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GCSE: Exercise and Training
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What to think about when planning a warm up activity
- 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
- 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
- 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
- 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
- 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.
Why are warm ups important?
- 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
- 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
- 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
- 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
- 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).
Flexibility as part of a warm up
- 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
- 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
- 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
- 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
- 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.
The overall aims of my personal exercise program are to: 1. Improve specific and current fitness levels required for my sporting activity Cricket e.g. Cardio vascular endurance
My endurance is at a good level however my strength is poor. From this table, I have to be able to make a graph to show my level of fitness and then the level which is needed for my sport. It also shows what level I want to be at the end of my P.E.P. To summarize these I want my upper body strength and all round body strength to be very good so I am looking for an increase in the weight which I can bench press.
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This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is volleyball and he wants to improve his flexibility, muscular strength and cardiovascular system. I will make sure I use different training methods
They are also not boring activities as some of them are done in the athletics tracks, which makes my client breathe fresh air and get in the running atmosphere. Smart goals for his weaknesses: I have made SMART goals for this 6-week training programme. This will help my client from the beginning to the end. It will help him by making sure he focuses on the training programme, make him motivate and confident. His muscular strength in his abdominals will hopefully improve from 42 sit ups a minute to at least 50, then 28 cm at the sit and reach
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In this essay I will be talking about exercise health and lifestyle and how they all link in. Then in the next part I will be talking diseases that can be caused by a lack of exercise a sedentary lifestyle (poor exercise eating unhealthy foods etc.)
Any one's lifestyle can be put into two categories it can be either active where you take lots of physical activity or play sport and have an physical demanding job some examples of these are Builders, Carpenters or fitness instructors. If you don't have an active lifestyle then you have a sedentary lifestyle, where you don't do any physical activity and have a non-active job, some examples of these are office workers, bus drivers or taxi drivers. Over the years lifestyle has transferred into more sedentary, this is because technology has increased and there is less manual jobs around and more office based environments.
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The purpose/aim of this programme is to see if I can make a detectable difference in my fitness over 6 sessions of physical training the areas of my fitness I will be testing are, agility, speed and stamina
perform to their full ability so to remedy this problem you could take the group indoors and adjust the session to the different environment but make sure it is as close as possible to the original session plan. At the beginning of my session I will begin a warm-up that will stretch all of the muscles and especially the muscles that will be doing a lot of work in the specific session, at the end of the session I will start a cool-down this will decrease the chance of someone picking up an injury or getting cramp at the end
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I will do this 5 times throughout the session(once every week. My second piece of skill will be free kicks. I will aim for a spot in the goal and see how many of my shots hit the target. I will record my results in a table then convert this into a graph. I will do this once a week and have 10 shots. I will do this 5 times a week. To measure my fitness elements I will: Muscular endurance- I will see how many press ups I can do in 1 minute.
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I have chosen Volleyball as my sporting activity for the personal exercise program. The reasons for this are that I have now played volleyball for the school teams
However, when trying to maximise performance, it is important to determine the athlete's ability in individual aspects of performance. Fitness testing attempts to measure individual components of performance, with the ultimate aim of studying and maximising the athlete's ability in each component. To test my main component of fitness, which is leg power, I shall be using the following test and I have justified why along with the name of the test: * 1 Repetition Maximum Squat The reason I have chosen to use this test to test my leg power is that the squat is an explosive exercise which will test the amount of power by the weight involved.
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Badminton is the sport I have chosen to train for and use my personal exercise plan to regain fitness. The new badminton season is about to begin and after a month of low intensity training and rest I need to improve
By improving my muscular endurance in my legs I would be able to carry on moving about the court effectively for a longer period of time without a lapse in my game performance. It will also allow me to continue jumping to take the shuttle earlier and at a higher point this making some of my shots more effective. By improving the muscular endurance of my arms I should in theory be able to carry on playing the same shot over and over again with consistency, allowing me to have a skilled advantage over an opponent whose level of play drops as thy get fatigued towards the end of a match.
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Training involves long periods of steady exercise that can include jogging, swimming and cycling. The most effective of these for cricket is jogging. If you have not jogged regularly before, start with a length of time or distance that you feel you can complete and gradually build this up until you are completing a minimum of 20 minutes. You should be able to jog at a pace at which you are able to hold a short conversation without getting out of breath. The responsibility is on YOU to plan this into your week. Coaches can give advice on helping you to "start the habit".
