In this essay I will be talking about exercise health and lifestyle and how they all link in. Then in the next part I will be talking diseases that can be caused by a lack of exercise a sedentary lifestyle (poor exercise eating unhealthy foods etc.)
Exercise and Risks
In this essay I will be talking about exercise health and lifestyle and how they all link in. Then in the next part I will be talking diseases that can be caused by a lack of exercise a sedentary lifestyle (poor exercise eating unhealthy foods etc.)
Health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (world health organisation). ‘A healthy state of well being free from disease.’ All the definitions from the word health are virtually the same; the definition from WHO says it just doesn’t need physical activity to be healthy but socially as well. This means that they should interact with other people and socialize that could then lead onto physical health, as that would help them to get out more maybe into clubs activities etc. Health can be split into two categories, mental health and physical health. A person with good mental health can handle every day events that occur and some one with poor mental health is exactly the opposite. Some one with poor physical health does not take part in physical activity or sport enough. Some one who has good physical health is the précised opposite. We can all do our bit to improve our health things such as smoking, exercise and a balanced diet that includes lots of fruit and vegetables are a few examples however we all grow old and there are some factors that will eventually happen (uncontrollable factors) for example the ageing process which is to do with your age that we will start to become less mobile and muscle mass decreases this starts to happen over the age of 30. Lots of factors control a persons health these include Lifestyle. Lifestyle can be explained as ‘a way of life or style that reflects the attitudes and values of a person or group’. Any one’s lifestyle can be put into two categories it can be either active where you take lots of physical activity or play sport and have an physical demanding job some examples of these are Builders, Carpenters or fitness instructors. If you don’t have an active lifestyle then you have a sedentary lifestyle, where you don’t do any physical activity and have a non-active job, some examples of these are office workers, bus drivers or taxi drivers. Over the years lifestyle has transferred into more sedentary, this is because technology has increased and there is less manual jobs around and more office based environments. Also more people have chosen to use cars or buses as a mean of transport. Instead of walking or cycling. People are now even have labour-saving devices such as dish washes and washing machines to do what used to be by hand job. You can even buy your shopping on the computer instead of walking to the shops. Quite a few people sit down in front of the television as a use of entertainment instead of playing sports or doing physical activity. It’s estimated that that an average male watches television for 26hours a week so it makes life very sedentary. People who have an active lifestyle take lots of exercise. Exercise is deemed as ‘the activity of exerting your muscles in various different ways to keep fit’. ‘Any activity designed to develop or hone a skill or ability’. There can be a wide range of definitions for exercise because you can split exercise into two categories, Fitness and physical activity. Fitness is where the body can function and do every day activities without fatigue, and meet the stresses of every day life. The levels of fitness can be influenced by nutrition; if a person does not have enough calories to exercise they are unable to take part. Therefore they should have ample energy to exercise regally. Aspects of fitness include aerobic fitness, strength and endurance. Physical Activity is different compared to other aspects like sport; sport is classed as sport when competition is involved. Physical activity is such things as walking up the stairs or walking to the shops. It’s ‘defined as the stat of being active’. (Jennifer Stafford – Brown, Simon Rea and John Chance p372) Physical activity can also increase a person’s basal metabolic rate by 10% basal metabolic rate is measurement of energy required to keep the body functions working when the body is at rest, this can last for up to 48hours after the body has finished physical activity. When physical activity is occurring to burns kilocalories. Depending on what you do and at what intensity the more you kilocalories you’ll burn. For example if you go cycling then you are only using the leg muscles, where as if you swim freestyle then you will are you using your arm muscles as well as your leg muscles. So you will be burning more. Also if a heavy person did the same exercise and the same intensity as a lighter person then the heavier person will burn more kilocalories. This is because the heavier person has to use his/her muscles harder therefore that person will burn more kilocalories.
The government has taken steps to improve the nations fitness levels and get more people involved into either sport or physical activity. In 1991 it took a survey called the ‘Allied Dunber national fitness survey’ in this survey the government came out with several conclusions. They found out that we, as Britain’s are not physically active enough. Were not as physically fit as we think we are. We should aim to exercise a minimum of three times a week. It does not hurt in order to get fit. Fitness levels should be built up gradually. We should take long runs regularly. An active lifestyle should be a way of life. Which is hard for people who are in a living of office based work life. Exercise should not be looked apon as a task rather as a pleasure. Lastly sport can be pleasant and healthy way of exercising. The main reason way the government has put loads of money into getting people into physical activity is so the government doesn’t have to spend as much on the NHS.
