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GCSE: Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Nutrition for Fitness, Health and Exercise

    The lactic acid builds up, then the glycogen is broken down for energy. Aerobic System The aerobic system works with oxygen, hours of work at lower intensity. This system breaks down glycogen or fat. Storage Only 80 to 100 grams of the ATP is actually stored. This is enough for a few seconds of work. The reason for this is because it is too heavy to store lots. Carbohydrate and Fat storage will determine how the ATP is going to be rebuilt using Anaerobic and Aerobic energy systems.

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  2. Biomechanic Presentation

    Class Average in metres Lying down: 16.785m Sitting down: 21.4105m Kneel down: 24.53m Standing: 26.458 Run-up throws: 36.0805m My result in Lying down wasn't good compared to the class average. My result was 15.6 however the class average was 16.785. But my result in Run-up throw was much better than class average which was 49.8m. With run-up throw, I had an advantage with running very fast. So I could do much better. Most of students were same trends as I got.

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  3. Free essay

    The physical fitness and skill related fitness requirements in three different sports

    If you had poor flexibility it would lead to injury. Speed is the ability to move body parts quickly over a set distance Paul beashel, 2006. In tennis the faster you can get to a ball, the more time you have to prepare for and execute your shot. Although speed has a largely genetic component, muscles and the nervous system can be trained to make a player faster. Many athletes are fast in a straight line, but tennis players must have the agility to be able to change directions at speed.

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  4. Fitness teasting

    When the client cannot carry on any longer the test and the stop watch is stopped, then the assistant will then see how long the client run for and what gradient they got to. They will use these results to analyse their performance. Advantages: - You can get an understanding of your body's stamina and endurance - You can try and improve yourself on each stage - It's a good way to challenge yourself - Good exercise - It's not very time consuming Disadvantages: - Equipment is required (treadmill)

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  5. btec P.E unit 1

    Structure and support; the skeleton provides an amazing amount of support for the vital organs within our bodies. These vital organs are found within the bodies structure itself held in place with a whole network of tissues. As like all of the bodies systems these muscles are not isolated to one thing, they are joined to the bones thus providing a huge combined amount of support for all bodily organs. Blood cell production; the skeletal system also provides the body with its most important element, blood cells. The production of these cells occurs within the bone itself; deep inside the marrow which is in the shaft of all long bones such as the tibia, fibula and radius.

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  6. Strength lab

    Method Experimental Design This study sought to determine a correlation between muscle size and strength, by examining the relationship between anthropometric dimensions, 1RM, muscle endurance and power output. Also to analysis any gender specific strength relationships within the group. This was achieved by using isolation exercises for the biceps brachii which operates a third class lever in the arm. Dumb bells were used to perform 1RM with each hard and muscle endurance tests on each arm. A barbell was used to perform a 1RM to show a combined potential of both arms.

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  7. Task 4 Mechanisms of Fatigue

    Carbon dioxide accumulation results in an increase in pH in the blood. During exercise fluid is lost; this could be through sweating, which results in lower blood pressure, and therefore the heart will have to work harder. Little as 2-3% of water loss can reduce a performance. Effects of metabolic bi-products Lactic acid is the main bi-product of anaerobic glycolysis. Blood always contains small amount of lactic acid, however, during high intensity exercise this increases greatly. The increased production of lactic acid results in the pH of the blood decreasing. A blood pH of 6.4 or lower affects muscle and neural functions.

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  8. joint tenancy is a form of co-ownership whereby all the owners are together seen as a single entity

    To determine whether there is a joint tenancy the law looks for four unities, the first of these possession means that co-owners are simultaneously entitled to the land and each has the right to possess it, this is common to all forms of co-ownership. The second unity is the one of interest this is by the very nature of joint tenancy that none of the joint tenants have a specific interest in the land and therefore one joint tenant can not have a larger interest than another.

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  9. Coursework Investigation: Plan experiments to determine the effects of exercise on the pulse rate/heartbeat

    Instead, the body uses the body's store of carbohydrate (glycogen). The heart rate will, nevertheless, increase to fuel the body's increased requirement for oxygen. However, it could be that after 45 seconds of the fast jogging, this would turn into aerobic exercise. This means their heart will beat faster and in turn the person will breathe more quickly and deeply to get more oxygen into their system. The oxygen is carried away from their lungs by their blood. The slow jogging, on the other hand, would remain anaerobic exercise because the exercise period is short - just one minute long.

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  10. Fitness analysis

    This however happened at different rates and times for each of the participants in the exercise. A fit person's heart rate is usually low when they are at rest and goes high during exercise, but returns very quickly to normal. Unlike an unfit person or somebody who is less fit whose heart rate is usually high, goes very high during exercise and returns to resting pulse slowly. This is because; the fitter a person is, the less their heart needs to work during exercise which means they do not enervate quickly.

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  11. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Submaximal Exercise under Aerobic Conditions

    and maintaining the acid base balance. The metabolic rate increases as the body moves from rest to exercise thus requiring an increase of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) resulting in increased heat production. The amount of heat produced during exercise should equal the amount of heat loss to maintain a constant core temperature of 370C, therefore maintaining a homeostatic state. On sub-maximal exercise there will be a rise in (HR), a rise in end tidal (ETCO2) and a minimal change in body temperature.

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  12. World of Dog.

