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GCSE: USA 1941-80
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It didn't help that there was media frenzy, with the spread of television. Most blacks and some neutral, sympathetic whites were delighted with the decision. However, many whites in America were deeply angered. The Supreme Court decision was deeply resented by most of the Southern States and this led to a lot of tension between the federal government and the individual states. Even though schools were desegregated there was still racial tension. When public school segregation ended President Eisenhower reflected widespread opinion when he said, "you cannot change peoples hearts merely by law."
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Then one day someone would have come and captured them while they were at home minding the house, next they would have been tied up and taken onto a slave ship. The slave ship would have been quite big but because of the huge amount of slaves taken on it, it was a very cramped living condition for the slaves. Whilst they were on the ship they were given certain amounts of food and drink. The living conditions on the ship were very wrong and harsh and many slaves died even before they got to America.
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Evidence that is statistically and/or scientifically proven cannot be disputed, and can be seen in Bush's "911 speech". The President states that: "Our military is powerful, and it's prepared. Our emergency teams are working in New York City and Washington D.C., to help with local rescue efforts" By stating an obvious fact, "emergency teams are working in New York City and Washington DC", Bush creates a situation where the American people can make an emotional link from a "cold" fact to a sense of security.
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"...violence against women constitutes a violation of the rights and fundamental freedoms of women..."
While women have gained some ground in terms of economic rights, their civil and political rights are systematically violated. Equal treatment for women and men is a basic principle of international human rights standards. Yet in Saudi Arabia discriminatory practices against women are not only common, they are also in some cases required by law. Strict segregation of the sexes, an integral part of Saudi Arabian society, has adverse and unequal effects on women, who are denied equal educational opportunities and may work only in certain careers.
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in theology at Boston University.3 Through studies in theology and philosophy, Martin deepened his convictions of the merits of integration. Upon graduation, Martin returned to the South, to which he felt indebted, and became minister of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.4 He soon became a social activist, gaining fame from his involvement in the Montgomery Bus Boycott.5 Malcolm X, on the other hand, was born into a life of poverty on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska.6 His father was a devoted follower of the black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey, whose teachings left a lasting impression on
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but it can be proved that King shaped an entire country and had influences on the social and economic fibres of America and King's ideologies have stood the tests of time, he is still celebrated and recognised today. Analysis of King's environment Since the birth of the American nation race has divided the country, the abolition of slavery was a catalyst of the American Civil War. The increasing black minority of America have always felt the brunt of race hatred, escalating to its peak in the 1950s and 60s.
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Martin Luther King, Jr., a prominent writer, minister, and civil rights activist, inherently focuses on the "Negro's experience of pain, broken promises, and now rising rage in a country" (Lischer 8). His speech introduces a passive take on the black community's struggle, yet enforces a sense of urgency that causes the basic white and black community to rationalize the desolate condition that King attempts to portray. He utilizes lovely metaphors, imagery, and anaphoric repetition to convey the greatness of the black man's suffering as he recounts: Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation.
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Walter Lee is thirty-five and wants to provide for his family but his income won't allow it. However, he has become so mad at the treatment of the black race and feels the only way to further his race is to become a businessman and buy materialistic items so he can measure up against the white folks. 'What Hansberry is trying to illustrate is how Western civilization has conditioned society to have materialistic aspirations and how these ideals corrupt the black man's identity and his family.'
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What defines a 'cultural icon'? Choose any cultural icon and write an essay on its (or 'his' or 'her') place and significance in culture at large.
Martin Luther King Jr, was born on January 15th 1929 and was the son of an Atlanta pastor. The community in which he lived in was like many he knew. He said, "No-one in our community had attained any great wealth."1 The neighbourhood he lived in were religious just as King's family were. As a child King first experienced racism towards him when he made friends with a white boy, and was told that they could not go to the same school as each other because King was black.
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For a long period of time the black slaves were controlled by several brutal means. However, forced to work for long hours, they managed to establish their own churches, develop their own music. And they also expressed their desire for freedom in some way such as "run-away", but such resistance was always brutally broken down. For the black Africans, the first triumph in the search for freedom and equality happened in 1865. It was in that year that the 13th Amendment to the Constitution made the abolition of the slave system official. Prior to this event, the conflict over slavery between the Southern and Northern states eventually drove the nation to the Civil War in 1861.
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Black people were being discriminated against and being segregated on places like buses. On December 1st,1955, Rosa Parks(a black woman) refused to give her sat up to a white person on a bus. This resulted in her arrest, which caused an outrage in the black community, thus beginning the "bus boycott". Martin Luther King led the boycott of city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, which led the bus company to stop segregated bus seats. Although Martin Luther King managed to put an end to this example of segregation, his efforts failed when attempting to stop other types of segregation and discrimination.
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1967, when one third of black families were living below the government's poverty level in comparison to under 10% of white people who were living below the government's poverty level. Economically, this was another failure. A cultural and social failure was the mortality rate of black babies, that being twice as high as the mortality rate of white babies. This fact could act as evidence to prove that health amongst black people was poorly in comparison to white people. The majority of black people living in the north of the USA lived in the city ghettos, where there was slum housing, high unemployment and poor schools.
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Describe the Role of Martin Luther King in Civil Rights Activity in the USA during the years up until 1968
He involved himself in the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1953), where he became known as the leader of the boycott. However the Boycott had been organised at first by the NAACP, and some people felt King took the whole of the credit. His role however was important as was the Boycott which caused the Supreme Court to declare segregation on buses unconstitutional in 1956. However, it also brought King to the forefront of the movement, and in 1957 he helped establish The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and became the president of the group.
