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GCSE: Comparing length of words in newspapers
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- Level: GCSE
- Questions: 75
(Hypothesis for Primary Data.) I am doing this investigation because it is interesting and important to understand the heart. Strategy ~ The data I am going to collect are: * Gender (Qualitative) * Age (Quantitative) * Year Group (Quantitative) * Number of hours of exercise per week (Quantitative, Discrete) * Body Temperature (Quantitative, Continuous) Primary Data ~ Year 7 boys: 101 20% of 101 = 20.2 � 20 boys Year 7 girls: 113 20% of 113 = 22.6 � 23 girls Year 9 boys: 108 20 % of 108 = 21.6 � 22 boys Year 9 girls: 104 20% of 104 = 20.8 � 21 girls Year 11 boys: 116 20% of 116 = 23.2 � 23 boys Year
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For my Coursework I will use the following newspapers: The Sun The Daily Mail The Times Each article should have around 300 words.
Word length First of all I am going to count all the words of my chosen articles. This part of the coursework is the most time consuming one, because the counting takes the longest. I will start, with what in my believe is the lowest quality newspaper followed by the medium and than finally the highest quality newspaper, which is in my opinion the Times. I will use the same article of the newspapers for every example. I will also use a cumulative frequency, which is the running total of the frequency at the end of each class interval.
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As one name is much longer than the other this would be skew the results. 5. I shall firstly record how many letters there are in each word. 6. I will first present it in order as it is in the book and then classify the data into a tally-table. 7. I will then work out the median, the mode, the mean and the range. 8. After this I will interpret my results into frequency diagram so that it would be easy to visualise trends.
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Aim: having been presented with some data, to come up with a hypothesis and try to prove or disprove it using statistical techniques
I wish to investigate this further amongst 30 students, as I feel that this will allow me to get an idea of how the whole group would have reacted to this. The reason I have chosen 30 is because I personally feel this is a sample size which allows me to have a balanced selection. I will select this sample group randomly, the method I shall use in order to do this is called random sampling and I shall use my calculator in order to assist me with this, as it has a special devise called a random number generator.
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memory. This experiment is a replication of the 1973 study conducted by Gordon Bower and Michael Clark entitled Associative Learning through the use of Narrative Stories.
In The Complete Problem Solver (1989), J.R. Hayes maintains that this type of learning is only successful under certain circumstances and that other types of memorization, such as the Method of Loci or acronyms would be more effective in other environments. Despite such critiques, the work conducted by Bower and Clark has been applied to the modern day. The 1999 experiment "The Contribution of Thumbnail Images, Mouse-over Text and Spatial Location Memory to Web Page Retrieval in 3D," had Microsoft researchers utilize ideas from Bower and Clark's experiment in order to improve "user memory for where favorite or frequently used information is stored in the electronic environment."
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or a number (condition 2) while simultaneously being asked to verbally answer simple mathematical calculations. The tasks therefore required a manual and vocal response. On average participants took longer to complete condition 2 - the two tasks that required similar responses (ticking number words and performing mental arithmetic) as opposed to the two tasks that required dissimilar responses. This provides support for the notion that there maybe separate resources for certain types of information - in this case mathematical. Introduction n/a Method Design A between-participants design was employed in this experiment. The independent variable was the type of words presented to the participant and each participant was shown one of (an available)
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An experiment to look at the primacy and recency effect on recalling a word list Introduction: Background
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) used free recall (where the participants can remember the words in any order) of a list of 20 words combined with an interference task to show that there are 2 processes involved in retrieving information. They showed lists of 20 words one at a time and had subjects recall the words under one of 3 conditions. * With 0 seconds delay. * 10 second delay, in which the participants would count backwards, acting as an interference task. * 30 second delay with interference task With a 0 second delay the first 5 and last 3 words were recalled best but
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When measuring how many words are in each sentence I think that the tabloid would have a lower average and range, as this would also make the tabloid easier to read. When timing how long it takes to read the articles, I think the tabloid will have the lower average, as the paper that is easier to read may take less time to read. Also, the tabloid would have the lower range, as the samples are all from different people.
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Then I am going to record my results in a tally table as I feel it's quick and easy to use and also, just as convenient to read. I am going to plot my results in a cumulative frequency diagram so I can find the median, the higher and lower quartile as well as, the inter quartile range. Also, I am going to make a box plot to compare the results and get a clearer view of my results from the cumulative frequency diagram.
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Ambiguity can be caused due to a number of factors and that's why there are different types of ambiguities. Two basic types of ambiguities are the lexical ambiguity and structural ambiguity but there are others as well. A brief explanation of these different types with examples is given below. (i) Lexical ambiguity: When homonyms can occur in the same position in utterances, the result is lexical ambiguity. In other words when the ambiguity is caused by a single word it is called the lexical ambiguity.
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The popular press are very much sales orientated and are not interested in who buys their newspapers. As a result, the structure, style, language and wordings are at the simplest format as possible to maximise consumption. The quality press and magazines, however, relies heavily on advertising as its main income and must target itself at the upper and middle classes in order to keep advertisers or potential advertisers interested, with the structure, style, language and wordings with technical terms, all of higher intelligence format which can be understood by their target audience. Having these conflicts of interest between the two markets means that the content and length of words of the newspapers and magazines in these two categories are very different.
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5 9 6 6 7 11 8 6 9 4 10 4 11 0 12 0 13 2 Broadsheets Tabloids Daily Star Word Length Tally Total 1 8 2 16 3 21 4 14 5 8 6 7 7 11 8 6 9 5 10 2 11 0 12 0 13 2 The Mirror Word Length Tally Total 1 3 2 17 3 18 4 19 5 4 6 6 7 11 8 11 9 6 10 1 11 2 12 0 13 2 Graphs Now that I have calculated the word length for each of my articles, I will now work out what the Mean, Mode, Median and Range are for each of these.
