What were the major problems facing US forces when fighting the war in Vietnam? There were a number of problems facing US forces when fighting the war in Vietnam. Perhaps one of the biggest problems that they faced was the fact that the Vietcong were fighting using guerrilla tactics: fighting on a small scale, taking independent, irregular actions. The Vietcong depended on stealth, concealment, and surprise attacks and ambushes. Guerrilla warfare spread as Vietminh soldiers who were trained and armed in the North - the Vietcong, returned to their homes in the south to assassinate, ambush and sabotage. Unlike conventional wars in which the Americans may have fought, the war in Vietnam had no defined front lines. Much of the fighting consisted have hit and run attacks, with the guerrillas striking at government outposts and then retreating into the jungles. Most of the US soldiers were also caught out by booby traps set up by the Vietcong. These ranged from simple holes in the ground to metal spikes covered in poison or human excrement. Booby traps were thought to have accounted for 11 per cent of US deaths in Vietnam and 17 per cent of wounds. After 1965, US involvement in the war escalated rapidly in response to the growing strength of the Vietcong. By 1967, US troop strength in South Vietnam had risen to 389,000 men, but despite their sophisticated weapons, the Americans
Why did Alexander II Emancipate the Serfs in 1861? The emancipation of the serfs by Alexander II in 1861 was the inevitable result of a rising tide of liberalism in Russia, supported by the realisation that Russia's economic needs were incompatible with the system, and driven by the fear that that without reform the state itself could be shattered by revolution. Russia's defeat in the Crimean war was also a major influencing factor as "Defeat in the Crimean war laid bare Russia's weakness, so well conceived reforms were set in train and permitted the birth of politics... Russian tsars had learned little during the century: at its end, they were still claiming to be absolute rulers." Alexander II came into power in 1855, as the successor of Nicholas I. He started his reign in a difficult position, as the defeat of the Crimean war in 1854 cast a shadow over the beginning of his reign. The peace treaty of Paris finally drew a conclusion to the war in 1856, Russia ultimately being defeated by Britain and France, leaving the Russian state feeling weak and vulnerable. The Russian war effort had been characterised by the bravery of the soldiers, but poor military performance and incompetence in the military leadership "The Crimean war with its record of official incompetence and the heroism of the serf army... put a seal on the matter." However, "the
Why was Hitler able to become chancellor of Germany in 1933? On 30th January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany and Von Papen descended himself to a vice-chancellor position. There was political scheming between the leaders which allowed Hitler to become chancellor. There were factors that helped the Nazis and Hitler to gain recognition and come to power. Some factors were long-term reasons such as the Treaty of Versailles which indirectly helped Hitler to become chancellor because the Weimar Government could not cope with the reparations payments. The weaknesses of the Weimar Republic is another long term reason playing a huge part giving the Nazis opportunities to take action and persuading people to vote for them. Some were short term factors such as the Wall Street Crash which led to a depression. This essay will look at how Hitler achieved his chancellor ship. Germany was never governed by a strong leader who kept serious issues under control. The three main leaders Ebert, Hindenburg, and Stresemann all had problems. Ebert could not deliver his promises because he had to form coalitions and had to agree with the people who joined. Hindenburg was not a good politician; he was 84 years old and was controlled by army leaders and business men. The best leader was Stresemann who was respected within and outside Germany. He died, however, before having a
Describe How The Nazis Used The Reighstag Fire To Increase Their Power In Germany In The Years 1933-34
Describe How The Nazis Used The Reighstag Fire To Increase Their Power In Germany In The Years 1933-34 During the Years 1933-34 the Nazis used the Reichstag fire to gain power in Germany. I Believe however if Papen Hindenburg had never appointed Hitler as chancellor in 1933 The Nazis would not have been able to use the fire to rise to power. Therefore I will first review the situation in parliament before Hitler was given power. I will discover why the government gave Hitler the title of Chancellor, what happened once Hitler was made chancellor and what was the significance of Hitler being taken in to government. By 1932 it was almost impossible for the democratic system to work in Germany. This was because the Communists and the Nazi's controlled the majority of seats in parliament. They could both vote together against the government, this way, anything the government tried to pass, such as trading, laws, and general business could be stopped. This was extremely annoying for the government, as they needed to deal with the problems of the depression. It almost seemed as though the Communists and the Nazis were working together to control parliament, but each party had their reasons. The Communists wanted to see a total breakdown of the system, so that a revolution could take place and a new Communist government could take control. The Nazi's wanted to prove that
To what extent was Custer to blame for the defeat of the 7th Cavalry at The Battle of Little Bighorn?
