Why did the Gallipoli campaign of 1915 fail?

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Why did the Gallipoli campaign of 1915 fail?

The Gallipoli campaign of 1915 initially appeared to be an extremely attractive scheme.  Due to the current stalemate on the Western Front, there was fast becoming a need for an alternate strategy to break the immovable deadlock.  As Turkey was an ally of Germany, an easy victory against them would knock them out of the war, damage German morale and safeguard the Suez Canal from attack.  Other nations (Greece and Romania etc) who were considering joining the war would also be influenced to join on the side of the allies and a Turkish defeat would open up trade routes through the Dardanelles.

Although the campaign failed, Lord Birdwood seemed to see successes from it.  In Khaki and Gown, he wrote: “even though we failed, we had destroyed the flower of the Turkish army and prepared the way for Allenby’s glorious victory.”  He adds: “The campaign had far reaching effects in strengthening and emphasizing the essential unity and homogenesis of the British Commonwealth,” which show how the campaign wasn’t a complete failure and that it was a stepping stone to future victory.

Even to this day, there has always been a fascination with failure, as the rewards were so great and it always seemed to be tantalizingly close to victory only to be hit by another frustrating set-back.  There were some positives however to come out of the scheme but it has to be said that on balance it was a disastrous failure.

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If something fails, there has to be reasons why it fails and the Gallipoli campaign is no exception.  In fact there are many reasons, long and short term why it failed.  Long term factors seemed to be the scheme’s biggest downfall and there was definitely a misunderstanding at the planning stage, when Winston Churchill was trying to sell his plan to the government.  He said that the plan could succeed on naval supremacy alone, which was a gross underestimation of the Turkish armed forces and as a result caused the plan to go ahead on false impressions which ultimately ...

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