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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. The first step will be to identify Adamsweaknesses and strengths in Long Jump and Triple Jump.

    * Reversibility - Both Adam and I will talk about what we are doing each time so it hopefully sticks in his mind, this will ensure he does it right every time. He will reverse only if he forgets the technique. FITT * Frequency - we will be training once every week, which I think is enough because the sessions will have a high intensity rate. * Intensity - the sessions will be very intense, he will not feel it as he is doing it and he will not feel it after but he will feel it the next morning as he will find out he has used muscles he hasn't used before.

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  2. I am going to do my training programme on Tennis and am working on producing and more powerful and faster server.

    I will do this a further two more times and work on my average score. I will the do the test again after I finished all the training sessions and see if my average score is better of f than when I started. I chose this over the 1 rep max test because this test specifically focuses on the strength in my arm, whereas the 1 rep max tests your strength in your shoulders too. All I will need for the handgrip test is the hand grip itself so it is simple but efficient to carry out.

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  3. In this piece of coursework, I will plan, undertake and evaluate a safe and effective personal training programme/health promoting exercise schedule for football.

    Progression: - Although overload is necessary to improve physical fitness and skills level, this overload has to be progressive. During a weight-training programme there is no advantage to biceps curling 10kgs during one session and then biceps curling 50kgs the next training session. The chances are that the performer will fail in the attempt and become de-motivated or injure them self in the attempt. As muscle strength increases then there is a gradual, progressive increase in the amount of weight being curled and so improvements are made accordingly. T he same is true when learning new skills and developing those skills to an advanced form.

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  4. Exercise Plan for a footballer.

    These tests are specific to the equipment and the techniques used so are good for test-retest measures. Due to this, one repetition maximum tests are a very accurate and reliable way of testing. Sergeant Jump (Vertical Jump Test) The athlete stands side on to a wall and reaches up with the hand closest to the wall. Keeping the feet flat on the ground the point of the fingertips is marked or recorded. The athlete then jumps as high as they can and touches the wall at the top of the jump. The difference in distance between the reach height and the jump height is the score.

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  5. Football - The fitness training project is about me as an individual performing a circuit with different exercises all relating to one sport which I have chosen to do.

    The circuit training would help me to organise my muscle training, and help me get fitter over the five week period. I will also become more organised and I will be able to play football with confidence. Each week I will have set a target for myself which I will have to beat the following week in a limited period of time. This will help build my confidence and I will be building up my self-esteem. The circuit would also help improve my skills in football, EG.

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  6. I have been assigned the task of creating and undergoing a 6 week personnel exercise programme - Circuit trianing

    can be practiced, worked on and improved. Before the personnel exercise programme can be made, I must carefully go through the main principles of training to help me plan a good programme that will be manageable and that will produce good results. There are two main sets of training principles, one is S.P.O.R.T. and the other is F.I.T.T. All the letters in both words/sets represent one training principle of which I will describe below: S.P.O.R.T.: Specificity is making sure you know exactly what you are going to do individually and what your activity is going to be.

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  7. What is 'Circuit Training'?

    This can be achieved in 3 ways: 1)you can increase the frequency of your training. For example you could start by training twice a week and then build it up to 3 times a week and then 4 times a week and so on. 2)the intensity of your training can be increased. You can do this by simply pushing yourself harder whilst training. 3)duration should be increased. This may be the length of each session or how many repetitions of an exercise you do each time, or by increasing the amount of time spent on each activity.

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  8. My personal fitness program is designed to enhance my speed, agility and cardio-vascular fitness, as well as to improve my skill level in the main parts of tennis.

    For much of my programme I will be working with a partner, which will increase my safety as they can call for or give help as necessary. I will be training at the Weald Tennis Club in Hassocks, who will provide me with tennis balls as well as courts and nets that are an appropriate size for my circuit, or at the school tennis courts where I will need my own balls; I will use my own tennis racket. The main risk of injury is from overusing my right arm and shoulder, which could cause overuse injuries such as 'tennis elbow'.

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  9. Circuit Training for Football.

    After the 5 week period I will retake the tests to see if the results for the aspects of fitness have improved. This will then determine how successful my personal exercise program has been. Hopefully these aspects will have improved, defining the success of the circuit and my fitness and skills should have improved, allowing me to perform better in football. Age and Gender In designing my circuit there were many aspects to take into consideration but age and gender appeared to be the most likely complication. In general males are stronger and work at a higher plateau than females.

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  10. Personal Exercise Programme

    Health and fitness are really important, as the person needs to be healthy and fit to play basketball. There are many things which effect fitness such as age, sex, somatotype, strength, power, flexibility, endurance and speed. There is general fitness and specific fitness. Basketball would require specific fitness, as it's a demanding sport, specific fitness is an extension of general fitness, as the physical demands require that an individual must prepare carefully for the specific needs of the activity. So an individual's natural ability and skill alone would not be enough to be a basketball player, as it requires much more skills.

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  11. For my As level physical education Personal Performance Portfolio I have been asked to design a six-week training program for a sport of my choice from the syllabus.

    I also take part in the college PE lessons when my state of fitness allows me. In my area there are a lot of facilities to be used including a swimming pool at Madeley Court School, sports centers in Stirchley and Bridgenorth. There is also the sports center at Lillishall that deals mostly with cricket and gymnastics but used to be the home of the England academy. I think that exercise is an extremely important part in our society, if it is not done a lot of people will be unhealthy, which may lead to more illness around the world.