    * Dogue de Bordeaux Energy: Exercise: submit opinion Watchdog: Protection: Grooming: submit opinion these dogs are calm, balanced and affectionate. They would make a perfect complete to your family. * Doberman Pinscher Energy: Exercise: Watchdog: Protection: Grooming: The Doberman Pinscher is an intelligent capable guardian, ever on the alert and ready to protect its family or home. It is also a loyal and adventurous companion. It likes to be mentally challenged, and is a gifted obedience pupil. It is sensitive, and very responsive to its owner's wishes, though some can be domineering.

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  13. Temperature regulation practical - Homeostasis.

    This reduces the pH of the blood and is detected by chemosensors in the walls of arteries, which monitor blood pH. These chemosensors then send impulses to the brain, and in response, the brain sends nerve impulses to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, causing them to increase the rate at which they contract and relax. This increase in the ventilation rate helps to remove the CO2 from the body, and increase the oxygen uptake rate, which allows aerobic respiration to continue in the muscles.

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  14. Exercise has physical benefits.

    regular physical exercise is that it reduces the risk factors such as obesity.8 Obesity is a severe overweight condition where the percentage body fat of a male is >20% and >30% for a female. An obese condition leads greatly towards diseases such as coronary heart disease and other heart conditions such as strokes. Obesity can also cause other physical problems such as joint and back problems, which can lead to immobility in later life. The benefit of exercise to a person's daily routine reduces these problems.

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  15. How does amount of a certain exercise effect human pulse rate?

    With extreme exercise, the heart can beat up to 200 times per minute. The brain sends nerve signals to the heart to control the pulse rate. If we measure one's pulse while they are lying down, standing up or sitting down, results may vary. They might vary because the amount of oxygen/glucose in one's body would change, therefore the pulse rate changes. A trained athlete's heart can pump more blood with each beat so his or her heart rate is slower. Example: Engela Position Pulse rate (beats/min) Lying down 53 Sitting down 65 Standing up 72 Ana Position Pulse rate (beats/min)

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  16. 'Does Exercise increase the heart rate and recovery pulse?'

    2. I will stick to the period of time that I have agreed to do. 3. I will put as much effort in to each section of exercise on all occasions. 4. I will exercise on the same surface. 5. I will take down the true results and not implant any false ones. 6. I will always take down my starting pulse before every period of exercise. 7. I will keep the distance between the 2 posts the same. Is there anything that I will change during my investigation? The only thing that I will change during this investigation is the period of time that I exercise for.

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  17. How does recovery position affect recovery rate?

    Activity Volume of each breath (Cm) Number of breaths taken per min Rest 500 18 20 step up's per min 750 25 50 step up's per min 1200 34 As a result of this investigation I found during exercise your breathing rate increases and the volume of each breath increases. Therefore a good recovery position after exercise needs to increase the surface area of the lungs. Prediction I predict that lying down flat on the floor of on a table will be the best recovery position after strenuous exercise.

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  18. Investigating Human heart rate.

    Plan: I am going to set up a series of press ups to create the physical exertion I need, press ups are strenuous and can be performed to a specific rhythm or timing. I will do 3 series of 5 press ups each press up taking 2 seconds to complete (both going down and up) and taking my pulse again after completing each series of 10 press ups taking my pulse each time 30 seconds, then waiting 1 minute. I will count my pulse for 10 seconds then multiplying by 6 to get a unit of beats per minute (beats/min).

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  19. An Investigation, to show how different exercises effect your pulse rate.

    Your sensing system is 'run' by your brain. This therefore means that your pulse rate affects your brain, which results in your brain speeding up or slowing down your pulse rate due to the lack of oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels. Also stress and fear and many other emotions can speed up your pulse rate. If your take drugs however, these may slow down your heart rate. Alcohol on the other hand can speed up your pulse rate. As in exercise your muscles work harder, after eating as your stomach muscles contract therefore they need more blood to carry out the digesting process.

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  20. Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation

    During this experiment the arbitrary value was 2.5 mmols/L. Lactate threshold is normally expressed by the percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, known as VO2max. It is very beneficial if an athlete is able to exercise at high intensity without accumulating lactate as it causes fatigue, stated by Wilmore and Costill (1999). Although high VO2max does not necessarily mean good endurance runner as it is vital to withstand high levels of lactate threshold. Wilmore and Costill (1999) state that an untrained athletes would have an expected lactate threshold around 50%-60%, where as an elite athlete may reach 70%-80%.

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  21. Is exercise bad for you?

    sufficient to moderately stimulate aerobic respiration) is recommended. The type and level of exercise recommended will vary between individuals and across age groups.' It has immense results on the cardiovascular system. It reduces the amount of fat in the body including LDL cholesterol (harmful type) and triglycerides that is the free fatty acid in the blood, improves the bodies ability to uptake and deliver oxygen and this is regarded as the best measure of health, allows the heart to pump more blood with less effort helping to control systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

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  22. First Aid for Sprains and Concussion

    Sprains and are a very common type of injury that affects ligaments. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue around joints that connect one bone to another. They help to keep the bones together and stable. It is very easily to recognise the symptoms of a sprain? Symptoms of sprains include: 1. Irritating Pain in the Area of Injury 2. Swelling and Inflammation 3. Loss of Movement in the Affected Body Part 4. Being Unable to Use the Joint Normally or Being Unable to Put Weight on it 5.

    • Word count: 1855

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