Revision Notes Truman Doctrine and the Cuban Missile Crisis

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Truman 1945-53

  • 47,  t doctrine was American foreign policy and aim was to keep communism away. T speech started cold war, he said he wanted to keep outsiders out, he needed the commitment of US to free people, thought communism was pressurising and promised financial aid to turkey and Greece to stay away from communism
  • NATO: alliance with 30 European countries, should come together if there is an attack, promised collective defence, signed in 1949, doctrine set foundation of NATO
  • Marshall aid: $130 b dollars, recovery programme, to remove trade barriers, improve countries after war and encouraged them to keep communism at bay.
  • Berlin Blockade: lasted around a year 48-49, one of the first major crisis of war, shows political and physical split, blocked west, changed currency
  • Creation of eastern bloc: eastern: eastern Europe counties soviet controlled under Stalin,  
  • Containment: trying to prevent spread of communism abroad, e.g., Marshall plan
  • Korean war: 1950, south Korea by north was invaded, Truman helped and sent troops, then brought the west allies to stop invasion, made a hostile relationship with china (sided with Soviet Union), bad tensions with china and USA
  • Cuban missile crisis: 53- 62, both kept missiles but didn’t want to remove first as they would look weak, closest point where they turned to war, 30 days stand- off, kicked off as Cuba is only 90 miles from USA, missiles near US land, Kennedy is president, tried to block them then Khrushchev back down only if US promised not to invade Cuba (sugar land= money)
  • Bay of pigs: 1961, failed invasion of Cuba from Kennedy which is why Khrushchev asked not to invade again.
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1953-61 Eisenhower

61-63 Kennedy

63-69 Johnson

69-74 Nixon

74-77 ford

77-81 carter

81-89 raegan

89-93 bush father

USSR relations w china: good, as china is inheritaly  a communist country, Sino-soviet split: breaking of political relationship as they believe they were both different in application of Marxism-Leninism, china didn’t agree with de-Stalinization and peaceful co-existence with the western world, china didn’t fear nuclear war, China publicly rejected USSR’s policy of peaceful co-existence between eastern and western bloc, relationship was left as a question: who is going to lead communism now?, competing with one another, Sino-soviet split turned the Cold War ...

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