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GCSE: Anatomy and Physiology
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This is because my body need s more oxygen because it is burning energy through respiration which gives you energy from sugar and oxygen and you need more of this for your muscles when you exercise. Sugar + oxygen =energy +oxygen+ carbon dioxide Compared to when I am resting I need more food and oxygen Variables I will change the periods of exercise, I will measure my pulse rate resting and after exercise and take an average.
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This however happened at different rates and times for each of the participants in the exercise. A fit person's heart rate is usually low when they are at rest and goes high during exercise, but returns very quickly to normal. Unlike an unfit person or somebody who is less fit whose heart rate is usually high, goes very high during exercise and returns to resting pulse slowly. This is because; the fitter a person is, the less their heart needs to work during exercise which means they do not enervate quickly.
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I will increase the amount of time I exercise for by 15 starting from 30 then, 45,60,75 and then 90 seconds. I will make sure results are reliable by repeating them if they are slightly unreliable. I predict that as the amount of time I exercise for increases so will my pulse rate. To make sure the experiment was safe I moved away all the chairs, tables etc around the area I was exercising in so I would bump into anything.
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Hinge frontal sagittal Extension Rectus Femoris Biceps femoris Ankle (left) Gliding Frontal Sagittal Dorsi Flexion Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius Phase 3 Joint Joint type Axis Plane Movement Agonist Antagonist Shoulder Ball and socket frontal sagittal Circumduction Posterior Deltoid Anterior Deltoid Elbow Hinge frontal sagittal Extension Triceps Brachii Biceps brachii Hip Ball and socket frontal sagittal Extension Gluteus Maximus Illosoas Knee Hinge Frontal Sagittal Flexion Biceps femoris Rectus Femoris Ankle Gliding Frontal Sagittal Dorsi Flexion Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius Development The picture is of an ideal bowling action. Phase 1 The bowler flex's the elbow so that the ball can come around the body at high speed.
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and maintaining the acid base balance. The metabolic rate increases as the body moves from rest to exercise thus requiring an increase of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) resulting in increased heat production. The amount of heat produced during exercise should equal the amount of heat loss to maintain a constant core temperature of 370C, therefore maintaining a homeostatic state. On sub-maximal exercise there will be a rise in (HR), a rise in end tidal (ETCO2) and a minimal change in body temperature.
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* Dogue de Bordeaux Energy: Exercise: submit opinion Watchdog: Protection: Grooming: submit opinion these dogs are calm, balanced and affectionate. They would make a perfect complete to your family. * Doberman Pinscher Energy: Exercise: Watchdog: Protection: Grooming: The Doberman Pinscher is an intelligent capable guardian, ever on the alert and ready to protect its family or home. It is also a loyal and adventurous companion. It likes to be mentally challenged, and is a gifted obedience pupil. It is sensitive, and very responsive to its owner's wishes, though some can be domineering.
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Duration (minutes) 1 2 3 Average 0 1 2 3 4 * Take resting pulse rate. * Start stop watch and step up and step down onto the bench for 1 minute. Count each step up (not down) has '1' * After 1 minute of exercise stop and take the pulse rate and fill it in on the table. * Start the stop watch again and exercise for another 1 minute and take pulse rate. * Continue doing this until first column is filled and take a 5 minute break.
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This reduces the pH of the blood and is detected by chemosensors in the walls of arteries, which monitor blood pH. These chemosensors then send impulses to the brain, and in response, the brain sends nerve impulses to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, causing them to increase the rate at which they contract and relax. This increase in the ventilation rate helps to remove the CO2 from the body, and increase the oxygen uptake rate, which allows aerobic respiration to continue in the muscles.
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regular physical exercise is that it reduces the risk factors such as obesity.8 Obesity is a severe overweight condition where the percentage body fat of a male is >20% and >30% for a female. An obese condition leads greatly towards diseases such as coronary heart disease and other heart conditions such as strokes. Obesity can also cause other physical problems such as joint and back problems, which can lead to immobility in later life. The benefit of exercise to a person's daily routine reduces these problems.
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With extreme exercise, the heart can beat up to 200 times per minute. The brain sends nerve signals to the heart to control the pulse rate. If we measure one's pulse while they are lying down, standing up or sitting down, results may vary. They might vary because the amount of oxygen/glucose in one's body would change, therefore the pulse rate changes. A trained athlete's heart can pump more blood with each beat so his or her heart rate is slower. Example: Engela Position Pulse rate (beats/min) Lying down 53 Sitting down 65 Standing up 72 Ana Position Pulse rate (beats/min)
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Material: To measure the pulse a pulse-belt will be used which gives an indication of pulse beats per minute. To measure time a normal wrist watch will be used. Method: The exercise done will be in the form of running. The same track will be run each time and multiple checkpoints will be set out along the track. These checkpoints will be designated a certain time which will be kept for each time the track is run, by this an even paste will be kept for each occasion. The track goes up and down some hills and therefore it is important that the pulse is checked at the same points along the track.
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2. I will stick to the period of time that I have agreed to do. 3. I will put as much effort in to each section of exercise on all occasions. 4. I will exercise on the same surface. 5. I will take down the true results and not implant any false ones. 6. I will always take down my starting pulse before every period of exercise. 7. I will keep the distance between the 2 posts the same. Is there anything that I will change during my investigation? The only thing that I will change during this investigation is the period of time that I exercise for.
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Simoneau and Kelley (1997) conducted a study on glucose tolerant obese individuals and found that insulin resistance was related to a decrease in the activity of oxidative enzymes and a disproportionate increase in glycolytic enzymes. Obesity is an important factor that contributes to the development of insulin resistance. Evidence to support this is in a study on women by Simoneau, et al., (1995, cited in Simoneau and Kelley, 1997), which found that visceral obesity had a direct association with an increased ratio of glycolytic to oxidative enzyme capacity in skeletal muscle.
