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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. Personal Exercise Programme

    I do however sometimes endure from short-term shin aching which I presume is due to lack of accurate warm ups prior to participating in a physical sport. I have thorough knowledge of all the factors such as smoking, drugs etc that will considerably affect my performance. I have no intentions in abusing any drug etc so I should have the maximum chance to improve. During this programme, I will ensure that I will not go on any holidays chiefly because of reversibility hence once again the possibility of undergoing reversibility is trivial.

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  2. Action plan to improve backstroke.

    and when my first body part touches the water, before and after the programme. At the moment I currently complete a 15metre dive at a time of 7.20 seconds at the end of my programme I hope to achieve a time between 6.85- 6.95 seconds or less. Medium term goal: My medium term goal is to improve the component of fitness speed, as in fitness testing I scored just average in a timed 30metre sprint. Even though running is a totally different sport it will still help me to develop explosive strength.

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  3. My Personal Profile and exercise plan.

    I will be able to transfer energy more effectively whilst remaining balanced in a dynamic situation during a point. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle, or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions for an extended period of time. If I increase the muscular endurance in the muscle groups in my legs then I will be able to perform at maximum intensity during points for longer periods of time. Muscular strength is defined as the ability to use muscles to apply force to overcome resistance.

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  4. PE coursework

    I also need to be very agile to be able to move around the court, get away from my opposition and also mark them effectively when the other team is in possession of the ball. * Health problems and injuries: - Health problems and injuries obviously have an effect you performance during physical activities. It can affect your performance in many ways ranging from slightly to a lot depending on the nature of the chosen sport. By this I mean if you have a long-term injury it can affect your play as when you have recovered finally you may not be as strong and have to start back at basics to regain the strength in that area.

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  5. Indentifying skills to devise a suitable training programme

    Speed is essential in getting every beat heard synchronized and in step with the music. * Muscular Endurance: Strength in the lower leg is continuously needed throughout a dance to maintain separation and clarity of beats; without this sustained power and muscle sounds will begin to slur together and the whole performance will look sloppy. * Coordination: This is fundamental in being able to work the different parts of the foot with each other and with other parts of the body like the arms and head. It is impossible to synchronize and manage the body as a whole without it.

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  6. Training Programme

    My "bleep test" results prove that I need to work on my muscular and cardio-vascular endurance. If I was to become a marathon runner, I would not last very long seeing as I would not have enough muscular endurance in the legs and enough cardio-vascular endurance to supply oxygen to my muscles. My speed can be varied. I have a quicker reaction time than movement time. The "ruler drop" test shows that my reaction is fairly quick however I could maybe speed it up a bit more. On the other hand, my movement time is not so successful.

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  7. Trainning Programme

    I hope to improve my fitness however, by increasing exercise and eating a healthy balanced diet. In a typical week I get at least 3 different sessions of exercise. I dance regularly. This includes no less than two hours of dance on every Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. This is the main exercise I get each week. Without my dancing, I would not get very much exercise, which means I wouldn't be very healthy and have the stamina that I currently have.

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  8. analysing performance for physical eductation

    Then this person will work on their technical aspects and will try and improve their cricketing skills. This should result in a better output in performance for this player. I would describe this sought of person as mentally strong. FIELDING * As a good cricketer you should be a good fielder because fielding is a key aspect of cricket. In fielding your aim is to reduce runs you do this by creating pressure. You should walk in and prevent the batting side to get the singles.

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  9. Analysis of Performance GCSE PE Coursework

    * Power is needed so the player is able to jump high enough to win headers. * Acceleration is needed in order to start sprinting quickly to get to the ball before other players. Two strengths that I think I have when playing centre back are: Strength 1: (Speed).I am able to keep up with the pace of the game and I rarely struggle to run at the speed of attackers. Strength 2: (Power).Power enables me to jump higher so I am able to win headers and clear the ball from danger.

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  10. Athletics - Expected Performance and Record Holders of the 100 meters.

    � The track has to be properly marked at the starting and finishing points. � Use of starting block is a must at the international athletics competitions. � Use of automatic timing device approved by the IAAF is mandatory for recording time during the competition. � Running inside the inner curve of the track during the race is not permitted. The athletes are not even allowed to step over the inner line. � Preliminary heat rounds are arranged for selecting athletes for the next round. Only those athletes are eligible to compete in the next rounds, which qualify in the heats.

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  11. Sport Studies

    goals should be time phased Fitt: * F: frequency of the skill * I: intensity of the skill * T: timing of the skill * T: type of activities Badminton is a very fitness demanding sport. There are a great deal of attributes a person needs in order to become successful. The main fitness components are agility, speed, muscular endurance, muscular power and cardio-respiratory endurance. Good hand eye co-ordination is a must in this sport, in order to become successful. Agility is the ability to change the position of the body and the direction of the body quickly and accurately.

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  12. PEP For Badminton

    Near to where I live is 'Ribby Hall'. This is a holiday village that is also open to the public. This is convenient, as there is a gym and some badminton courts in the sports area. I could use this to my advantage when training. To build muscle on my legs I could also run. This is also convenient for me, as I live in a village and there is not much traffic to get in the way. I will train on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday.

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  13. Free essay

    GCSE P.E - PEP

    We had to complete as many laps of the course as we could during a 15 minute period. I managed to complete 6 laps of the course during the 15 minute period. After this exercise it took me 5 minutes to recover back to my resting rate which was 64 beats per minute. My heart rate at the end of the activity was 122 beats per minute. 12 minute Cooper Run was the third fitness test we completed during the third we of the programme. In this test you have to run round a square as many times as possible during a 12 minute period.

