affairs. As Reagan's foreign policy had been following Carter's for the first year, people such as McFarlane and Haig wished to change that status quo. However, McFarlane initially could not obtain a comprehensive foreign policy toward Soviet-friendly Nicaragua in this time period because Haig was not interested in doing more, and he claims that if they had done things differently, they would have avoided problems in the future.

    • Word count: 1140
  6. History work

    The government helped the unions by negotiating between them and the large companies. The Committee for Industry Organisation (CIO) was set up by some labour unions combining forces and they were able to bargain with the large corporations. The New Deal also helped the unemployed and the economy by making millions of jobs. When the New Deal started the percentage of labour force unemployed was 24.9% and by the end of the New Deal and Second New Deal it was down to 14.3% which is a 10.6% decrease. This in turn helped to steady the American banking system and reduced the number of failing businesses.

    • Word count: 1229
  7. Why did the civil rights movement gain so much support in the 1950s and early 1960s?

    A major incident which gained the civil rights movement widespread support was the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955. In December of that year, Rosa Parks was coming home from work. She sat down on a bus and when a white man ordered her to give him her seat, she refused. This was against the law and subsequently, Parks was arrested. Parks was an active member of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) and this event was planned. This sparked the beginning of year long boycott of the buses in Montgomery by Black Americans. Since Blacks made up 60 - 70% of all bus riders in Montgomery, the bus company was faced with a decision - desegregate its buses or go out of business.

    • Word count: 1601
  8. the role of women in the second world war.

    It is not a photograph and it is an artist's impression. In the picture the man is asking if she has had any experience in agricultural work but it is clear that she hasn't by the way that she is dressed. In the picture she has a stupid posh and expensive hat on, She is wearing a fox around her neck. She looks like she is a rich women and has most probably never done a days work in her life. She probably has servants to do her house chores so she can do as she pleases during the day.

    • Word count: 1142
  9. What reasons could the HSCA have in 1979 for suggesting that President Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy in 1963?

    After the shooting had taken place many spectators ran up the grassy knoll in apparent search for a gunman, forty eight witnesses said that they had heard shots coming from the grassy knoll, the Warren Commission said that they had all been mistaken. A man named Orville Nix had taken a film which showed the grassy knoll, he gave the original tape to the FBI but not before he had made a copy of it and given it to a friend.

    • Word count: 1002
  10. Describe the problems that President Kennedy faced in the years from 1961 to 1963

    An unsuccessful mission called the 'Bay Of Pigs' was authorised by President Kennedy to try and invade Cuba, the plan had been designed under the previous President's turn in office and all Kennedy had to do was authorise it. The mission failed as all it consisted of was providing Cubans who were angry at the Cuban government with weapons and allowing them to try and seize control of the country. As it failed badly it made Kennedy look very inexperienced.

    • Word count: 1485
  11. Why did the Warren Commission decide that John F Kennedy was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald acting on his own?

    The means is the weapon that was used in the assassination. Eye witness statements from Source E say that Oswald carried a long paper bag with him to work on the morning of the 22nd November. His neighbour said that the paper bag was around 28 inches long and the person with whom he was given a lift to work by concluded that when Oswald left for work on the morning of 22 November he was carrying a long paper bag that was roughly 27 inches long.

    • Word count: 1445
  12. Free essay

    To some people the 1960s were the best of times, to others it was a period when many things went wrong in society. Why do people have such different opinions of the 1960s?

    Sex became more acceptable to talk about in public and television began to show mild references to sex. The traditional ways of life were quickly becoming more modern and radical. The 60s were a good time to be young and youthful. The new pop groups and fashions made the 60s the perfect time to be a teenager. Youngsters had more money and by 1959 many teenagers were spending around �8 per week on records and clothes, it was particularly easy for teens to get jobs. Source A is part of a description of the 1960, "The nation held its breath because that evening the four Beatles, all the fab four, were appearing live on Juke Box Jury; John, Paul, George and Ringo being cool, smart, lippy, charming and funny.