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(RESOURCE 1) Oxygenated blood travels from the lungs, through the pulmonary vein, into the left atrium and ventricle, and round the body through the aorta - to be pumped into the pulmonary artery to become oxygenated again. During vigorous exercise, your heartbeat may rise to 150 beats per minute or more (compared to 70 or 80 heartbeats per minute at rest, for the average person). (RESOURCE 2) Also, the breathing rate must dramatically increase in order to supply the need for oxygen to drive aerobic respiration, or break down lactic acid, produced during anaerobic respiration.
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So your pulse rate increases during exercise. Also the slower your pulse rate (within reason) the fitter you are and the quicker your heart rate returns to normal after exercise is also a measure of how fit you are. Apparatus: > Stopwatch > Metre rule for measuring out 50m > A person to do the exercising > A pen Diagram: Method: First obtain all the equipment as stated above. With the metre rule, measure out 50m with a pen - marking out the start and finish. Next think of a list of exercises and create a results table with them.
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Activity Volume of each breath (Cm) Number of breaths taken per min Rest 500 18 20 step up's per min 750 25 50 step up's per min 1200 34 As a result of this investigation I found during exercise your breathing rate increases and the volume of each breath increases. Therefore a good recovery position after exercise needs to increase the surface area of the lungs. Prediction I predict that lying down flat on the floor of on a table will be the best recovery position after strenuous exercise.
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2: Normal pulse rate After exercise After exercise with 1 minute After exercise with 2 minutes After exercise with 3 minutes After exercise with 4 minutes After exercise with 5 minuets 21 136 115 98 68 32 18 Repeated 3: Normal pulse rate After exercise After exercise with 1 minute After exercise with 2 minutes After exercise with 3 minutes After exercise with 4 minutes After exercise with 5 minuets 19 125 102 81 54 31 17 Average: Normal pulse rate After exercise After exercise with 1 minute After exercise with 2 minutes After exercise with 3 minutes After exercise
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Plan: I am going to set up a series of press ups to create the physical exertion I need, press ups are strenuous and can be performed to a specific rhythm or timing. I will do 3 series of 5 press ups each press up taking 2 seconds to complete (both going down and up) and taking my pulse again after completing each series of 10 press ups taking my pulse each time 30 seconds, then waiting 1 minute. I will count my pulse for 10 seconds then multiplying by 6 to get a unit of beats per minute (beats/min).
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DETERMINING RATIO OF PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATE AND FATS Now that we know how to determine calories, let�s take a look at how to calculate ratios of protein, carbohydrate and fats. If you�re looking to put on muscle, a ratio of 55 percent carbohydrate, 30 percent protein and 15 percent fat is an excellent balance. The 55 percent carbohydrate (keep refined carbohydrates to a minimum) will provide ample energy for intense workouts, and the 30 percent protein will provide the necessary building blocks for muscle.
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has on the speed of the ball as it travels down the slope. To get the speed of the ball from experiments I will use the equation 'speed = distance / (divided by) time'. In my 'preliminary work' you can see how I am going to measure these things. In my experiment I am going to keep the same everything other than the height of the slope. In my 'preliminary work' you can see what things I am going to use and how I am going to take measurements. I will keep the same the: * Material of slope (I will use the triangular hollow metal ramp)
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I will be using the circuit training principle of not using the same muscle group in consecutive exercises. The other training methods cannot really be used in my PEP, as they would not help me to fulfil my targets. The outcome that I expect to find on completion of my personal exercise programme are a higher one rep max, larger muscle mass on the targeted groups and a little loss of speed, which is a side effect. With these adaptations I should find that I am more physical and stand a better chance against bigger defenders in my games of football.
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Start the stopwatch and take pulse for 15sec. 3. Then repeat until I have jogged for 5min in total. 4. Multiply all my readings by 4 to get a bpm (beats per minute) pulse rate 5. Repeat 1-4 3 times and work out an average to get a fair result Fair test: To make sure that this experiment is conducted as fairly as possible I have come up with a number of things that need to be kept constant: * The jogging speed.
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Limb may be bent or shortened, or with the spine or tibia, it may be out of alignment. - Local temperature increase. 4. Identify the methods used in your unit for external fixation of a fracture and briefly describe one. -Plaster of Paris - Cast bracing, back/volar slabs - Fixed traction (Thomas splint) - Sliding or balanced traction - Skin traction - Bony traction, skeletal e.g. Denham/Steinman - Simple traction - Hoffman external fixator and Orthofix for Femur/Tibia/Pelvis/Ankle/Humerus - Penning fixator for Radius/Ulna hand fracture Skin traction. Adhesive strapping is placed on the limb securely, attached with cord to a weight on a pulley system.
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Your sensing system is 'run' by your brain. This therefore means that your pulse rate affects your brain, which results in your brain speeding up or slowing down your pulse rate due to the lack of oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels. Also stress and fear and many other emotions can speed up your pulse rate. If your take drugs however, these may slow down your heart rate. Alcohol on the other hand can speed up your pulse rate. As in exercise your muscles work harder, after eating as your stomach muscles contract therefore they need more blood to carry out the digesting process.
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During this experiment the arbitrary value was 2.5 mmols/L. Lactate threshold is normally expressed by the percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, known as VO2max. It is very beneficial if an athlete is able to exercise at high intensity without accumulating lactate as it causes fatigue, stated by Wilmore and Costill (1999). Although high VO2max does not necessarily mean good endurance runner as it is vital to withstand high levels of lactate threshold. Wilmore and Costill (1999) state that an untrained athletes would have an expected lactate threshold around 50%-60%, where as an elite athlete may reach 70%-80%.
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