There are many advantages when having a healthy active lifestyle (exercising regularly) it can reduce stress and high blood pressure. It can delay the Ageing process. Also it can personally improve confidence as it get rids of catharsis (release of negative emotions) you feel and look better if you exercise regularly, you may also meet new friends being sociable instead of being in a state of infirmity. Taking part in regularly exercise has shown to decrease in a lot of diseases and conditions, Such as coronary heart disease.
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Coronary heart disease is where arteries leading away from the heart start to narrow, this is a result of a build up of fatty material which builds up in the blood vessels called plaques. Plaques are thought to play a major role in causing in heart disease by clogging up the arteries. This is a process called athersclerosis. Scientist’s has discovered the specific ‘bad cholesterol’ that causes heart disease low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which has combined with oxygen. This is transported in the blood if the levels of LDL get too high it slowly builds up on the walls of the arteries. Cholesterol is a waxy substance found among lipids (fats) in the bloodstream and in all your bodies’ cells. There are two types of cholesterol LDL cholesterol or ‘bad cholesterol’, which is mentioned above. The other is HDL cholesterol or ‘good cholesterol’ experts think that HDL carries the excess cholesterol away from the arteries that meaning it slows the growth of plaques.
When a person with CHD takes part in sport or physical activity because the coronary arteries have be parsley blocked they might not be able to transport blood to the muscles because of the need of oxygen, when this happens a pain in the chest occurs in the body called angina. If an artery becomes completely blocked then that area of the muscle will die resulting in a heart attack. To prevent coronary heart attacks it appears that exercise decreases the risk of a heart attack. Coronary heart disease is very rare in professional athletes because they are exercising a lot they are producing more ‘good cholesterol’, clearing the ‘bad cholesterol’ sports that are slightly at risk, would e sports such as darts or golf where there is not much physically exercise. Darts especially because many darts players smoke and drink heavy like Andy Fordham, these are factors that increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Increases the levels of ‘good cholesterol’ (HDL) that performs to clean the walls of the arteries. It can decrease the level of triglycerides (another type of fat that is also linked to an increase heart attacks as well as LDL cholesterol). It is recommended that you exercise five days a week for a time span of thirty minutes, which can be in separate periods. For example 10mins rest 10 mins etc. Many things can cause heart disease a poor diet inactivity and hypertension.
Hypertension or blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. There are two types of blood pressure systolic pressure is the pressure as the heart beats. The other is diastolic pressure, which is the pressure at rest. Someone whose blood pressure reads 140/90 is deemed as having hypertension. 140 represents systolic pressure and the 90 is the diastolic pressure. ‘If a person with hypertension does not reduce their blood pressure they are more at risk of suffering from a stroke or heart attack.’ (Jennifer Stafford Brown et al p374) To try an reduce hypertension then they should take part in aerobic exercise. Studies have proven that doing aerobic exercise, which is, ‘any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously, and is a rhythmic in nature’ (American College of sports medicine) usually experiences a reduction of diastolic pressure. It is also recommended here that you do exercise for five times a week, at least 30 minutes of continuous muscle use so your heart beat can beat 50% its maximum. Muscle strength is important so you must do at least one session a week on it. Exercise works because during conditioning, vessels dilate to increase blood supply. This vasodilation reduces the pressure exerted against the artery walls. With mild hypertension suffers its best to do walking or cycling at a low intensity to start off with then increase intensity you should always get advice from your doctor before doing exercise if you have a disease or condition. You are more likely to get hypertension if you have a poor diet, do not exercise enough sedentary lifestyle, or if you area obese.
