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GCSE: Vietnam 1954-1975
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This meant that everybody in America was paying for getting involved in a war that didn't have anything to do with them really, because of the rise in taxes and higher inflation goods in America cost much more. These tax rises made the government very unpopular as it was them who raised them in order to off the debts. A second consequence of all this spending was that all the social programmes that had been planned to help the least well off were scrapped because America couldn't afford to pull it off.
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This would benefit the Vietcong, but cause a lot of trouble and fear for the US army, as they would not know if a Vietnamese person working in their camp was innocent or a Vietcong, not knowing to kill them or not, which would have also been a way to lower the morale of US by fear of not knowing who is on their side and having to be very careful. This method would also be beneficial the Vietcong, as they would be able to be disguised as innocent Vietnamese workers and spy or set up a surprise attack on camps or US troops.
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In 1968, a tactic was introduced called 'Operation Phoenix'. Tens of thousands of Vietcong (VC) were sought out and interrogated. The VC were tortured and killed. Another tactic was to move peasants away from their homes and villages and burn them down. This was to deter them from talking to the V.C; however, this created more opposition for the US and did nothing to help win the hearts and minds of the people, something the communists worked hard to do. American forces alienated civilians and caused just as much destruction to innocent Vietnamese people as the V.C , for example, Agent Orange, used to kill crops not only cut off the food supply for the V.C , but also that of the civilians.
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David Steinberg identifies the superiority of North Vietnamese military thought as the paramount factor in contributing towards a communist victory. The communist victory can be attributed to several factors, both political and social, that the United States failed to comprehend and address. The Vietnamese Communist Party won the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese people and was preferred to the democratic model that the US backed South Vietnamese model tried to impress upon the country. Traditional Vietnamese culture and communism had several basic similarities which made communism easily accepted by the Vietnamese peasants.
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How useful are sources A to C in helping to explain why the United States became involved in the war in Vietnam?
and South Vietnam (ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem and anti communist catholic politician). Ngo Dinh Diem led South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963 until he was killed by him generals in a military coup on the 1st of November 1965. He was an autocratic ruler. Diem's rule was opposed by Buddhist peasants in South Vietnam. Many Buddhists where executed and imprisoned. The communist Vietcong made guerrillas attacks on Diem's troops. Ho Chi Minh's communist regime in North Vietnam supported the Vietcong by supplying them with arms and money. Ho Chi Minh led North Vietnam from 1945 to 1969.
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The citizens of America, especially the rich, did not want communism at all. Henceforth, America and the Soviet Union went to war. However, the two countries did not physically fight each other, because they new they were equally powerful, and therefore undefeatable. Instead they started the 'Cold War'. It was more of a competition between the two countries, Russia was trying to get as many countries communist as it could, and America was trying to stop it from doing this. However, in 1949 the USA received a major blow. China had now also become communist.
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and how strict were their instructor. Stanley used a good example of a soldier mistreated was (Leonard 'Private Pyle' Pratt acted by Vincent D'Onofrio) and another good example of their instructor who was acted by Lee Ermey as Gunnery Sergeant Hartman. In first Stanley Kubrick was trying to show his viewers how the soldiers were trained and how they were treated by their leaders. He showed the instructor training the soldiers harshly and treating them like animals. Stanley showed that just because to tell his audience about lives of soldiers in boot camp and how stonehearted and careless the harsh training made them so they could fight their enemy without any fear and prepared them mentally so they could do anything during the war.
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Do sources B & C support the evidence of source A about the reasons for US involvement in South Vietnam?
It also says that Vietnam's political liberty is important and inspires others thus independence of Vietnam is crucial to the Free World. Source B supports the evidence in source A. It claims that Communist North Vietnamese government was trying to take over the South it aimed to spread its influence over a democratic neighbour just like Communist North Korea which attacked democratic South Korea in 1950. A statement from the US State Department said that the communist attack was not a local, spontaneous rebellion at all but a deliberate planned attack by the communist North on the South.