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  14. PEP My chosen sport is football and I want to improve on my cardio vascular endurance and also on my strength of my leg as I would like to be more able to shoot harder in matches

    I am going to work in the gym in HHS as part of my PEP personal exercise program and hope to increase my fitness by doing this for a 6 week period. In the gymnasium we have to work 5/6 different working stations where we started off by going onto a cardiovascular station for at least 20min or we have a choice of going onto 2 different cardiovascular stations such as Treadmill and Bicycle. And then we had a choice of 4 different resistant machines which we had to set ourselves a target on and we should try to achieve that target.

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  15. Sports Science

    Your heart and lungs also work together as your lungs take in oxygen which then diffuses into the blood stream, this travels around to the heart where the oxygenated blood is pumped around the body and to the working muscles, this allows the body to work aerobically for a longer period of time, meaning if I work on my stamina then I will be able to sustain the length of the volleyball match easily without tiring. Muscular Endurance - Because in volleyball your voluntary muscles will need to last for a long time throughout the length of the volleyball match and work many times without tiring in the anaerobic activity.

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  16. P.E.P The sport that I am going to do my P.E.P (personal exercise programme) is football.

    My cardiovascular endurance is good but I always start feeling tired towards the last 15 minutes of the game. I do a lot of running In a match weather it is pushing up to support the midfield or covering one of the defenders, either way I am always back and forth in a game. My components of fitness will determine which I will need to work on but I believe it is strength and cardiovascular endurance. I will also work on my power. Health Related Components Football is a complex sport and requires many different health and skill related components.

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  17. PE coursework: football

    One of the greatest advantages of football is that derivatives of the game, such as five-a-side, can be played indoors in sports halls and outdoors on any piece of land available and with fewer players than normal for the full version of the game. Many games of five-a-side are played in the street, on the beach, or on a piece of waste ground with minimal facilities and little organisation. This is what allows so many different types of people to enjoy the sport.

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  18. personal exercise plan The training plan will be made using information I know about how to improve as a football player

    Strikers need power for shooting. * Reaction time - helps react to sudden movements quicker, essential for goalkeepers. * Speed - helps when beating opposition players, strikers need speed to beat defenders. * Co-ordination - the ability to move more than one body part simultaneously. Effects of exercise on the body In this section I will show the effects of exercise on the body: Oxygen Debt The amount of extra oxygen required by muscle tissue during recovery from vigorous exercise. The extra oxygen gets rid of the lactic acid in your muscles after exercise. Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Training The main difference between aerobic and anaerobic training is that one uses oxygen whilst the other uses lactic acid.

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  19. components of fitness

    pass from a player on my own team if it is a high pass as if I jump there is more chance I will successfully receive it without it been intercepted. Also when defending the net when the opposing goal shooter or goal attack are going to shoot I can use this sort of strength to jump in front of them and try to get the ball before it goes into the net. Strength endurance, as a goal defence player I have two thirds of the court to cover and am therefore always on the move trying to keep opposition

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  20. personal exercise plan My sport- FOOTBALL

    * Power - helps when shooting and defending. Defenders need power and strength. Strikers need power for shooting. * Reaction time - helps react to sudden movements quicker, essential for goalkeepers. * Speed - helps when beating opposition players, strikers need speed to beat defenders. * Co-ordination - the ability to move more than one body part simultaneously. Effects of exercise on the body In this section I will show the effects of exercise on the body: Oxygen Debt In order to get rid of lactic acid it is vital for your muscles to hold extra oxygen.

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  21. Planning and performing a health promoting exercise program for football

    The aim of my circuit is to improve both anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and to increase the muscular strength of my legs. To achieve this I have to improve the relevant fitness factors. The fitness factors that I need to improve are: stamina, speed, agility and explosive muscular strength. Stamina is needed so that the body can continue to perform at the highest level for the whole 90 minutes of a football match. I hope to improve speed because it is needed in football for sharp bursts of speed.

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  22. pe pep on swimming

    My most preferred lane when racing is the outside left lane To be successful in Swimming ... A swimmer needs to have the following qualities and components of fitness as with out these they wont be able to play up to the standards of the other competators and this is essential to win. * Determination - A swimmer needs determination because they need the encouragement and thought the win the race. If a competitor can not be bothered to compete or train then there is no point them taking part in the activity. They need to be able to have the strength to push them selves that bit further.

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  23. Health-related Exercise/Training Programme

    Finally, reversibility. Reversibility is when you stop training because of illness or injury, and your levels of fitness therefore drop because you have stopped training, when you start training again, you need to start at a lower level and work your way back up to the level which you were at before. This is not such a key issue in this case, because it will only become an issue in my project if I sustain an injury or pick up an illness which means that I cannot train.

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  24. P.E coursework - Badminton

    Also I did the Harvard Step Test and managed 69 steps in one minute. My pulse rate at rest is ___ bmp and after jogging for 30 seconds it is ___ bmp and takes ___ seconds to go back to normal. I shall do this simple test in two weeks time to see if my endurance has increased. I have a high running speed as I am the fastest in my year group at my school. Some rules of badminton The way in which badminton is played is as follows. Once the shuttle is in play, the point continues with players attempting to hit the shuttle back and forth across the net.

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  25. PE Circuit Training

    To stop this occurring I will do the circuit every week. Tedium To make my training circuit successful I will need to make sure its not too tedious.I need to keep it as interesting as possible in order to make myself perform to my full potential. I will do this by making each station a reasonable time and make sure I don't repeat anything in the circuit. I will also try and make it competitive as this will also make me perform to my full potential. Aspects of Fitness For my chosen sport of football, I have decided to improve the following aspects of fitness; agility, speed, strength and co-ordination.

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