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GCSE: Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Explain the energy requirements of four different types of physical activity.

    The way your body gets energy is from what you eat. So if you ate 2000kcal (calories) in a day and you wanted to go swimming you would use 800kcal per hour and the rest which hasn't been burnt off will be transformed into fat and stored as extra energy. In tennis your body requires 510kcal to play each hour (this is how much you burn of in an hour). It also depends on how many muscles you are using and how much effort you are putting in.

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  2. Mental Imagery in Sports

    Player Criteria - http://www.itftennis.com Analysing my skill level, I would be at an ITN number of 4 working into 3. My strengths include a fast and mostly consistent first serve ranging from 170 to 190km/h, as well as a difficult to hit second serve due to large amounts of 'kick' or topspin. Other strengths include a big forehand which I am able to generate large amount of topspin, power and depth from, a solid volley game which my tall physical build enables me to excel at and the ability to determine an opponent's weaknesses and use them to my advantage.

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  3. A method of fitness training for the components of physical fitness

    Flexibility is the ability to perform a joint action through a range of movement. Tennis sometimes requires you to place your body parts in extreme ranges of motion e.g. reaching for the ball and serving. A method of fitness training to improve flexibility is PNF also known as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching is a technique in which a muscle group is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against resistance while in the stretched position, and then is passively stretched again through the resulting increased range of motion. It is more effective to do this with a partner.

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  4. Sports Injuries

    An external injury may involve someone hitting or bumping into you and impacting your body with fractures or dislocations. This is not only limited to people causing injury- the environment can cause injury, such as dehydration in immense heat. Internally, sudden and strenuous movements can tear or strain muscles inside the body (where the body cannot cope with it, it causes injury); this is also done through overuse. Overuse injuries can be caused a part of the body again and again, through stress placed on a particular part of the body. Another way is when a condition is left untreated- this is known as chronic injury.

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  5. Skeletal System Notes

    The ends of our bones are the places that contain the cartilage these are the growth plates. Because we are constantly growing we need our bones to reshape and grow this happens through osteoblasts. To make this possible though the bones need osteoclasts to replace the tissue that makes bones. Joints Joints allow the body to move. Muscles attached to the bone contract to cause the bone to move. The bones act as levers with joints acting as pivots. 'A joint is where to bones meet and muscles act together to cause movement' Types of Joints 1. Fixed or Immoveable Joints These are joints and bones that can't move, e.g. The Skull. 2.

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  6. The Hierarchy of American Sports

    With wealth comes power; and the NFL controls the activities of millions every Sunday during football season. The media must also claim accountability for this partition. Leagues such as the NBA and MLB engulf nearly every media outlet in their respective city, and in some cases entire states remain in constant orbit of their recreational center of the universe. The Yankees, Knicks, and Giants dominate New York's headlines while the condition of the Celtics and Patriots consume the minds of the citizens of Massachusetts. Because of these assets, less-publicized sports simply cannot compete.

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  7. The cardiovascular system

    They aren't very elastic; they rarely pulsate. Veins also have valves, to prevent the backflow of blood. Without valves, the blood would just move back and forth rather than flowing. Capillaries Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels, and are only one cell thick. This is because gas exchange happens here, and as the walls are thin, it is easier for oxygen to diffuse out of the blood and into the muscles, and for carbon dioxide and other waste products to diffuse out of the muscles and into the blood. There are many capillaries throughout the body, and this gives a large surface area for this diffusion to take place, which means that the process is faster.

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  8. Muscles. The following letter will highlight key information on muscles, contractions and fibres, and will hopefully be informative.

    3. Cardiac Muscles Cardiac muscles are found in the heart, and are not under conscious control, either. They never die due to a rich oxygen supply. Muscles contractions Muscles function by contracting (they never . The origin of a muscle is always attached to a stationary bone, and acts as an anchor; the insertion inserts across a joint and attaches to a moving bone. For example, the origin of the bicep is found near the shoulder, and it inserts across the elbow to move the forearm.

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  9. How does exercise affect heart rate?

    This is because my body need s more oxygen because it is burning energy through respiration which gives you energy from sugar and oxygen and you need more of this for your muscles when you exercise. Sugar + oxygen =energy +oxygen+ carbon dioxide Compared to when I am resting I need more food and oxygen Variables I will change the periods of exercise, I will measure my pulse rate resting and after exercise and take an average.

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  10. How does exercise affect my pulse rate?

    I will increase the amount of time I exercise for by 15 starting from 30 then, 45,60,75 and then 90 seconds. I will make sure results are reliable by repeating them if they are slightly unreliable. I predict that as the amount of time I exercise for increases so will my pulse rate. To make sure the experiment was safe I moved away all the chairs, tables etc around the area I was exercising in so I would bump into anything.

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  11. Anatomy involved in bowling in cricket and a smash in badminton.

    Hinge frontal sagittal Extension Rectus Femoris Biceps femoris Ankle (left) Gliding Frontal Sagittal Dorsi Flexion Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius Phase 3 Joint Joint type Axis Plane Movement Agonist Antagonist Shoulder Ball and socket frontal sagittal Circumduction Posterior Deltoid Anterior Deltoid Elbow Hinge frontal sagittal Extension Triceps Brachii Biceps brachii Hip Ball and socket frontal sagittal Extension Gluteus Maximus Illosoas Knee Hinge Frontal Sagittal Flexion Biceps femoris Rectus Femoris Ankle Gliding Frontal Sagittal Dorsi Flexion Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius Development The picture is of an ideal bowling action. Phase 1 The bowler flex's the elbow so that the ball can come around the body at high speed.

