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GCSE: Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Conduct the Queens Step test (provided) for all 4 students. Record the resting heart rates before commencing test and record recovery rates for five minutes after completion of test. Construct a suitable chart to record all information, including norms.

    Ella may have changed her result, to be more like the other girls. Also, the hype before the test may have increased her resting heart rate as well as the recovery time, as the students kept moving around, increasing their heart rate. In terms of her aerobic fitness, she has a low to reasonable level that can easily be improved with more a more committed training program. This is based on her actions throughout the test, as she showed signs of fatigue and her heart rate.

    • Word count: 5265
  2. Explain the energy requirements of four different types of physical activity.

    The way your body gets energy is from what you eat. So if you ate 2000kcal (calories) in a day and you wanted to go swimming you would use 800kcal per hour and the rest which hasn't been burnt off will be transformed into fat and stored as extra energy. In tennis your body requires 510kcal to play each hour (this is how much you burn of in an hour). It also depends on how many muscles you are using and how much effort you are putting in.

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  3. Nutrition for Fitness, Health and Exercise

    The lactic acid builds up, then the glycogen is broken down for energy. Aerobic System The aerobic system works with oxygen, hours of work at lower intensity. This system breaks down glycogen or fat. Storage Only 80 to 100 grams of the ATP is actually stored. This is enough for a few seconds of work. The reason for this is because it is too heavy to store lots. Carbohydrate and Fat storage will determine how the ATP is going to be rebuilt using Anaerobic and Aerobic energy systems.

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  4. Mental Imagery in Sports

    Player Criteria - http://www.itftennis.com Analysing my skill level, I would be at an ITN number of 4 working into 3. My strengths include a fast and mostly consistent first serve ranging from 170 to 190km/h, as well as a difficult to hit second serve due to large amounts of 'kick' or topspin. Other strengths include a big forehand which I am able to generate large amount of topspin, power and depth from, a solid volley game which my tall physical build enables me to excel at and the ability to determine an opponent's weaknesses and use them to my advantage.

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  5. Personal Exercise Programme

    mins 24 press ups 19 Triceps dips 28 Sit ups 14 shuttles Week 8 - 70% Rowing machine -27mins Bicycle machine -27mins Running machine - 27mins Rowing machine - 27 mins 4 times for 32 seconds -Crunches/abdominal curls Week 9 - 70% Rowing machine -27mins Bicycle machine -27mins Running machine - 27mins Rowing machine - 27 mins 24 Toe raises 28 Tuck jumps 12 Pull ups Week 10 - 70% Rowing machine -29mins Bicycle machine -29mins Running machine - 29mins Rowing machine - 29 mins 17 Standing calf raises 30 Sit ups 15 shuttles Week 11 - 70% Rowing machine

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  6. How muscles and joints are used by different sportspeople.

    Red Blood Cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell. The cells are contained with hemoglobin. They take up oxygen in the lungs and everyone needs oxygen to live. They release it while squeezing through the body's capillaries. White Blood Cells White blood cells, defend the body against disease . They are a lot more in number than the Red Blood Cells. The white blood cells are important because without them people would get ill and catch diseases easier.

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  7. Biomechanic Presentation

    Class Average in metres Lying down: 16.785m Sitting down: 21.4105m Kneel down: 24.53m Standing: 26.458 Run-up throws: 36.0805m My result in Lying down wasn't good compared to the class average. My result was 15.6 however the class average was 16.785. But my result in Run-up throw was much better than class average which was 49.8m. With run-up throw, I had an advantage with running very fast. So I could do much better. Most of students were same trends as I got.

    • Word count: 1041
  8. Free essay

    The physical fitness and skill related fitness requirements in three different sports

    If you had poor flexibility it would lead to injury. Speed is the ability to move body parts quickly over a set distance Paul beashel, 2006. In tennis the faster you can get to a ball, the more time you have to prepare for and execute your shot. Although speed has a largely genetic component, muscles and the nervous system can be trained to make a player faster. Many athletes are fast in a straight line, but tennis players must have the agility to be able to change directions at speed.