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I am going to be creating a personal exercise programme over the next six weeks. It will involve various activities e.g. circuit training. I will be doing three sessions a week, each one consisting of three circuits
Curls Arms Shoulder Stabilisers, Arms, Wrists Shuttle Runs General Legs, Arm Core Stabilisers, Cardio Vascular MUSCLE GROUPS Shoulder Stabilisers: Rhomboids; Levator Scapulae; Serratus Autirior; Pectoralis Major. Core Stabilisers: Abdominals. Wrist Fixators: Extensor Digitorum Arm: Triceps; Biceps; Levator Scapulae; Trapezius; Deltoid; Supraspinatus; Infraspinatus; Pectoral Major/Minor; Teres Major/Minor; Subscapularus; Coraco Brachio Radalin; Supinator; Forarm Flexors/Extensors. Abdominal: Rectus Abdominus; Transversus Abdominus; Internal/External Obliques; Diaphram. Pelvic: Pelvic Floor. Leg: Hamstrings; Quadriceps; Deltoid; Gastrocnemius; Soleus. Hip: Iiiopsoas; Gluteus Maximus; Gluteus Medius; Gluteus Minimus; Gracilis; Satorium.
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these are three of the component of skill; speed, strength and endurance ( both local muscular and cardio-vascular fitness). Speed; is needed as a striker has to run onto ball, take the ball around defenders, and to get into attacking position in order to pose a threat. As a striker is furthest forward they are always the main outlet to pass the ball and there main job on the pitch is to score goals, but to be able to do this they must have the speed to get into certain positions away from marking defenders. Strength; as previously stated a striker is the main outlet for over players being furthest up the pitch, and are often left up the pitch allow meaning they need to hold the ball up for support to arrive.
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PLANNING, PERFORMING, MONITORING AND EVALUATING A HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS EXERCISE/TRAINING PROGRAMME
* Power - Having the ability to contract our muscles with a large amount of speed and strength. In hockey, having a lot of power is good as it makes shooting faster and, therefore during a hit out we are able to get the ball away quickly. * Reaction Time - The time taken for the body to reacted to an action. In hockey out bodies must be able to react fast to something like stopping the ball when it is coming at a great speed when it is unecspected. I try to do as much training as often as I can; I regularly attend Hockey practices after school, and have also represented the school hockey team in a several matches.
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Stretching Your Muscles This stretching should be static and held for roughly 10 seconds each side and avoid injury by not bouncing. Stretching lengthens your muscle fibres and increases suppleness of the ligaments. This leads to increased mobility of the joints. Failing to complete this step could lead to injury such as, pulled muscles or muscle fibres and torn ligaments. I will start at my ankles and turn my feet so the side of my shoe is resting on the ground, then I will stretch the hamstrings by placing one foot in front of the other and pushing out my bum until I feel a strain.
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Co ordination: When a corner is taken or a cross comes in, a goal keeper needs good co ordination to know when to jump and when to grab the ball. Balance: When taking a goal kick you need good balance to make sure you don't fall over while taking it. Speed: If a defender misses the ball and a striker gets through, your need good speed to get to the ball. Power: To kick the ball far you will need good power to reach your chosen man.
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One thing I don't like is exercise where I feel I can't push myself enough this has sometimes happened in some circuits because what we are doing does not feel as if it is pushing me to my full ability. This means that when I am designing a programme I will have to make sure that all the activities will push me to my limit. Another thing I must consider is the facilities that I could use apart from the local sports centre there are not many facilities available to me but I do have a lot of peaceful running areas near my home so I may be able to make good use of those.
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I am producing a training programme to improve my endurance and skill levels for the sport of rugby union. I will be doing pre-season training as then
equilibrium when stationary or moving Stork Test on a Bench 11.37 Below Average I am happy with most of my results as they are average or above average. With the types of fitness that are specific to rugby, for example, Muscular Power and Agility, I believe that I have achieved quite high levels. I did not achieve high levels in balance, stamina and maximum strength. I am not too upset with my balance rating as I believe that it is not as specific to rugby as agility.
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The sport that I have chosen is football. I must include in this piece of work, the fitness exercises that will be used in the circuit and reason for inclusion, the skill activities that will be done
It will also include gentle stretching of my main muscle groups, which will be the Gastrocnemius, Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Pectorals, Biceps, and Triceps. The warm down will consist of a period of light exercise. This will help to remove carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and other waste products, which if not removed will result in stiffness, and injury. There are many other factors that I must consider when thinking about the actual circuit-training programme. These are such things as Progression, Overload, and Order of exercises and Reversibility.