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  12. Investigation Into The Effect Of Exercise On Pulse Rate

    Duration (minutes) 1 2 3 Average 0 1 2 3 4 * Take resting pulse rate. * Start stop watch and step up and step down onto the bench for 1 minute. Count each step up (not down) has '1' * After 1 minute of exercise stop and take the pulse rate and fill it in on the table. * Start the stop watch again and exercise for another 1 minute and take pulse rate. * Continue doing this until first column is filled and take a 5 minute break.

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  13. Does short term exercise have a significant effect on fitness?

    Material: To measure the pulse a pulse-belt will be used which gives an indication of pulse beats per minute. To measure time a normal wrist watch will be used. Method: The exercise done will be in the form of running. The same track will be run each time and multiple checkpoints will be set out along the track. These checkpoints will be designated a certain time which will be kept for each time the track is run, by this an even paste will be kept for each occasion. The track goes up and down some hills and therefore it is important that the pulse is checked at the same points along the track.

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  14. To find out how different exercises affect your pulse rate.

    So your pulse rate increases during exercise. Also the slower your pulse rate (within reason) the fitter you are and the quicker your heart rate returns to normal after exercise is also a measure of how fit you are. Apparatus: > Stopwatch > Metre rule for measuring out 50m > A person to do the exercising > A pen Diagram: Method: First obtain all the equipment as stated above. With the metre rule, measure out 50m with a pen - marking out the start and finish. Next think of a list of exercises and create a results table with them.

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  15. What affect does exercise have on our pulse?

    Start the stopwatch and take pulse for 15sec. 3. Then repeat until I have jogged for 5min in total. 4. Multiply all my readings by 4 to get a bpm (beats per minute) pulse rate 5. Repeat 1-4 3 times and work out an average to get a fair result Fair test: To make sure that this experiment is conducted as fairly as possible I have come up with a number of things that need to be kept constant: * The jogging speed.

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  16. The effect of exercise on pulse rate

    I am going to measure my pulse rate for the first 2 minutes and note it down. I will then continue to measure my pulse rate in 2-minute periods and then see how long it takes for my pulse rate to recover. I will measure my pulse rate using my index finger and my middle finger at my wrist. I will put my results into a table and transfer them onto a graph. I will put a line of best fit on the graph to look for patterns in my results. I will also share my data with my friends to try and get an as accurate result as possible.

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  17. Name the two possibilities for pelvic position when laying supine and why you would use one over the other in two different exercises

    Imprinted spine would be recommended for the Hundred since both feet are lifted off of the ground. Imprinted spine would help to maintain flexion in the spine, you could use neutral spine when the client demonstrates enough strength to maintain it during the exercise. 2. Name the 5 basic principles of alignment that are incorporated into the work and briefly describe each. Breath: The goal of the breathing is to relax unnecessary tension in the body and to encourage the engagement of the transversus abdominis on the exhale while maintaining engagement during the inhale. During exhalation the rib cage closes in and down while the spine flexes slightly, exhalation is encouraged when the spine is flexing.

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  18. Investigating the effect of exercise on pulse rate

    The second thing will be standing up for 30 seconds and measuring the pulse rate after it. We will also o it two times. We will expect some difference between lying down and standing up. Afterwards we will start doing some exercise stepping up and down on a chair. We will do 20 steps and then we will measure the pulse rate. We've chosen to count the steps instead of stepping up and down for one minute because we see it will make the experiment fairer, yet, each person would do a different amount of steps in that minute.

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  19. How The Intensity of Exercise affects Heart Rate

    mins Squat Thrusts 64 61 116 128 3.5 mins 4.2 mins Jumping 63 62 100 107 2.5 mins 3.0 mins This table gives a good indication of which exercise to use. Firstly the exercise the will be endured by the candidates must be something that is completed at a constant rate so both candidates will complete the exercise at the same rate and will have a used a similar amount of energy and will have exercised as intensely as each other.

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  20. Investigating Pulse Rate

    I need to make sure that I run for the specified amount of time, i.e. I don't want to be running for 40 seconds and then actually I was only meant to run for 30. To make sure I don't have any time related mishaps, I will use a stopwatch o keep track of times. I also need to make sure that I say at the same pace throughout my experiment. I intend to jog during my experiment rather than hard sprinting. I need to make sure that my pulse has calmed back down to normal pace before I proceed on to the next stage, because otherwise I wont get accurate results, as if I

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  21. Renal Biopsy

    If kidney function falls (say a kidney is removed to donate to a relative), the creatinine level will rise. Normal is about 1 for an average adult. Infants that have little muscle will have lower normal levels (0.2). Muscle bound weight lifters may have a higher normal creatinine. Serum creatinine only reflects renal function in a steady state. After removing a kidney, if the donor's blood is checked right away the serum creatinine will still be 1.

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  22. Movements occurring at synovial joints during sports activities

    This joint allows freedom of rotation as well as back-and-forth movement in all planes. The movement will be flexibility; this is the bending of limbs at a joint. In this image we can see that Roger Federer?s ball and socket joint is in full action because we can see how his shoulders have rotated to a certain degree of angle to suit the situation he is in.

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  23. Acute Responses to Exercise: Summary Table

    The product of Stroke Volume (SV) x heart rate (HR). The amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute Cardiovascular Increases So that more blood can be ejected out of the heart per minute and therefore more oxygen can be delivered to the working muscles Caused by a stronger ventricular contraction ? results in more blood being ejected Blood Pressure The amount of pressure exerted on the arteries when the ventricles contract (systolic) and relax (diastolic) Cardiovascular Systolic increases, diastolic stays the same Because more blood is being pumped out per beat/minute and therefore it causes an

    • Word count: 816

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