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After the end of the Second World War, the Allies wished for France to be a major world power. The immediate reason for USA switching sides therefore was to re-establish French influence in its former colony as a means of containing communism in the region. This policy ran into problems following the declaration of Vietnamese Independence by Ho Chi Minh, the leader of the Viet Minh in September 1945. The reimposition of French rule in Vietnam was bound to lead to conflict with the Viet Minh and France soon became embroiled in a guerrilla war.
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The Viet Cong knew that the were no match for the Americans in open battle, shown by the battle in the La Dreng Valley, where the US killed 2000 Viet Cong troops for the loss of just 300 troops. As well as killing troops, the guerrilla tactics of the Viet Cong had another use. They would wreck the moral of the US troops, as the soldiers lived in constant fear of an enemy ambush or booby trap. It also led to bad public opinion in the USA, as troops would be shown killing peasants, as that is the people suspected of being Viet Cong fighters, which looked extremely bad on television.
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History Coursework - Vietnam - Explain why the United states became increasingly involved in the war in Vietnam
The red scare had taken hold of America and Truman even went as far to say that he would support any communist threatened country. The fighting the French faced was much like the fighting America would later face as guerrilla tactics were key to the eventual success of Viet Minh in 1954. America's plan to contain communism known as 'containment' would need a different approach if Vietnam was to be saved from communism. After the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu Vietnam gained independence but decisions made at the Geneva conference led to Vietnam being split into north and south, the north under Ho Chi Minh and the south under Ngo Dinh Diem.
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Is their sufficient evidence in sources A-F to explain why there was an anti-war movement in the United States during the late 1960's and early 1970's?
This is a very strong picture and it sparked outrage in America as it shows two children suffering from the effects of American napalm. This picture lead Americans who supported the war to question what the army were doing in Vietnam and to ask whether the reasons behind the war justified the suffering of innocent Vietnamese citizens. This source does go some way to showing why there was an anti-war movement in the USA as it became one of the most well known images of the Vietnam War.
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anybody who was even suspected to sympathise with a communist party could instantly loose their job. People believed in the same policies as the US government, that the spread of communism had to be stopped (even though it was falsely accused of spreading as China, the biggest 'domino', had become communist and hardly affected its neighbouring countries) and for patriotic reasons, it was a good thing to go fight. Through different events in the war, the media started to change its mind on whether to support it. The American public soon followed. The first turning point came on Wednesday 31st January 1968 with the Tet Offensive.
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How Useful Are Sources A to C To Explain Why The United States Became Involved In The War In Vietnam?
Truman Doctrine was a promise they were fighting for "promised to help when there are any threats of communism". So Johnson decided he wanted to do the same thing, so he signed and agreed once president. In the year of 1954, President Eisenhower and JFK started transporting "advisers" as the first president Kennedy would have wanted. From the tone of Johnson's words in the speech, you can tell he jus maybe talking in a religious manner and might even be a religious person within the speech. President Lyndon Johnson wants to reassure every single American citizen about the "Domino Theory".
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Explain why the United States became increasingly involved in the war in Vietnam between 1954 and 1965
They were afraid it would spread though out Asia like domino one after another the countries would turn communist they Americans called it the Domino theory. In 1954 general Navre wanted to tempt the Vietminh out of hiding into open combat, the French had lost 74,000 troops since 1946 so they wanted to gain a big victory over the Vietminh to gain the French public support. But they lost the battle and soon after they lose they decide to leave.
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The USA should have been successful in Vietnam because of its technological and military supremacy. However, the USA failed to use this supremacy effectively to defeat a smaller less advanced enemy Do you agree or disagree with this interpretation?
In total 58,000 American soldiers were killed thought out the war in Vietnam. A main part of the army were black because rich people could delay there draft to go to university. But just because the Americans had a lot of men doesn't mean they were going to win because most of were poorly trained for jungle fighting, 11% of men were killed by booby traps. Soldiers on patrol didn't just have enemy ambush to worry about there were booby traps as well. They were cheap, easy to make and very effective against clumsy inexperienced soldiers.