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Frasier immediately adds, "Or should I say, "Happy New millennium (laughs)" this is not only a repair, but a topic that has purposely been opened up for Roz to relate to almost straight away. Roz clearly knows what Frasier is trying to imply by his laughter and her retort in an expressive utterance, "Oh god (0.1) I'm so sick of talking about it" conveys this even more. The pause is an example of a prosodic feature and displays the relaxed friendship she and Frasier share as well as conveying her unwillingness to talk about the incident that happened.
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Describe the role of Martin Luther King in Civil Rights activity in the USA during the years up to 1968.
of which King was President, filed a lawsuit in federal court seeking an injunction against Montgomery's segregated seating practices. The federal court ruled in favour of the MIA, ordering the cities buses to be desegregated, but the city government appealed the ruling to the US Supreme Court. By the time the Supreme Court upheld the lower court decision in Nov 1956, King was a national figure. The bus boycott made King a symbol of black protest around the country and in the following years he spoke alongside other national black leaders and even met with President Eisenhower. All the while King looked to capitalise on the success of the boycott.
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They lost their optimistic sided and begun to believe they didn't deserve to have rights. This put a lot of pressure on them and led them to do stupid things. The Government were determined to classify ethnical groups, personified in the Population Registration Act in effect from 1950 to 1991, it was crucial in determining the status of South Africans in all areas of life. The act divided South Africans at birth into four racial categories--Black, White, Coloured, and Asian--though these classifications were largely random, based on considerations such as family background and cultural acceptance as well as on appearance.
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The chief policeman who was a white man ordered his men to attack the other demonstrators. As a result, 3300 black people were arrested. The political disadvantages faced by black people were mostly about voting. White people deliberately set criteria for voters, which they new that black people wouldn't be able to meet. For instance, they set up a poll tax, which many blacks obviously could not afford to pay due to their poor income from menial jobs. Literacy tests were also made a legal requirement for potential voters.
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Shortly after the Civil War ended, an assortment of plans to reconstruct the devastated South emerged. Each of these plans was an attempt to rebuild the South with Northern morals and views on topics such as religion, the economy, and social beliefs. This period of time, appropriately called Reconstruction, was an outrage to loyal white Southerners. This group of people felt that the North needed not to help the South try and piece together their shattered remains of society. Contrary to their deepest hopes, the South would not be left alone by the persistent effort from the North to help the struggling South.
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This allowed Civil Rights Groups to provoke violent reactions in the South to gain equality. An example of this was Birmingham in 1963. Whereas, in the north governors were much 'subtle' and segregation was much harder to deal with. The 1964 Civil Rights Act helped to contribute to the end of segregation in public places the act also furthered the desegregation of schools. The 1964 Act also gave blacks a greater chance of a fair legal hearing and more guarantee of legal action.
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Explain why the attitude of Black people differed on how to achieve racial equality in the USA in the 1960s and the 1970s
For example, the Montgomery bus boycott. This was a peaceful method of protesting and proved successful. If it proved successful once, then the NAACP's beliefs must prove right again. They wished for integration to take place throughout the USA. Martin Luther King used a peaceful method to ensure that the integration of the buses was undergone; this was called a 'Freedom Ride.' The majority of the NAACP members were strong and devoted Christians. They followed the beliefs of non-violence which was encouraged by their religion.
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How fully do the sources explain the role of individuals in improving the position of African Americans between 1900 and 1980?
Similarly source C uses quotes from Garvey talking about "action" and "initiative", but does not discuss what this entailed. For Garvey, this had actually meant, what was in effect, support of segregation, which he actively was involved in establishing and in many respects, increasing. Neither source explicitly discusses a range of factors with regard to the role of each individual mentioned, and the individual's involvement in this. Washington's "solid programme of economic and social progress" was largely managed through the Tuskagee Institute, Alabama, of which he was head.
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The campaign proved a big success, with women being employed in factories making guns, ammunition, jeeps, aircraft's etc. They provided soldiers on the front line with ammunition and kept the army supplied with weapons. Other propaganda campaigns were also used such as adverts were used. Women also benefited from their working position. They experienced financial freedom and had the ability to buy what they wanted without having to ask for money. They also experienced their first taste of economic equality, as several states employed a equal pay system during the war. However, after the war things went back to normal, as many women thought it is their duty to allow men to have their jobs back and return to household jobs.
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He Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizens, 1789 - Analyse the key clauses of the Declaration as outlined in Rees & Townson
Lafayette made several drafts which he subsequently sent to Thomas Jefferson, an American envoy to France. Jefferson added some considerations of his own, based from American experience. In particular, Jefferson made a provision to have an amending constitutional convention on periodic intervals. The first political paper written by Paine caught the attention of Benjamin Franklin, another American envoy. In 1774 whilst in London, Franklin offered Paine a letter of recommendation allowing Paine to immigrate to America. After arriving in Philadelphia later that year, Paine assisted in the writing of the Declaration of Independence before leaving for France in 1791.
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Describe the methods used by Civil Rights Protestors in their fight for equality in the southern states of the USA in the years 1954- 64
The Supreme Court declared that schools, which were segregated, were unconstitutional. However, this case had limited success as in 1955 the NAACP had to return to the Court with Brown II as in Brown I the Supreme Court had set no date for when desegregation should be achieved. Little Rock in 1957 also showed the limited nature of the Supreme Court. As in Arkansas the governor Faubus refused to desegregate and stopped black children from attending the local high school. This led to white mobs gathering and attacking the black students.
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They did this even though the official instructions by the King were to "grant unoccupied lands." The Law imported from England said that property rights had to be respected but in WA the law was ignored. The Europeans did not understand the use of land by the Aboriginals. They did not seem to be "farming" the land but that does not mean the Europeans were allowed to invade the land. Europeans built fences and introduced non-native animals to the land, which Aborigines found strange.
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