    • Word count: 1025
  13. Blacks as second class citizens from 1945-55in USA

    Many states introduced a 'grandfather clause' into voting regulations which declared that a person could only vote if his grandfather had the vote, even if you were a full US citizen. This excluded the vast majority of African-Americans, whose grandfathers had been slaves. By 1945 the situation in terms of voting rights was not positive for blacks, although there were signs of improvement, with the number of registered black voters increasing from 3% in 1940 to 12% in 1947. White registrars made it difficult for blacks to register.

    • Word count: 1082
  14. Why did relations between the USA and USSR worsen in the years 1949-1961?

    The superpowers were competing and trying to prove that their ideas were better than the others. The Blockade was over but it had many consequences for the relations between America and Russia. As a result of that in April 1949 USA formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) - A defensive alliance that contained all of Western Europe plus USA, Turkey and Iceland. If any member attacked, all members would attack the aggressor.The formation of NATO intensified the arms race (conventional and nuclear) between the two sides. The Warsaw Pact was established in 1955, as a Soviet version of NATO.

    • Word count: 1076
  15. "Why did relations between the USA and USSR change in the years 1945-49?"

    Yet, by the Potsdam conference in July-August of the same year, the relationship was worse and the communication between the two main powers were at an all time low. This was mainly because America had successfully tested the Atomic bomb one day prior to the start of the meeting. This great step into Nuclear weapons changed the bond for the bad, as Stalin realised how much power America had, and how effective it could be (this idea of fear through nuclear weapons was emphasised again when the A-Bombs were dropped onto the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki).

    • Word count: 1176
  16. Free essay

    why the USA withdrew its forces from Vietnam in 1973

    Applying for this card made local draft boards aware that the young man was now available for military service. Many young people thought this was very unfair. Thirdly Felt the war was wrong- The government said they were defending America from communism but Vietnam was a poor country over 12,000 miles away. People felt it couldn't pose a big threat to the USA. What was the point of their involvement? Media Coverage- This was the first "television war" and for the first time the horrors of war were brought into living rooms everyday pictures of U.S. soldiers wounded or dying and innocent civilians killed.

    • Word count: 1102
  17. Civil Rights Movement

    So it comes as little surprise that when the segregation of schools became unconstitutional in 1954 many white southerners were outraged. Source A shows the amount of black children attending school with white children from 1956 - 1962. It does show an increase, however I think it would be wrong to call this a success. This is because the margin by which it has increased is simply tiny. The table shows us that less than 1% of the schools had black children in it.

    • Word count: 1138
  18. Reasons for increasing tension between Japan and USA before September 1941

    When China asked Japan to leave, the Japanese presented the Chinese leaders, with an impossible list of 21 demands. The list demanded that the privileges Japan already had in southern Manchuria and Inner Mongolia be enlarged. Also the Japanese demanded the right to send financial, military and political experts as advisers to the Chinese governments. The implication was clear. Japan intended to make china part of the Japanese Empire. China had no allies she could turn to for help. The allies protested to Japan but did not press the argument too hard since Japan was a valuable ally.

    • Word count: 1110
  19. How successful was Martin Luther King jr in bringing about peace and equality?

    His main influences were music and religion, which he acquired both from church and his community (Baldwin, 1991, p.17). While living in close proximity to the poor, King Jr learned how people in the community developed a sense of competition and self ambition. In one of King's speeches he stated an eye-opening line" I saw economic injustice Njegovan 2 firsthand." (Baldwin, 1991, p.20) Many times he was told that as a Christian, he was to respond to his enemy with love (Deats, 2000, p.18). As King became more involved in fighting racism, he began to detest the white population of America because of what most of them put him and other African-Americans through.

    • Word count: 1039
  20. Free essay

    Civil Rights essay Assignment 1 Question 1

    In September 1957 the Governor of Little Rock, Arkansas used military force to stop black students from attending the Local school. These events were shown around the world damaging the image of the United States as leaders of the 'free world'. The media attention had a positive effect for the civil rights movement as it forced the President, Eisenhower to intervene by sending troops to Arkansas to ensure black children could attend the school. Although it was now illegal to segregate black and white students by 1963 only 10% of black students went to integrated schools.