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The technique of guerrilla warfare can be shown in the following quote by Mao Zedong ''The enemy attack, we Retreat. The enemy Camps, we Raid. The enemy tires, we Attack. The enemy retreats, we Pursue'', the determination of the opposing Vietnamese forces, were an issue in why their tactics proves so effective against the minds and ability of the Americans. In order for the Vietnamese to use their tactics effectively, they needed to gain support from local villages and communities.
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This made the Americans afraid as countries such as North Korea, North Vietnam and china could knock down the South Vietnamese domino turning it into a Communist country. It also gives some of Johnson's reasons for going entering Vietnam. It would vaguely help us answer why America entered Vietnam and there reasons for doing so. Though it can vaguely tell us why America entered the war we still can not full know this by studying this source as more then anything else it is President Johnson's opinion and his attempt to get the people on his side.
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They had a tunnel system which was known as Cu Chi tunnels. This was a major base for the Vietcong. The Vietcong used this tunnel system to hide and live in during the day and they would come up and fight in the night. These tunnels held many military campaigns during the war. These tunnels were a very efficient and effective method as it meant that the Vietcong could easily be hidden from their enemies. Also the tunnels prevented the Vietcong being hit by American artillery and bombs. These were the sort of tactics that Americans did not have resulting in their failure to defeat the Vietcong.
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1991 was the end of the cold war, and the cold war was heading to South East Asia. Do sources B and C support the evidence of Source A about US involvement in Vietnam? I don't think that Sources B and C do support the evidence of A because in Source C we don't know why the Buddhist monk set himself on fire and it doesn't show if he definitely did set himself on fire. Source B is part of a speech made by President Johnson in 1964 and often with speeches that people in politics make they don't even mean anything that they say, they say other things to make an impact on the country and get them worried over the subject.
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It was as if the American people had finally opened up their eyes to see what was really going on and to see how far the soldiers would go to succeed in the fight against communism. American leaders did not approach war in the right way and used violence and force rather than trying to persuade Vietnam out of communism and this came across strongly to the Americans. From the coverage American civilians were able to see innocent children and women dying.
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Apparently he is expressing the "diversity of man", but for a lot of people, it can be interpreted as a ridicule of the war in Vietnam. Private Joker is not a part of a combat squad in this movie, his job is as a military journalist, and so for him to be wearing a peace symbol, and a helmet with the slogan "born to kill" on it, is rather irrelevant, and perhaps describes the way Stanley Kubrick felt about the War, that nobody was on top of anything, and that the troops did not know what to think of their situation, on whether it was right to kill or not.
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The plan was for operation rolling thunder to last eight weeks but it lasted for the next three years this operation caused major casualties it was mainly an air bombing campaign that started on the 24th of February 1965 and lasted until the end of October 1968. The purpose of the speech I think to try and get the American people on side and President Johnson was basically just trying to justify his reasons and actions to the American people about the war.
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In the USA, at the time, people strongly believed in the Domino theory where if Vietnam were to fall to communism then neighboring countries such as Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Burma would also fall to communism like a row of dominoes. China, the original communist country in Asia, would be able to influence and conspire with countries across the globe. The Americans were afraid of this for security reasons as eventually the communist countries might declare war on them for being a democratic state.
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How Useful Are Sources A to C To Explain Why The United States Became Involved In The War In Vietnam?
President Johnson wants people and to reassure all Americans about the 'Domino Theory'. The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory. If one country fell to communism then all the other countries around it shall follow and become communism and he didn't want this. This is why Lyndon Johnson is trying to make people go and fight in the Vietnam War. Trying to justify himself to all Americans. I would say this source is biased. I find it's biased because it's only Johnson's opinion and he his telling the American society and the people what they want to hear and nothing else.
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