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The activity that will be covered during this programme is rounders. The aim the overall coursework is to improve my ability to plan a training programme
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING A training session consists of four main parts that contribute to it. These are: * A warm up * A fitness session * A skills session * A cool down Within these components specific principles will be looked at. Specificity- the right training must be chosen for rounders Progression- slowly increasing the workload as the training progresses Overload- making all the systems in the body work harder Reversibility- knowing that fitness cannot be stored Tedium- changing activities in training to keep interest at a high level Relevance to rounders Specificity- the activities that would be covered would
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Aims related to skill & fitness Football requires health and skill related components. The health related components I require are strength, balance and endurance. I will be focusing mainly on lower body strength but I will also train my upper body. Lower body strength is important in football as football involves running up and down the pitch for 45 minutes a half and your legs need to be able to carry you (muscular endurance). Footballers also need lower body strength, as they go to strike a ball, for either shooting or passing.
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The sport I am going to do for my training programme is Football, the programme will last for 6 week
With all this experience in the game I feel I should be able to produce a good training programme. Also the programme will involve information on diet because what you eat is crucial to how you perform. So there will be a weekly diet the player should keep to, weekly exercise regime and weekly training drills. A football player covers the ground in a variety of ways: sprinting short distances, jogging, walking, shuffling and moving sideways and backwards. With this in mind, my training program will consist of more than steady state running, or basic interval training around a track, in an attempt to mimic the movement patterns of an actual game.
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Improve specific and current fitness levels required for my sporting activity football e.g. Cardio vascular
Speed will need to be improved to gain a higher level of performance when attacking with the ball. Power will enable me to compete with greater success when trying to win the ball in a tackle and in the air. * Power is the amount of work done per unit of time, so when we consider human movement is the product of strength and speed. * The same work (strength) can be done in a shorter period of time (speed). Anaerobic and Aerobic Sessions When we reach our anaerobic threshold, it means that we are working so hard that we cannot get enough oxygen to our muscles quickly enough.
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* Coordination- Refers to the ability to integrate the actions of parts of the body (eg. hand-eye coordination, eye-foot coordination). * Speed- Time from the initiation to completion of a movement (ability to cover a distance in a short period of time). * Agility- refers to the accuracy and speed of changing direction whilst moving. Football is a physically demanding sport and as a centre forward or whatever position you play on the pitch a good fitness level is needed in order to play at a reasonable standard except the goalkeeper perhaps.
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and will perform a low number of repetitions. Flexibility This factor of fitness is needed in every sport and is needed sufficiently within basketball to perform at a high level. Flexibility is the range of movements possible at a joint; the elasticity of ligaments, tendons, the strength of the surrounding muscles and the shape of articulating bones determine the range of these movements. The ability to carry out a wide range of movement's means I can perform even constantly required movements such as shooting the basketball at a higher level.
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These include, possible training methods, principle of training and diet. I do not have any health or injury problems. I consider myself to be a fit and healthy person. The fitness requirements for football are as follows: * Aerobic and anaerobic fitness/capacity is needed because in a 90-minute football match an average player runs at least 4 to 5000m and most of this running is covered by the players' anaerobic capacity. * A footballer needs all round flexibility. I decided to design the training programme for football.
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Dynamic warm up can also improve flexibility and mobility. This can lead to a reduced risk of muscle tears, sprains or strains. Considerations: Make sure the warm up includes the following: $ Whole body exercises that gradually increase the intensity $ Some static stretches $ Sport specific skills or movement drills $ Sport specific dynamic stretches and mobility work Action Identify key exercises to include in warm up, and develop a specific pre-match/competition and pre training warm up Cool Down This is the transition phase between exercise and rest, and just as you shouldn't go from rest to strenuous activity neither should you do the opposite, for three main reasons.
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My present level of fitness is about average, I do play a lot of sport. I play football at break times and lunchtimes for about half an hour each day, also I participate in a lot of walking by going to my friends' houses over the weekend. The five fitness/ skills I want to improve are: 1) Ball Skills 2) Muscular Strength 3) Muscular Endurance 4) Agility 5) Speed If I concentrate and improve on these 5 skills, I believe I will turn out a much better player as a striker in football.
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