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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the fitness requirements of three contrasting sports

    5 star(s)

    Muscular Endurance - Is needed so that a boxer can fight strongly for the whole twelve rounds. Skill related fitness components 1. Agility - Is needed to change direction, bobbing & weaving and switching fists. 2. Balance - Is needed when dodging and punching. 3. Reaction Time - Is needed to dodge and incoming punch and good reaction time is needed if there is an opening for a decent punch. 4. Power - Is needed for combinations, fast punching power.

    • Word count: 2580
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Potential hazards and injuries in sport.

    3 star(s)

    Name 5 sports and list the protective clothing required for each Hockey - shoes, pads, helmet, gum shields Football - shin pads, and football boots Fencing - Helmets, padding, gloves, the suit Cricket - Pads, gloves, helmet Basketball - basketball shoes, sometimes knee and arm pads 4. Injury - below is a list the most common occurring injuries (internally caused and externally caused). Label each whether they are internal or external and provide a definition of each * Stress fracture (internally)

    • Word count: 587
  3. Circuit Training Personal Programme

    I feel all of these are important fitness components for the success in my main sports, so therefore I am going to design a circuit that will enhance these fitness components. Warm up. I am including a warm up because it helps to... * increase the speed of contraction and relaxation of warmed muscles * reduce muscle stiffness * increase movement because of lowered viscous resistance within warmed muscles * oxygen utilization by warmed muscles because haemoglobin releases oxygen more readily at higher muscle temperatures * facilitate the nerve transmission and muscle metabolism at higher temperatures; a specific warm up

    • Word count: 1988
  4. Fitness Testing and Training - Components of Fitness, Three Different Fitness Training Methods

    Examples include: * A boxer making a repeated jab * Continuous press-ups or sit-ups * 400-metre sprint in athletics Flexibility Flexibility is the ability of each joint to move through the available range of motion for a specific joint. Examples would be stretching individual muscles or the ability to perform certain functional movements such as the lunge. The sit and reach test is most often used to test flexibility. Static flexibility and dynamic flexibility. Static flexibility is the range of movement that a muscle or joint can achieve and is limited by the structure of bones and joints, as well as factors such as muscle size and muscle tone.

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  5. My personal exercise programme

    General fitness: The amount of fitness a person needs to complete an everyday activity, i.e. running for the Bus. A person would also need a minimum level of fitness in each, area to cope with life. Specific fitness: Whether a person is fit or capable of completing tasks that apply to their specific activity or sport at a high level. Reason for participating in PEP: I chose to participate in this Exercise programme to improve my swimming. General fitness Speed: The ability to move your body or part of your body quickly. Strength: The force muscles exert when they contract.

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  6. PE worksheet with answers - you need to choose a sport and link each of the components of physical fitness and skill-related fitness to it.

    D Y S T R E N G T H C U H K I P K H F D S T X I O K Y H G T F D R G U I P L H F C I C J K S A W R T Y P O I G F D S D B V L M O L G F S P O W E R P I N B F S X V I P L J H F S D E G F A S G J M N B V

    • Word count: 2089
  7. Explaining fitness requirements for achieving excellence in cheerleading

    <-- TOE TOUCH JUMP Balance is the ability to keep control of your body at all times. When doing cheerleading, you will need balance because you may have to stand on one foot in some routines. Sometimes you may even be in the air so if you have no balance you will fall over and cause injury to yourself. This applies to landing too; you could be thrown up to 20 meters in the air and if you don't land with stability you could do serious damage.

    • Word count: 540
  8. My aims for the Personal Exercise Program are that I intend to concentrate mainly on improving my cardiovascular endurance and my muscular endurance.

    Section 2; Aims of PEP; Yours aims of the PEP is the most important, so you know exactly what you what to get out of this, and you don't back track. My aims for the Personal Exercise Program are that I intend to concentrate mainly on improving my cardiovascular endurance and my muscular endurance. Because these components of health related fitness were identified as weaknesses by my fitness testing and they are important for general health and well as my sporting performance in Fitness.

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  9. Sports Science Controlled Assessment - analysisng my health and fitness. How I can improve.

    * Sit Ups - I managed 40 sit-ups in one minute, which rated average when compared nationally. This also tests muscular endurance, one of my strengths. * Stork Test - I recorded 40 seconds for this test, which is average for my age and gender. This is good for me as balance is not one of my strengths, and is still something that I can improve upon. * Multistage Fitness Test - I scored 9.0, which is average for my age and gender. Although I have more slow twitch muscle fibres, and the test is for muscular endurance, I do not have enough fast twitch fibres for the advanced levels of the test.

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  10. Analysing my lifestyle and fitness.