    • Word count: 1982
  9. A method of fitness training for the components of physical fitness

    Flexibility is the ability to perform a joint action through a range of movement. Tennis sometimes requires you to place your body parts in extreme ranges of motion e.g. reaching for the ball and serving. A method of fitness training to improve flexibility is PNF also known as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching is a technique in which a muscle group is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against resistance while in the stretched position, and then is passively stretched again through the resulting increased range of motion. It is more effective to do this with a partner.

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  10. Fitness requirements for contrasting sports.

    Flexibility: Flexibility is the amount of movement possible around a joint or a number of joints. It is important that a sprinter has a range of flexibility, because the different movements they use in their leg and arm joints and muscles when running. Also if an athlete didn't have good flexibility then they would increase the chance of getting injury and their sporting performance would go down. Power: Power is the ability to generate and use muscle strength quickly, athletes that are stronger tend to be able to produce a greater amount of power during action.

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  11. Fitness teasting

    When the client cannot carry on any longer the test and the stop watch is stopped, then the assistant will then see how long the client run for and what gradient they got to. They will use these results to analyse their performance. Advantages: - You can get an understanding of your body's stamina and endurance - You can try and improve yourself on each stage - It's a good way to challenge yourself - Good exercise - It's not very time consuming Disadvantages: - Equipment is required (treadmill)

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  12. Sports Injuries

    An external injury may involve someone hitting or bumping into you and impacting your body with fractures or dislocations. This is not only limited to people causing injury- the environment can cause injury, such as dehydration in immense heat. Internally, sudden and strenuous movements can tear or strain muscles inside the body (where the body cannot cope with it, it causes injury); this is also done through overuse. Overuse injuries can be caused a part of the body again and again, through stress placed on a particular part of the body. Another way is when a condition is left untreated- this is known as chronic injury.

    • Word count: 544
  13. Skeletal System Notes

    The ends of our bones are the places that contain the cartilage these are the growth plates. Because we are constantly growing we need our bones to reshape and grow this happens through osteoblasts. To make this possible though the bones need osteoclasts to replace the tissue that makes bones. Joints Joints allow the body to move. Muscles attached to the bone contract to cause the bone to move. The bones act as levers with joints acting as pivots. 'A joint is where to bones meet and muscles act together to cause movement' Types of Joints 1. Fixed or Immoveable Joints These are joints and bones that can't move, e.g. The Skull. 2.

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  14. The Hierarchy of American Sports

    With wealth comes power; and the NFL controls the activities of millions every Sunday during football season. The media must also claim accountability for this partition. Leagues such as the NBA and MLB engulf nearly every media outlet in their respective city, and in some cases entire states remain in constant orbit of their recreational center of the universe. The Yankees, Knicks, and Giants dominate New York's headlines while the condition of the Celtics and Patriots consume the minds of the citizens of Massachusetts. Because of these assets, less-publicized sports simply cannot compete.

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  15. btec P.E unit 1

    Structure and support; the skeleton provides an amazing amount of support for the vital organs within our bodies. These vital organs are found within the bodies structure itself held in place with a whole network of tissues. As like all of the bodies systems these muscles are not isolated to one thing, they are joined to the bones thus providing a huge combined amount of support for all bodily organs. Blood cell production; the skeletal system also provides the body with its most important element, blood cells. The production of these cells occurs within the bone itself; deep inside the marrow which is in the shaft of all long bones such as the tibia, fibula and radius.

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  16. The cardiovascular system

    They aren't very elastic; they rarely pulsate. Veins also have valves, to prevent the backflow of blood. Without valves, the blood would just move back and forth rather than flowing. Capillaries Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels, and are only one cell thick. This is because gas exchange happens here, and as the walls are thin, it is easier for oxygen to diffuse out of the blood and into the muscles, and for carbon dioxide and other waste products to diffuse out of the muscles and into the blood. There are many capillaries throughout the body, and this gives a large surface area for this diffusion to take place, which means that the process is faster.

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  17. Muscles. The following letter will highlight key information on muscles, contractions and fibres, and will hopefully be informative.