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  12. Personal exercise programme - Like all martial artists I feel that I am health-conscious, and amongst the most highly motivated, long-term devotees of overall health and physical fitness.

    My current strength is of a reasonably high level although this will be my main target area. My physical training will typically emphasize the improvement of bio-motor abilities. Strength training for martial arts focuses on high-repetition sets performed at slow tempos, separated by short rest periods. Stretching is emphasized and may require 40 minutes or more per day to achieve meaningful results. Swimming, cycling, rowing, jumping rope and other aerobic cross-training exercises are useful in enhancing cardiovascular endurance, so I will include this as part of my warm up.

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  13. In this coursework I am required to write a fitness programme specific to myself and carry it out.

    My results for the tests are shown on below the details of the tests, they are compared to the national averages. With the multi-stage fitness test we make use of a pre-recorded cassette-tape, on which a regular beep is heard. Before we start, we have to set out a stretch of 20-metres. The players have to run up and down the 20 metres. Every time they hear the beep on the cassette, they have to be on one side of the stretch, turn and run back.

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  14. This is my PEP (Personal Exercise Program) and it is based on football.

    This includes alcohol and smoking as well as drugs. Below is a weekly diet for my footballer, it is not a must have this exactly, but an example of a food to have form each group and the sort of things to eat. Time/Meal Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (Match Day) Sunday (Rest Day) Breakfast Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Anything Lunch Soup Protein-Sandwich Water Soup Scrambled eggs on toast Pasta

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  15. Before I started to even design my personal exercise programme, I had to find out my general level of fitness.

    In tennis, strength endurance is the most important type. This is where I need to undergo repeated contractions withstanding fatigue, over a long period of time. Such situations are common in a tennis rally where I would use continuous maximum effort in each shot to make it harder for the opponent to return. Maximum strength is also important. This is where a very large force is used for example in the tennis serve, where a harder hit should make the ball move quicker in the air, and so bounce off the ground faster.

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  16. Personal Exercise Programme

    I will be doing mainly weight training in the Gym but also concentration on my aerobic capacity by going on the treadmill. My training sessions with my Hockey team will mainly consist of skills training, however fitness training will also be included during the warm up and the cool down. In order to carry out this training programme correctly, I need to consider the four main principles of training which are: > Specificity > Overload > Progression > Reversibility Specificity is where the training must be suitable and specific to the 4 main components of fitness that I have chosen to work on.

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  17. Personal Exercise Program

    Due to the constant stop start style of movement a player has during the game a competitors ATP system must be used a lot. This is basically the energy produced by the respiratory system, which is used by our muscles, the more ATP produced by aerobic respiration the longer our muscles can work at a higher level for longer, this being important in a game of football. Football is of course a contact sport so not only is aerobic fitness necessary but so is strength.

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  18. The purpose of my personal exercise program is to improve my speed and strength that are two integral components of fitness.

    60 Metres Dash Testing 60 Metre Run 1 7.8 60 Metre Run 2 7.6 60 Metre Run 3 7.9 Average 7.77 To reduce the risk of injury and facilitate the strength gains that Plyometrics can give, the athlete must first establish a speed and resistance training base. Beginning Plyometrics too early in the conditioning cycle, or with the inexperienced athlete, can be disastrous. Several factors need to be considered before beginning a plyometric training program. These factors are: Physical Maturity of the Athlete The age of the athlete or the number of years that they have participated does not measure their physical maturity.

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  19. GCSE P.E coursework - circuit training

    * Reduces chances of injury or soreness in muscles, ligaments or tendons. Here is a typical warm up that most people would use before doing an activity which uses heavy use of muscles in your body. Most warm ups would start with a light jog around the area that you are going to participate in. For example, if you are about to participate in a game of football, then jogging the width of the pitch a few times is a good ideal start to a warm up. It is an ideal start as it warms up your muscles and makes them a lot more flexible, lowering the risk of injury.

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  20. Design and carry out a training program that will improve various aspects.

    Due to there being so many different types of sports the components of fitness needed in these activities vary from sport to sport. These components are put into two different categories, health related fitness and skill related fitness. Skill related fitness includes factors such as agility, balance, co-ordination, reaction time and power. The health related fitness factors include the following and are physiologically based: 1. Cardio respiratory or Aerobic Endurance The ability to do moderately strenuous activity over a period of time.

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  21. Personal Exercise Programme.

    So this means that in a game there is no time for a real rest. The game of water polo is played at the very fast rate with a lot of short sprints towards the goal and to get the ball, with very little recovery time. So the competitors ATP energy system is being used a lot. A high level of anaerobic fitness is needed because a player has to hold their breath while under water while trying to fight for position in the water. On top of this a highly aerobic fitness and cardiovascular fitness is needed to give the oxygen needed for sustained periods of the game.

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  22. Physical Education Fitness Log

    For my rugby and badminton, it would be beneficial to develop upper body muscular endurance ? this will enable me to perform better power shots, and for rugby I can be of more use in the scrum and ruck by being of more competition. For all sports it would be of use to have a good body composition, which will contribute to developing my speed, agility and flexibility, all skill related abilities that will put me in advantage to opponents.

    • Word count: 4824

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