To what extent was Custer to blame for the defeat of the 7th Cavalry at The Battle of Little Bighorn? In 1876 the Army dispatched three columns to attack in coordinated fashion, one of which contained Lt. Colonel George Custer and the seventh cavalry. They planned to attack the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians who had defiantly left their reservations to gather in Montana with the great warrior Sitting Bull to fight for their lands. 'What happened to Custer and his men is not clear as there were no survivors from his force' Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, and spent much of his childhood with a half-sister in Monroe, Michigan. He enrolled in West Point immediately after high school and failed disgustingly to distinguish himself in any positive way. A few days after graduating last in his class, he failed in his duty as officer of the guard to stop a fight between to cadets. He was court-marshaled and saved from punishment only by a great need for officers with the outbreak of the Civil War. In the war Custer did quite well, although he always had enormously high casualty rates, though his 'fearless aggression' earned him respect of his commanding generals and kept him on the public eye. In July 1866 Custer was appointed lieutenant colonel of the seventh cavalry, and in late 1867 Custer was court-martialed and suspended from duty for being absent from duty during the campaign,
WHICH ALLIANCE SYSTEM WAS THE STRONGEST IN 1914? In 1914, the six most powerful countries in Europe became two opposing alliances. The Central Powers (Triple alliance) consisted of a contracted pact between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1882, of which was followed, 25 years later, by the Triple Entente pact between Britain, France and Russia. Each country was notorious for their advanced and mass military, and the initial Central Powers alliance had installed sufficient fear and suspicion to form an Entente. Many argue there is certain evidence that The Central Powers alliance was stronger than the Triple Entente. In 1870, Germany gain hold of the flourishing Alsace-Lorraine industrial area in France, so that in 1914 German industry was the 2nd most successful in the world to U.S.A: we can therefore assume that Germany found this economically gratifying as well as having access to advanced technological machinery. As a whole, The Central Power's soldiers in army count of 3.76 million (approx. 60% from Germany) exceeded that of the T.E's (Triple Entente) 3.25 million- securing victory for The Central Powers on that front. Furthermore, Germany, itself, had an impressive amount of warships (85 and 23 submarines) in naval rivalry to Britain (122 warships and 64 submarines) proving a harsh contender with a vast and dynamic military. From a defence view, the geographical
What problem did Russia face after the1905 Revolution? How effective was Nicholas II in dealing with these problems?
What problem did Russia face after the1905 Revolution? How effective was Nicholas II in dealing with these problems? In January 1905, there was a revolutionary tide in Russia. We called this revolution as 1905 Revolution mainly caused by the defeat of Russo-Japanese War in September and the Bloody Sunday Incident in January. In the country, workers, peasants and merchants were holding demonstrations in order to express their discontent to the Czarist government. Although Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto to pacify the discontent of people temporarily, he still had to face some problems after the 1905 Revolution. To regain the support from people, he needed to carry out the reforms in the October Manifesto. His reform included different aspect, such as political aspect, social aspect and economic aspect. He also appointed Peter Stolypin as the prime minister to stabilize the country. Nicholas II had tried his best to regain people's support and stop the revolution tide through the reforms after the 905 Revolution. Poor livelihood, no franchise of general Russians and the insult of Russo-Japanese War all these were reasons to cause the 1905 Revolution. The Bloody Sunday Incident was an immediately cause to lead the outbreak of 1905 Revo lution. After the 1905 Revolution, the Czar still had to face the above problems. IN order to prolong his rule, he was
4) Study Sources E, F and G. Use Sources E, F and G, and your own knowledge, to explain why the government was concerned about the morale of the British people in the autumn of 1940. (12) The height of the Blitz started around the autumn of 1940, during this time the British government was trying to keep the morale in Britain extremely high in order to achieve and avoid situations but did the government do enough to keep the spirit of Britain strong? By June 1940, Hitler had managed to capture 7 countries there was a growing fear in the government that Britain would be next. Hitler's aim of the Blitz was to break the morale of Britain therefore it is understandable why the government highly used censorship and propaganda to keep the morale high. It was actually a very successful way in keeping morale high during the height of the Blitz. Take for example, "shelter mentality". The government was extremely worried about "shelter mentality" developing throughout the working class. Many people were already frightened by the constant threat of invasion. The government thought that the labouring force would not come out from their shelter's which would therefore mean that there would not be enough workers in factories helping build new weapons for the war. Source E shows how many people seemed to be "hysterical" and in panic, they would "run madly for shelters". It's their own
How did the Munich Putsch contribute to Hitler's rise to power? On 9th November 1923, Hitler, Ludendorff and 3000 S.A. men marched on Munich's army headquarters. On the way they met police barricades who opened fire, killing 16 Nazis. They were hoping to achieve from this Putsch to overthrow the government. Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years imprisonment. Ludendorff was found not guilty. At the trial Hitler gained enormous publicity with his every word being reported on the radio and in the newspapers. Hitler turned into a bit of a celebrity which no doubt helped him into power in 1932. As a result of the Munich Putsch Hitler spent nine months in the Landsberg prison and he was banned from speaking publicly. The Nazi party was also banned. However, whilst in prison Hitler learnt many lessons. Firstly, he learnt that the only way to get power was to stand in elections and once in power destroy the system from the inside - use democracy to destroy democracy. This is how he eventually became Fuhrer of Germany, when he became Chancellor and then passed the act enabling him to become a dictator. Secondly, he realised that he needed the support of the army and the business community. The army had refused to support Hitler in the Munich Putsch, resulting in its failure. When he was released from prison he won the support of the army by reassuring them that he would not
What were the causes of the 1905 Revolution in Russia The causes of the Russian revolution of 1905 can be divided into three areas: Long term causes, short term causes and immediate causes. The problems that caused the revolution began years before it actually happened. Many of the national groups that lived within Russia resented the government's policy of 'Russification' as they saw it was trying to attack their way of life. Most children were forced to learn Russian in school and many Russian officials were chosen to fill non-Russian positions in local government. Most of the traditional customs were banned and the people had to obey Russian customs. The peasants also had been caused much suffering by the government. They had been released from Serfdom in 1861 and had been allocated land with which to farm and earn money. They could get loans from the government. However most of the peasants had to pay these loans off over a long period of time. As a result most of the peasants got into heavy debt. This was made worse by the fact that after 1861 the landowners had large estates. Many of the peasants were forced to work on the estates of nobles so they could earn extra money. However more and more people were becoming peasants as the population of Russia increased by 50% between 1860 and 1897 with more and more peasants competing with each other for the