    3. Cardiac Muscles Cardiac muscles are found in the heart, and are not under conscious control, either. They never die due to a rich oxygen supply. Muscles contractions Muscles function by contracting (they never . The origin of a muscle is always attached to a stationary bone, and acts as an anchor; the insertion inserts across a joint and attaches to a moving bone. For example, the origin of the bicep is found near the shoulder, and it inserts across the elbow to move the forearm.

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  18. Case study on Andrew Flintoff. Background information on Ankle Sprain which Andrew Flintoff is suffering from Ankle sprain

    * 2004-05 - Surgery on left ankle: leaves South Africa early. * 2006 - Operation on ankle: misses Pakistan Tests. * 2006-07- Needs injection after problems with left ankle. * 2007 - Soreness in left ankle: misses first two Tests of West Indies series. Ruled out of rest of series due to need for third operation. * 2007 - All-rounder Flintoff had his third ankle operation in June. Individual records and achievements * Flintoff is the third highest English wicket-taker in one-day international cricket with 135 wickets, and the 12th highest in Test cricket, with 197 wickets.

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  19. Strength lab

    Method Experimental Design This study sought to determine a correlation between muscle size and strength, by examining the relationship between anthropometric dimensions, 1RM, muscle endurance and power output. Also to analysis any gender specific strength relationships within the group. This was achieved by using isolation exercises for the biceps brachii which operates a third class lever in the arm. Dumb bells were used to perform 1RM with each hard and muscle endurance tests on each arm. A barbell was used to perform a 1RM to show a combined potential of both arms.

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  20. Fatigue - affects on the body

    This occurs when the impulse doesn't get to muscles so they don't contract. this is because of the reduction in the release or synethesis of ACH (acetylcholine). ACH is responsible for helping the impulse jump from the nerve to the muscles (synaptic cleft). Reasons for muscle fatigue are due to the impulse not being able to jump from the nerves to the muscles. This could occur from: There is an increase in the amount of cholinesterase (which is responsible for destroying ACH) this means that impulse can not reach the muscle because there is nothing to help it.

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  21. Task 4 Mechanisms of Fatigue

    Carbon dioxide accumulation results in an increase in pH in the blood. During exercise fluid is lost; this could be through sweating, which results in lower blood pressure, and therefore the heart will have to work harder. Little as 2-3% of water loss can reduce a performance. Effects of metabolic bi-products Lactic acid is the main bi-product of anaerobic glycolysis. Blood always contains small amount of lactic acid, however, during high intensity exercise this increases greatly. The increased production of lactic acid results in the pH of the blood decreasing. A blood pH of 6.4 or lower affects muscle and neural functions.

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  22. joint tenancy is a form of co-ownership whereby all the owners are together seen as a single entity

    To determine whether there is a joint tenancy the law looks for four unities, the first of these possession means that co-owners are simultaneously entitled to the land and each has the right to possess it, this is common to all forms of co-ownership. The second unity is the one of interest this is by the very nature of joint tenancy that none of the joint tenants have a specific interest in the land and therefore one joint tenant can not have a larger interest than another.

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  23. Negative effects of exercise Exercise is also known for its vast results with benefiting the aging process and functional capacity

    Drugs may also become an issue to increase their physical ability and appearance such as steroid abuse. Exercise Addiction Exercise is an enjoyable way to relieve stress and increase energy levels, however, when involvement becomes intense, exercise can turn into an addiction that must be performed every day. If an exercise-addicted person cannot exercise, he or she will experience a great deal of guilt and anxiety over the inactivity. Not being able to exercise causes severe depression. Problems at home, work, and with relationships occur.

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  24. Coursework Investigation: Plan experiments to determine the effects of exercise on the pulse rate/heartbeat

    Instead, the body uses the body's store of carbohydrate (glycogen). The heart rate will, nevertheless, increase to fuel the body's increased requirement for oxygen. However, it could be that after 45 seconds of the fast jogging, this would turn into aerobic exercise. This means their heart will beat faster and in turn the person will breathe more quickly and deeply to get more oxygen into their system. The oxygen is carried away from their lungs by their blood. The slow jogging, on the other hand, would remain anaerobic exercise because the exercise period is short - just one minute long.

    • Word count: 1487

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