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The investigation will be made fair by having the same conditions in each room. The same track will played for all groups. Volume will be recorded and made the same in each groups room. We have come to a decision to choose a track that will as distracting as possible. We have chosen a louder volume with a heavy metal track. The track is called (lunatic calm - leave you far behind) the tests will be 5 minutes long. Equipment 1. CD Player 2. CD (lunatic calm - leave you far behind) 3. Test Paper Objectives 1.
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By choosing two broadsheets and two tabloids, I have ensured that I have use d a fair amount, as this will help me get the most accurate results. Also, as I have bought the newspapers on the same day, the articles included in the newspapers will have the same headlines story - not word by word, but in general. This will also ensure that what I have done is fair and accurate. After I have collected all the newspapers, the question is how many samples shall I take?
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The language used in each newspaper will depend on the topic of the article as well as the writer. In order for m investigation not to be biased, I will have to take article samples from different kinds of news such as politics, sport and finance. I believe these article topics will be representative of each newspaper. The sampled news articles will concern the subject in both papers. When counting letters or sentences, I will take care not to be biased by not counting numbers in figures, proper names or acronyms.
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It is the aim of this investigation to confirm this theory, or otherwise discover reasons for its refutation. Hypothesis * The readability of a tabloid (The Mirror) will be lower than that of a broadsheet (The Independent). Katherine Allen Pre-test Before I begin my investigation I will carry out a short pre-test in order to ensure that my proposed method will be successful, and to highlight any problems that would be likely to arise. I will take a small sample of 50 words from each newspaper. The newspapers that I will be testing are both from the same day and are both national, so there will be similar articles in each.
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An investigation into whether participants recall more words with a familiar topic than they do with an unfamiliar topic.
However we don't remember everything that has happened to us, many of our memories are not permanent therefore we forget things. In this study the focus is on "Levels of processing". Which can be seen as an addition to the structural models of memory. Atkinson and Shiffrin developed the "Multi-Store model". This model was designed at the time when "The information-processing" approach was most influential; it assumes that mental processes can be understood by comparing them with operations of a computer.
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The investigation of the average number of letters per word in a broadsheet newspaper compared to a tabloid paper .
I am going to assume that these articles are representative of other articles in the respective newspapers. I will call the article from The Times, article 1, and the article from The Sun will be article 2. I will count the number of words in each article but I will exclude words with 2 letters or less, and I will not include the title this will make my result more accurate. Article 1 contains 450 words and Article 2 contains 479 words.
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This will allow me to gain and appropriate and fairer sample and will mean that it is less susceptible to bias. The two newspaper being used are the "The Sun" and "The Guardian." My sample is a random sample and has been obtained by using the random number generator on my calculator. This allowed me to choose particular words, at random, and then count the number of letters within each. Results: Below is the information that I have collected: Tabloid Newspaper Political Pages Word length Frequency Cum.
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The specific area which was studied was divided attention. This is where we allocate our available attentional resources to coordinate our performance of more than one task at a time. However, divided attention can fail when we are unable to divide our attention between all of the stimuli or tasks which we wish to perform, though some tasks are difficult to perform together. Neisser and Becklen (1975) conducted an experiment to demonstrate how performance suffers in divided attention tasks. According to them there is a structured flow of information involved in the perception of events.
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I am going to carry out an experiment to find out if people can remember words more easily if they are randomly picked out or if they are in categories and the reasons behind this.
One way of assessing STM capacity is by measuring its immediate digit span. This involves reading out random digits and steadily increasing it till it becomes impossible to recall them in serial order, over a number of trials the sequence length at which the participant is correct is 50% of the time and is defined as their digit span most people have seven or one or two below or above this (miller 1956) According to miller, chunking occurs when we combine individual letters or numbers in a more meaningful unit.
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I believe that the number of letters per word will be greater, on average, in a broadsheet newspaper than in a tabloid newspaper.
To a certain degree this method is random sampling, except that I haven't been totally random in my choice of article. So I decided that I would record the length of the first one hundred words from each article, and also record the number of words in the first ten sentences of the same article. From these results I would then hopefully be able to draw conclusions with regards to my two hypotheses. If I were to make the results fairer I would need to take the length of words from more articles, as it would give more accurate representation of the whole newspaper.
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Discuss the ways in which Joyce, through Stephen Dedalus, explores the relationship between the 'word' and the 'world'.
but it also embodies the human processes by which language operates - the application of language and the effects of and/or on that application. It is the actual manifestations of language both in our private psyches and our direct personal contacts with our environment and our society; in the 'world'. 'In the beginning was the Word...' implies that we have not began until we start to apply language. This then suggests that paradoxically the nature of the relationship of 'word' and 'world' is one of symbiosis as well as of opposition.
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I also have to assume that all the swimmers are swimming at the same speed and at a constant speed all of the time. Each person has to dive in the pool so many seconds after the last one, this I obviously or safety so people do not dive onto each other. I will set up an appropriate model keeping in mind the assumptions that I have made. Results These are my first set of results. These are the variables - Length of pool 25m Speed of swimming 1ms I have chosen these variables because I think that they are quite realistic values.
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Analyse three different types of newspaper, for example one Broadsheet, one Tabloid and one Local Paper, to see which is the hardest to read.
hardest Pre-test News of the World Number of Words X Frequency F Number of Words x Frequency FX 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0 7 4 28 8 1 8 9 3 27 10 1 10 11 3 33 12 3 36 13 3 39 14 0 0 15 1 15 16 3 48 17 1 17 18 0 0 19 0 0 20 0 0 21 4 84 22 5 110 23 4 92 24 2 48 25 1 25 26 4 104 27 2 54 28
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