    This would affect my lifestyle as it having good stamina would help me with everyday tasks such as running for the bus or running to school before I am late. It would also help me aerobically as it shows that I have pretty good slow-twitch muscle fibres. It is also an indication if I am more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease or stroke. Another of my strengths was flexibility. By looking at my score which was 24 and comparing it to the national average, I can see that it is strength.

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  11. PEP. The sport I have chosen to base my PEP on is hockey.

    Coordination 5. Pushing Weaknesses: 1. Speed 2. Muscular Strength 3. Hitting 4. Balance 5. Ariel Warm Ups: 1. 2 minutes jogging at a gentle speed. Static stretches starting from the neck and upper body. Play netball with a tennis ball or just throwing to each other. 2. 2 minutes jogging at a gentle speed. Dynamic stretches for 10 meters then jog back to starting point. Sprints being called by someone else. 3. 2 minute jog on a treadmill Static stretches throughout body starting at the head. Sessions: 1. Weight Training a) Squat thrust- thirty seconds, one-leg squat (left leg)- 10 reps, T press up- 30 seconds, one-leg squat (right leg)-10 reps, Bicycles- 30 seconds, jumping lunge- 30 seconds.

    • Word count: 604
  12. Introduction to PEP. My aim is to improve my anaerobic fitness for the sport I play which is hockey and I will do this by creating a 6 week program of all the different sports and exercises that I do each day.

    This is training in intervals of hard exercise with rest breaks. The rest period will be a brisk walk at a speed of 4.4 mph and will last for 1 minute. The working period will be a sprint at a speed of 9.6 mph and will also last for one minute. I will complete this session in 15 minutes. I will increase these speeds during the 6 weeks. The reason why I think interval training would be good for me is because it would help me to improve my overall performance, including speed.

    • Word count: 755
  13. Analysing and improving task for rugby

    In my past two seasons, I have been playing in a very high quality team, losing to just one opposition in each of the years. There are main reason why I have chosen rugby, is because it by far and away, my favourite sport. This is down to numerous reasons, one of which being the pure joy you get from winning and the satisfaction that comes with it. This is the goal though, to win, and everything that must be done to achieve it is also a huge factor in the enjoyment of the sport.

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  14. The key areas of physical fitness in football

    You also need it as you need to dodge past opposing team and even to score a goal. The goal keeper will need flexibility the most as he needs to stretch to catch the ball preventing it going in the goal. If you want to kick a ball using the right technique, flexibility is useful. You can also get injured by low flexibility as you can pull as muscle. To test your flexibility you can do the sit and reach test and to train for it you can do passive and active stretching. Speed is innate which means you are either born with or without it.

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  15. I can see that I want to improve my cardiovascular fitness. Therefore I will do a Personal Exercise Program over 6 weeks to hopefully improve this, before I do another set of tests.

    The player may need to move or stretch to reach it. Skill Related Fitness Speed This is the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time. Reaction Time This is the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. Agility This is the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body. Balance This is the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity)

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  16. PEP to improve my speed and agility for rugby.

    I feel my fitness level is reasonably good. I have no long term illness such as Asthma. I only have one reoccurring injury. My back is a tong term posture problem witch can affect me with my training due to discomfit to the lumbar (lower back). This can effect and restrict the intensity I can do during the training session, toward the end. The physiotherapist has analysed my back and diagnosed it as a posture problem; therefore has produces a programme with stretches and exercises to strengthen my back and correct my posture.

    • Word count: 5026
  17. PEP and performance analysis for rounders

    out hitting them or going around them to far (if this happens it will affect you because it means your will have to run further out making your time slower because of the larger distance you will have to run.) In Rounders when playing in a fielding position you need to have the ability to both catch and throw a ball in order to either get batter out or stop them from scoring the maximum points. The .reason you need to have the capabilities to catch is to catch someone out if they hit a high ball, this requires good co-ordination.

    • Word count: 2224
  18. Sportmanship and Gamemanship. . This essay will discuss sportsmanship, gamesmanship, fair play, ethics and values, playing by the rules and role models implicated in sport. As well as why playing the game fairly matters more

    This is an example of winning at all costs, when they will do anything to win. When their team lost a set they would use excuses such as "the other team cheated", this is another prime example of bad sportsmanship. 3. Stacked Teams In one of our classes we had substitute teachers, the students got to choose their own teams for a game of volleyball. As a result the teams were unfair or 'stacked'. A group of boys got a team together; all of them were sporty and have a lot of skill in the game.

    • Word count: 1066
  19. Analysis of tactics

    Set Plays - Set plays- these are also called set pieces. They can be used strategically. There are many different types of set pieces, such as corners, free kicks, throwing etc. set plays * Throwing - Experienced teams will not just throw the ball to anyone they will throw it tactically to a team mate. These can be very useful as they are either thrown long or short. For example, some footballers will through the ball more than 30 yards.

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  20. There are many different training methods that you can use to improve your cardiovascular endurance.

