Computer Crime and the Law (Covers Chapters 10-11 Heathcote) Crimes and abuse New technologies = new opportunities for crime The Internet is used by: > Fraudulent traders > Paedophiles > Software pirates > terrorists Task: For each of the above give an example of how the Internet is used > Fraudulent traders-The trader uses the internet to take money off customers. The buyer pays money and expects a product or a download, but instead get a persistant fault, which means the software arrives scrambled or it is not transmitted at all. > Paedophiles-Use chat rooms, or other ways of sending messages, (e.g. hotmail), to talk to young children, and pretend they are their age. > Software pirates-People can download priate copy software, games, music and new films off the intenet. > Terrorists-Terrorists use the internet to email one another, or to make websites about their terrorists acts, to attract more terrorists. There are other crimes that can be committed in the IT world: > Hacking > Planting viruses > Theft of money > Theft of data > Software piracy Task: use the internet to research into the meanings of each of the above crimes and for each, give a description and an example. Useful sites are: www.webopedia.com www.howstuffworks.com > Hacking-Unauthorised access to data on a computer system. For example, logging into someone elses bank account, and
LEGISLATION PROTECTING PEOPLE & GROUPS BY Mubarak Umerji Introduction With the advancement of computers and communications in the last thirty years the government has introduced various legislations to protect individuals as well as companies. This coursework details some of these legislations and gives examples of how each legislation protects the computer users and what effects it woul????????d have if the legislation was not introduced. The following lists of legislations are discussed in this coursework: - . Data Protection Act (1998) 2. Computer Misuse Act (1990) 3. Copyright Designs and Patents Act (1988) 4. Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) 5. Health and Safety Regulations (1992) 6. Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) 7. Internet Code of Practice (ICOP) Data Protection Act (1998) As more and more information came to be stored on computers, much of it personal data about individuals, there became the need for some sort of control over the way that it was collected and the way it could be used. The Data Protection Act 1998 replaces the earlier Data Protection Act 1984. The purpose of this Act is to deal with some of the things that weren't around when the older Act was introduced. These new things include the Internet, loyalty cards and use of huge customer databases for marketing purposes. The new Act also covers manually held data not covered
The Data Protection Act, 1998 The 'right to privacy' is a right we all expect. We do not expect personal details such as our age, medical records, personal family details and, political and religious beliefs to be freely available to everybody. With the growth of information and communication technology, large databases are able to hold huge quantities of information and global networks are able to share and distribute this information around the world in seconds. To protect people and their personal information, the Data Protection Act was formed. The first Act was made law in 1984 but was replaced by a new Act in 1998 to include the European Union law. If any person, organisation, company or business wishes to hold personal information about people, they must register with the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner. The Data Protection Act contains eight basic principles. A summary of these: . be processed fairly and lawfuuly 2. be obtained for specified and lawful purposes 3. be adequate, relevant and not excessive for the purpose 4. be accurate and up-to-date 5. not be kept longer than necessary 6. be processed within the rights of data subjects 7. be kept secure against loss, damage and unauthorised and unlawful processing 8. not be transferred to countries outside the European Economic Area Personal data Personal data is data that can identify a living
TECHNOLOGY & CHANGE CI1141 Individual Report Application Area 2 PESTLE analysis 2 Research topic question 2 Preface 2 Introduction 2 The ICT industry 2 The growth of ICT in the retailing industry over the years 2 Customer shopping habits/trends 3 How Has Technology Changed and Affected Shopping Trends? 3 ICT innovations 3 Types of cards 3 Credit/Debit cards 4 Bar Code Scanner 4 Touch Screen Tills 4 Loyalty/Store Cards 4 On-line shopping 5 Sales Figures 5 How has technology changed and affected the social behaviour of customers? 6 On-line shopping 6 Credit/Debit Cards 7 Environmental and transportation issues 7 Conclusion 8 Bibliography .1 Application Area Retail .2 PESTLE Perspective Social .3 Research Topic Question How has technology changed and affected shopping trends and the social behaviour of customers? 2.0 Preface/Abstract The purpose of this report is to analysis the PESTLE analysis; this report will contain one context of an Application Area, and then choose a research question based on both. In this case am talking about the social aspect and the retailing area. I will also being looking at how IT technology has changed shopping trends and
ICT AND SOCIETY Introduction In this coursework I will be describing the different Acts designed for different purposes to protect individuals, the community, people with special needs and the working adult. I will be talking about the Data Protection Act 1984 later changed to 1998, The Computer Misuse Act 1990, The Freedom of Information Act 2000 and The Copyright Design and Patterns Act 1989. All these Acts are deigned for the benefit of individuals as it restricts them from breaking some of the laws which is illegal. Task1 The Data Protection Act 1998 The Data Protection Act was developed to give protection and lay down rules about how data about people can be used. Usually this data is stored on a computer. The Data protection Act(DPA) is a United Kingdom Act of parliament that provides a legal basis and allowing for the privacy and protection of data of individuals in the UK. The act places restrictions on organisations which collect or hold data which can identify a living person. The Act does not apply to domestic use e.g. keeping a personal address book. Data collected by any person or organisation may only be used for the specific purposes for which they were collected. Personal data may only be kept for an appropriate length of time and must not be disclosed to other parties without the consent of the data owner, unless there is legislation or other
