• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe and the USSR?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe and the USSR? There are many reasons that led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the USSR. Communism was struggling throughout the 1980?s and policies and treaties that were introduced, such as Solidarity and The Sinatra Doctrine were not helping its strength and support. As more and more revolutions against the ideology were sparked, the domino affect came in to play, creating huge gaps in the iron curtain and ultimately leading to the collapse of communism not just in Eastern Europe but throughout the superpower of Russia as well. One factor that played a role in the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and also the USSR was the reforms and policies of Michael Gorbachev. Gorbachev abandoned the Brezhnev Doctrine, which was the Soviet Unions policy of intervening with a communist country if they were under the threat of invasion. Instead, Gorbachev created the Sinatra Doctrine. This contributed to the collapse of communism greatly as it stated that the Soviet leadership had decided to let all countries including its Warsaw Pact allies determine their own form of government, which was against the rules of communism. ...read more.

Middle

Also, rebellious Poles organized their own society, separate from the Communist government, which sparked the beginning of many revolutions against communism. After the revolution of Poland, Czechs and Slovaks took to the streets to demand political reforms in Czechoslovakia. Leading the protests in Prague was Havel, the founder of the reform group Charter 77. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia quietly and peacefully transferred the government rule to Havel. The Czechoslovakian revolution, which was later called the ?Velvet Revolution?, was a success and another country had fallen from the reign of communism in Eastern Europe. Another revolution In Romania was also taking place very soon after the velvet revolution. The Communist regime of hardliner Nicolae Ceausescu was overthrown by popular protest and was shot dead after getting a death sentence for killing citizens. Soon, the Communist parties of Bulgaria and Albania were also ended as communism was quickly spiraling out of control in the East. Another reason for the collapse of communism in the USSR was the war in Afghanistan. In 1979, The USSR invaded Afghanistan in an attempt to support the decaying communist government there. ...read more.

Conclusion

Thousands of Germans were escaping to the west through Hungary and the GDR was powerless to stop them. Honecker, the East German leader, collapsed under the pressure and. The border was due to be opened on the 10th, however a mistake in a press conference resulted in the border being opened on the evening of the 9th. As the guards stood confused whether to open the order or not, huge crowds gathered for the monumental event. Once the border was eventually opened, thousands of people crossed the border of which had previously marked the communist, capitalist divide. This was the moment that I believe collapsed communism not just in Eastern Europe but in Russia as well. There are many reasons for the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the USSR, however I believe that some are more important than others. I believe that the most important factor that led to the collapse of communism not just in the USSR but also Eastern Europe was Gorbachev. Gorbachev introduced taxes and policies, which never had an affect on the USSR?s poor economy and made people dislike him and turn away from the communist ideology. However I also feel that Gorbachev did the right thing in ending the cold war without violence and blood shed. Alex Skudder ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1945-1991 essays

  1. Notes on the Solidarity movement in Poland.

    things better', while 5% thought that it had a better program then the government. * Walesa was careful about his negotiations with the government as he did not want to provoke the Soviet Union. He secretly worked with the communist leader Kania to control the radicals (both feared that the USSR would send tanks if they went too far).

  2. In What Ways Did The Nazis Attempt To Eliminate All The Jews In Europe ...

    A figure of 1 million Jews is shown to be the sum of the killings made by the Einsatzgruppen. Methods of purposeful violence to eliminate Jews from society can be acknowledged from the limits that the Einsatzgruppen went to: when they ran out of bullets they used flame throwers.

  1. Why did Gorbachev introduce the policy of 'Perestroika' and what were its successes ...

    The state monopolies were debilitated by being broken down into smaller state industries to foster internal competition. For example, Aeroflot was split into a number of independent enterprises and these newly autonomous business organisations were encouraged to seek foreign investment.

  2. the collapse of the war

    Eventually Stalin backed down and on 12th May 1949 ended the blockade. 6. One of the ways that the USA had helped European economies to recover was the Marshall aid where the US government sent $13 billion worth of aid to rebuild their economies.

  1. "The only reason the USSR went in o afghanistan was to crush islamic fundamentalism."

    was too powerful is also true only to a certain extent. Firstly Mujaheddin had many advantages against USSR such as the terrain of Afghanistan, the effective guarrilla tactics,the support of the civillians and religious fighters. The afghan population supported Mujaheddin instead of the red army mainly because they hated the army because of the terror tactics they used.

  2. Cold War Short Essays - Questions and Answers.

    Despite these compromises, Reagan was unwilling to negotiate SDI withdrawal. A further key feature was the Washington summit of 1987 where the INF treaty was signed. This removed medium-range missiles from Europe and thus halted the Arms Race. Briefly explain the key features of the Helsinki agreements in 1975 (6 marks)

  1. The Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the USSR

    In 1988, in speech to the United Nations in New York, Gorbachev commited himself to ending the Cold War, and doing this by renouncing the Russian emphasis on the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution on trying to export Communism abroad, and therefore also renouncing the Brezhnev doctrine and committing the USSR to massive cuts in conventional and nuclear weapons.

  2. Cold War Summary, quotes and revision notes.

    not be used in war - Mutually assured destruction - Both Kennedy and Khrushchev resisted the advice of hardliners who urged a military solution - a diplomatic solution was found - in the aftermath it was clear that both sides were keen to improve communications so as to avoid future

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work