    This will also help you keep you fit during the holidays. Fartlek Training The name comes from the Swedish which means "speed play." Fartlek Training involves different changes of speed, so this means doing different cardiovascular activities at different paces. You have to work for around 30 minutes then take a break. Despite the different speeds which you go at, you have to vary the level of land (slopes, ramps etc). Doing Fartlek training will help improve both aerobic and anaerobic training depending on the training you are doing. This type of training will help with sports which need both aerobic and anaerobic such as: basket ball and soccer.

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  21. Performance Analysis. One of the key skills in Gaelic football and one that I have watched this player perform is scoring a Point/Goal.

    she took the required amount of steps aloud which is four, she then executed her shot. When doing so she displayed that she had good balance and coordination. The player showed a wide range of motion at the hip joint when she took her shot. This portrayed to me that the performer had good range of flexibility, which had obviously been exercised to bring it to a high level, in a non trained athlete their flexibility would not have been at standard.

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  22. Health Related training exercise

    Week 2 Exercise Time Process Heart rate Cycling 15 minutes Level 11 190 Treadmill 15 minutes 6.5 mph 180 Skipping 5 minutes Skip for as long as possible for 5 minutes 190 Step Ups Around about 2 minutes 5 sets of 10 reps with 30 second rest 175 Shuttle runs Around about 2 minutes 5 sets of 10 reps with 30 second rest 191 Star jumps Around about 2 minutes 5 sets of 10 reps with 30 second rest 186 Burpes Around about 2 minutes 5 sets of 10 reps with 30 second rest 192 Press-ups Around about 2 minutes

    • Word count: 1997
  23. Sporting role models - how Chloe may be inspired to lead an active lifesyle.

    * Spectators, clubs, extra curriculum activities are a great way of SOCIALLY getting her used to the environment, this way she can also make new friends and meet new people. Making resources easier for Chloe, her parents or teachers could make it easier for her by organizing clubs, events and organizations.

    • Word count: 370
  24. Personal Excersize Program

    Awareness of safety aspects. Outline any potential risks with any apparatus/equipment. What factors will you need to consider when planning the order/types of exercises? Explain how and why you will prepare your body for exercise/and help it to recover afterwards. 5 marks To avoid any injuries, when entering a gym/fitness room you must make sure firstly you have all the appropriate equipment for any type of exercise you will be doing for example using ice skates to run on a treadmill would be much more likely to cause injury and would affect the persons performance than to wear light, comfy trainers.

    • Word count: 2031
  25. Pe AQA essay

    lengths 12 lengths 14 lengths 16 lengths 17 lengths Press ups 16 in a min 19 in a min 24 in a min 26 in a min 27 in a min Lay-ups 10/20 15/23 17/26 18/30 24/30 Speed jumps 41 57 62 68 76 Session Brief comments after each session 2 marks 1 I found it quite a struggle and I got tired 2 Was difficult but I could of done more 3 Could do the circuit the whole way without getting tired 4 Shortened the breaks and still achieved my best 5 Did the whole circuit with no breaks and my highest scores Session Recording: heart rate 2 marks Recording: recovery rate 2 marks 1 137 (BPM)

    • Word count: 1439

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare the fitness requirements of three public services.

    "To conclude my analysis of the fire services physical fitness test has featured all the main tests used by the fire service and tried to explain why they have been chosen. The number of job related tests are considerable when compared to other public services I have investigated. With this in mind I feel that, although the tasks in the training period are well thought and structured, there should be some sort of physical tests done by all fire fighters to constantly evaluate their fitness levels. My recommendation would be to have these tests once a year and fire fighters who fail to meet the standard would complete the probationary training period again to prove their motivation and commitment to the important role they play in the public service industry."

  • The Shows in the Coliseum Were Blood Thirst but Noble Contests. To What Extent is this a fair description of Gladiatorial Fights?

    "Gladiatorial shows, were often accompanied by souvenirs and the like, which in my opinion degrades Gladiators from noble sportsmen, to lifeless entertainers. This paired with the fact that they were often hired as entertainment at a dinner party, takes away the nobility. Also taking away from the nobleness is that there were non-related, less noble activities associated with, and inspired by Gladiatorial fights, gambling and prostitution to name but two. Gladiatorial shows were often considered by the emperor as a political weapon to manipulate the people, which is a shame. To conclude by today's standards the shows do seem extremely blood thirsty and due to this not noble. However in Rome, Blood and nobility were not necessarily contradictions, the Gladiatorial shows were certainly not as bloodthirsty as certain other forms of Roman entertainment, e.g. the midday executions. The fights themselves as a formal sport seem quite noble, but when looked at from the perspective of cult entertainment the nobility is lessened. In the gladiator fights the main focus was on skill and not blood. Although death was of course a possibility, the likelihood is that the majority of the time a good gladiator would live to die another day."

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