Laws and Legislations Laws and legislations were introduced due to the fact that ICT was growing and since the uses of large computerized databases as they became quite useful for sensitive personal data to be stored without the individual's knowledge. Employers, credit card companies or insurance companies, could access this confidential data. Therefore personal privacy is important as it is our human right to not want personal information on age, religious beliefs, family circumstances or academic qualifications to be accessed by others without permission. An Individual User An individual user would use various software applications in everyday life throughout ICT. The main uses of ICT software are: > E-mail > Internet > Mail merge > Excel > FrontPage > Access Due to the increased of the amount of information available particularly on the Internet it has been a concern for the interest taken by hackers into and stealing data therefore the government had to produce may different legislations to prevent this from occurring. Legislations were also created for the misuse of data and viruses as well. Before 1990 there wasn't a law against any misuse of computers so it was legal to send a virus to someone's computer. Since then there have been several legislations, which have come into place that prevent this from happening. Suitable
E3 Provide a concise and accurate account of how the organization has incorporated consumer protection laws into its customer service policy. Budgens have SALE OF GOODS ACT 1979 amended 1994 This is probably the most important act as far as the customer and supplier is concerned. When customers buy something in a shop they enter into a legal contract with the retailer who has to fulfill certain obligations. The goods sold must be: * As described * Of satisfactory quality (rather than merchantable quality) * Fit for all purposes, not just fit for one purpose As described This part of the act means that the products must match the description. For example if a bag of Budgens own brand sugar said it weighed 250g, but instead it only weighed 230g, this would be an offence, as it is not matching the description on the pack, and is leading customers. Of satisfactory quality The law now says that the goods should be of satisfactory quality (rather then merchantable quality). This covers for example, the appearance and finish of the goods, their safety and their durability. Goods must be free from defects - even minor ones unless the product is sold as perfect, it must have no faults. It the customer is not able to inspect the goods on the premises, they are entitled to a refund, if the item is flawed or faulty. The customer is not obliged to accept a credit note
Jason Agar-Hutton 20th October 2002 Computer Legislation Assignment Computer Misuse Act 1990 The Computer Misuse Act 1990 states that it is illegal to obtain unauthorised access to any computer or to modify its contents. Three criminal offences are defined in the act, namely: Unauthorised access to computer material, Unauthorised modification of computer material; and Unauthorised access with intent to commit, or facilitate commission, of further offences. Hacking A hacker is a computer enthusiast who tries to break into a secure computer system. The process of doing this is called 'hacking'. However, a big misunderstanding in the world is that most 'hackers' usually work for big companies, such as IBM, Microsoft and Apple, or even governmental organizations such as the Pentagon or the FBI to improve computer security. People who break into secure systems with intent of doing harm to its owners, users or any other third party group are known as 'crackers'. These individuals often partake in petty computer-related crimes, such as vandalism or tagging. However, sometimes crackers may be skilled enough to shut down network servers, implant viruses into computer networks or even change financial, governmental and security databases such as bank accounts. Viruses A computer virus is simply defined as a self-replicating automated program. However, as well as doing
Is the UK copyright act of 1988 still an adequate means of protecting intellectual property from infringements such as illegal copying, plagiarism and piracy?
Is the UK copyright act of 1988 still an adequate means of protecting intellectual property from infringements such as illegal copying, plagiarism and piracy? "It is difficult for intellectual property laws to keep pace with technology. When technological advances cause ambiguity in the law, courts rely on the law's purposes to resolve that ambiguity. However, when technology gets too far ahead of the law, and it becomes difficult and awkward to apply the old principles, it is time for re-evaluation and change." (Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (Information Infrastructure Task Force), Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure (Preliminary Draft, July 1, 1994)) The copyright, Designs and Patent Act (CDPA) of 1988 was introduced to give legal protection to the creators of these works in order to prevent exploitation and to ensure their moral rights. The purpose of the CDPA was to protect the following types of work: * Literary Works * Dramatic Works * Artistic Works * Musical Works * Films * Broadcasts * Published Edition * Performers' Rights Whilst the CDPA theoretically protects certain technological plagiarism through Section 107 of the Act which states that where an individual sells, hires, exhibits, or distributes an infringing copy of a copyright work in the course of a business, or distributes "otherwise than in the
The social, legal, moral aspects of I.C.T. In this report, I am going to discuss some of the positive and negative effects of ICT in view of its social, economic, legal and moral implications.
Computers have and will continue to revolutionise every part of our day-to-day living. The use of ICT has made great improvement to our living. The use of ICT has made great improvements to be lives, and has done a lot of good for mankind. However, the use ICT regardless of its advantages also has its down sides. In this report, I am going to discuss some of the positive and negative effects of ICT in view of its social, economic, legal and moral implications. Social aspects are those effects that are made upon society, and how people behave and act towards each other. Moral issues arte those, which concern right and wrong. Economic issues are linked with employment and money. Finally legal aspects are those to do with the law. The social issues consist of:- . (information risk) and (information poor) * Not every one is able to afford a computer. * A two tie society could be created because of this people who are computer literate and those who are unable to exploit the technology. 2. The internet changing how we react * More people are shopping online and are communicating via email making people lazy. * Internet communication may make people lose their personal communication sills. 3. over reliance on technology * People rely too much on computers for the smooth running of society. 4. impact on literacy * People spend more time on the computer games and the