• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26
  27. 27

How muscles and joints are used by different sportspeople.

Extracts from this document...


Assignment one Here are the profiles of my four clients: Name: David Beckham Age: 33 Sport: Football Name: Amir Khan Age: 21 Sport: Boxing Name: Paula Radcliff Age: 34 Sport: Long Distance Runner Name~Tim Henman Age: 33 Sport: Tennis Player The Skeleton Bones The Skeleton Functions Amir Khan's skeleton protects him from getting badly hurt. His rib cage protects him and the vital organs including the heart in that area. Without the protection of the rib cage Amir Khan would get injured. The skeleton supports David Beckham by holding him upright. Without a skeleton our body would collapse into a heap on the ground. Without the support of the skeleton David Beckham would not be able kick the ball. Paula Radcliffe is able to move because of the co-operation between the muscles and bones. The muscles are attached to the bones which create a joint and lever system which allows the bones to move freely. Tim Henman needs his skeleton to give his shape. The skeleton gives him the framework to give the rest of his body recognizable shape. We all have the same skeleton structure. Animals have a different structure to us humans. Without your skeleton you would fall to the ground. Blood Cell Production Red and White Blood Cells are produced in the bone marrow of the ribs, humerus, femur and vertebra. Red Blood Cells transport oxygen around the body. The white blood cells fight any diseases in our body. All four of my clients need blood cell production because when they are playing their chosen sport their blood will need to travel faster so that my clients can get oxygen to keep them going. ...read more.


The key centre of this ossification is in the shaft or Diaphysis of the bone (where cartilage turns into Bone first) due to the presence of the Bone forming cells called osteoblasts. At birth most of the diaphysis consists of bone. The Secondary centre of ossification (where Cartilage turns into bone) occurs In the epiphysis (the ends of the bones). As cartilage dies off it leaves gaps forming a honey~ Comb structure. The gaps left are filled with bone Forming cells called osteoblasts, bloodvessels and bone eroding cells called octibiocists. Front View Back View Back View Muscles Muscles are VERY important without them you couldn't do anything. Your body needs muscles like a car needs petrol. Because muscles are so important they are incredibly clever. They also grow stronger as they get more practice. Their are different types of muscles: skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle, Voluntary and Involuntary muscle and Cardiac muscle. Voluntary muscle There is another name for this and it is called striped muscle it is called this because when you look at it through a micro-scope that it what it looks like. It is called Voluntary because you have total control over it and its functions. Striped/Voluntary muscles are always found in Antagonistic muscles. Involuntary muscle Another name for this is smooth muscle it is called this because that's what it looks like through a microscope. It is called Involuntary because you cannot make it work through conscious control it is automatic. Skeletal muscle It's a type of striped muscle which usually attachs to tendons. Skeletal muscles are used to create movement by applying force to joints and bones via contraction. ...read more.


All this allows her to keep her balance while she is running. Paula Radcliffes, Deltoids / Pectoralis Major contract and Latissimus Dorsi relax eccentrically this allows for flexion happen in her right shoulder and her Deltoids/Pectoralis Major relax and Latissimus Dorsi eccentrically contract to let hyper-extension occur in her left shoulder. This helps her to keep good posture while running. Tim Henman's biceps relax and triceps isotonically contract to allow extension to occur in the left elbow~ this allows him to take a shot. His Wrist Flexors/Extensors eccentrically contract to allow pronation to happen in his left wrist this is also assists him in taking a shot. His Deltoids / Pectoralis Major relax and Latissimus Dorsi isotonically contract/relax to allow hyper extension to occur in the left shoulder. . His left shoulder needs to hyper-extend so he can have the right balance. Mr Beckham's Glutes/Maximus quadriceps relax and Hamstrings relax concentrically allowing for flexion to occur at his right hip and moving it in front of him therefore allowing him to shoot the ball. His Gluteus Maximus / Hamstrings contract and quadriceps isotonically relax concentrically for flexion to occur allowing Mr Beckham to move his left hip. Moreover when D.Beckham is in movement he needs to swing his shoulders so he is able to shoot in order for this to occur his deltoids and Pectoralis Major / Latissimus Dorsi eccentrically contract/relax to allow for hyper-extension to happen in his left shoulder. His pectoralis major/deltoids relax and latissimus dorsi eccentrically contract and hyper-extension to occur in his left shoulder and his biceps and triceps isotonically contract to allow for flexion to occur in his left elbow. All these things allow him to shoot the ball with ease and to have good posture. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Anatomy and Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Anatomy and Physiology essays

  1. Fatigue - affects on the body

    After the three minutes the body should be recovered to repeat the exercise. Slow lactate recovery is a lactate component (lactacid). This involves the replenishment of muscle glycogen and as well as the oxidation of lactic acid. This lasts a lot longer and is the flatter part of Fig.1 at the end.

  2. Conduct the Queens Step test (provided) for all 4 students. Record the resting heart ...

    Measuring Stroke volume can also be done accurately with medical professionals. Cardiac output Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped from the heart per minute. It can be determined by multiplying stroke volume by the amount of times the heart beats per minute.

  1. Personal Exercise Programme

    Session 2 = 5909 for rowing machine and 5876 for bicycle machine and finally for session 3 I did 16 shuttles 22 Toe raises 27 Tuck jumps. My pulse rate was good and I am showing signs of improvement In conclusion from my results we can see my fitness levels

  2. Muscles. The following letter will highlight key information on muscles, contractions and fibres, and ...

    This is called an antagonistic contraction. For example: as the hamstrings contract to cause flexion at the knee, the hamstrings are the agonist and the quadriceps is the antagonistic. This is reversed during extension: the hamstrings become the antagonist and the quadriceps the agonist.

  1. joint tenancy is a form of co-ownership whereby all the owners are together seen ...

    Another crucial difference between the two forms of co-ownership is that in a tenancy in common there is no right of survivorship. The final key difference is that only one of the four unities has to be present this is the unity of possession.

  2. Negative effects of exercise Exercise is also known for its vast results ...

    The dieting behaviour goes underground so that it can become a private secret rather than a public activity and strategies are developed to convince "others" that eating is taking place when in fact it is not. This requires a great deal of craftiness such as throwing food away, finding ways

  1. Movements occurring at synovial joints during sports activities

    When you are in the anatomical position and you bend your elbow as if bringing your palm to your shoulder, which is the movement of the hinge joint. The movement at this joint will be flexion and extension. Team Sport: Football Football is a widely played sport in which a lot of people enjoy participating in.

  2. Monitoring Food and Its Effects on the Body

    carbohydrates, 24% comes from fats and since there were no intake of alcohol, it did not make any contribution towards the total calories. It can be seen that the amount of protein taken is nearly half of the total calories, where the fats and carbohydrates contribute approximately half each of the rest of the total weekly calories intake.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work