    • Word count: 1122
  21. Martin Luther King and his work

    King was brought up in a comfortable middle-class family where education was extremely important. His parents made certain that Martin and his siblings were as safe and happy as they could be. He was a really smart student and even skipped two grades before entering an Ivy League college at a young age of 15. With an A average he became his graduating classes' valedictorian. Most would say Martin was raised in an almost perfect environment, where dreams and love were sincerely generated. In 1955 down in Montgomery, Alabama, King's rise to national fame began.

    • Word count: 1950
  22. Free essay

    Did the civil rights deal achieve a great deal in the 1950-1960's?

    I can link sources C,E and I. They all show that black people have achieved something and gained come civil rights. Source C is a secondary written source, it explains and shows how many black children went to all white schools in the southern states in the late 50's early 60's. "Texas 1956-1957 3400, 1961-1962 4300" The source is not biased because it is written for a school textbook. The source has limitations because it only shows the statistics of schools.

    • Word count: 1136
  23. the crow project

    I had panicked as I did not know what to do. I then saw the evilness in his eyes I could not believed what happened I was just shocked, the king had told me "I am going to keep you here for the rest of your life; I have no intentions of killing you". I screamed the loudest and realized that it was a horrible nightmare all along and I was relieved that it just was a nightmare. Name: crow Surname: crooker Date of birth: 01/02/95 Education: primary crow school, experience, fitness school and wings flap community Qualification: employed Extra

    • Word count: 1607
  24. why did desegregation cause a problem in the usa

    The KKK created an atmosphere of fear among black people in the south. Another reason why desegregation of schools became a major problem in the USA was because of southern state governors and the President. During the crisis at Little Rock High School in Arkansas, the governor, Orval Faubus was up for election. To get the votes he had to keep segregation and the only way for this was to stop the 9 black students from entering the school. There was a hostile crowd outside the school and Faubus sent state troops to turn the students away because he said it was not safe.

    • Word count: 1047
  25. Why did Malcolm X become involved in the campaign for equal rights in the 1950s and 1960s?

    Malcolm also received poor educational opportunities and his teachers put down his ambitions. Malcolm also had to cope with his mothers deteriorating mental health and being split up from his siblings by the authorities when his mother was classified insane and committed to a mental institution. When he left school and moved to New York he got involved with drug dealing, gambling and burglary. When he was in New York he took up a typical black job of shining shoes but by dealing drugs he made himself far more money. This extra money showed him how you could live if you had the means to and so made him angry about the way white people were living compared to black people in the ghettos.

    • Word count: 1818

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent did the position of the black population improve between 1940 and 1950?

    "As you can see in all three topics the blacks did find some improvements but in comparison it was very little to what was still going on. There for as my conclusion I think that the blacks were still along way away from racial equality but had found good foundations for achieving racial equality."

  • To what extent were the demands of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Movement and the American Civil Rights Movement similar?

    "In conclusion, both organisations wanted similar reforms made, but there also many differences for example there was no gerrymandering (the rigging of local electoral boundaries) was not present in America. The black civil rights movement clearly influenced NICRA and this is evident in the tactics of each organisation, which was, above all, peaceful, non-violent protests and demonstrations."

  • To what extent had the situation for black people in America improved by 1900?

    "In conclusion, by 1900, black people theoretically had the freedom to work and build lives for themselves, but realistically their opportunities were limited and they faced much discrimination and (especially in the South) hostility from whites. They had to tolerate de facto discrimination in the North, and de jure in the South, which undid most of what Reconstitution had done; they were still seen as a subspecies not fit to mix with white people. The political rights that they had been given were trampled on in the South, who ignored the US constitution with the knowledge of the Supreme Court. They therefore had little government support or protection, and, in the South, unsatisfactory representation. Compared to when they were enslaved, their situation had improved, but life in America for a black person was extremely hard, and there was a long struggle ahead for equality with whites."

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