Obesity is a condition that takes years to develop. This is due to taking too much energy into the body than it needs, this is then stored mainly as fat. A person who has 20% or more body fat is deemed to be obese. The most common way however to find out if your overweight or not is to use something called a body mass index (BMI) this based on weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared. If your BMI is read as having 20-25 that is fine 25-30 you are classed as being overweight 30-40 your classed as obese Obesity can be caused by, genetics in the family; they share the lifestyle and diet habits, therefore leading to obesity. The environment can influence some one. With adverts on fast foods and invention of computers mean more and more people are not getting involved with physical activity. (More information in lifestyle: section p1). Also many people like to eat even when they are not hunger this is because of negative emotions maybe affecting them. To get rid of these negative emotions (catharsis) exercise can help to do this. When they take part in exercise they burn up kilocalories the person who burns kilocalories starts to lose weight this is because they are in a state of negative energy balance (energy intake minus energy output). Fat burning exercises or low intensity for long periods are the best to combat obesity. Walking low impact exercise can be less stressful on the joints than a high impact exercise therefore for obese people its best to do low impact exercise’s. The world health organisation has described as a ‘worldwide epidemic’. It is estimated that 250 million people around the world are obese (7% of the adult population) In England it is reported that 50%of the adult population is overweight 7%of the male population is obese and 21% of women are too. Obese people are more at a risk of developing the following hypertension, stroke’s coronary heart disease some forms of cancer and type2 diabetes.
There are two types of diabetes. Type1 diabetes; which is insulin dependent. Which means the persons pancreas is no longer producing insulin. So it is imperative that to inject insulin into the body everyday to stay alive. It most often occurs in young adults and children, however adults may become type 1 diabetic later on in life such as sir Steve Redgrave. Type 1 diabetes counts for 5% to 10% of diabetes. Type2 diabetes is where it is non-insulin dependant. This means that the persons body is either unable to make enough insulin or that they have become less sensitive to it. Which leaves an uplifted amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Today type2 diabetes is reaching an epidemic levels. It counts for 90% - 95% of diabetes this is due to the rising number of obesity and inactivity. Usually a balanced diet of fruit and vegetables etc. and exercise can control diabetes. Type2 diabetes usually effects old overweight adults but due to the rise in poor diet and inactivity in children more and more children are becoming type 2 diabetic. Exercise is a good prevention and treatment for diabetic suffers. This is because exercise can help control your weight and lower your blood sugar level. It also lowers your risk of heart disease, a condition which is common in people who have diabetes. Exercise can also help you feel better about yourself and increase your overall health. Talk to your doctor about what kind of exercise is right for you. The type of exercise you can do will depend on whether you have any other health problems. ‘Most doctors recommend aerobic exercise, which makes you breathe more deeply and makes your heart work harder.’ Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, jogging, aerobic dance or bicycling. If you have problems with the nerves in your feet or legs, your doctor may want you to do a type of exercise that won't put stress on your feet. These exercises include swimming, bicycling, rowing or chair exercises. When you start an exercise program, go slowly. Then gradually increase the intensity and length of your sessions as you become more fit. Talk to your doctor for specific advice. However there are some risks when doing exercise if you are a diabetic. But the benefits far out weigh the risks. Doing exercise can change your bodies reaction to insulin. Doing regular physical activity can make your body sensitive to insulin. Hypoglycemia can also occur, which is your blood sugar level getting too low. Your doctor can advice you on what your blood sugar level should be before and after exercising. Therefore you should keep a check on your sugar level while exercising. If the level is too high or too low you should wait until the level is right before exercising. It is also important that you keep a check on your blood sugar levels while exercising in hot and cold conditions this is because different conditions can change the way your body can absorbs insulin. It is handy if you keep juice or sweets near by so when hypoglycemia may occur with symptoms of, a change in your heartbeat, suddenly sweat more, feel shaky or anxious, or feel hungry. Then you should stop exercising. People who are more active have a lower risk of getting diabetes (type2) than those who are sedentary have a higher risk. Patients with uncontrollable diabetes should be referred to their doctor. Exercises they shouldn’t do include the following Strength training or high impact exercises. This is because they can strain weakened blood vessels in the eye or injure blood vessels in the feet. Patients who have type1 diabetes will have to take in more carbohydrates prior to exercise this is for to maintain blood glucose levels during exercise. Not doing enough exercise can give you a higher risk of type2 diabetes and weaken joints this condition is called arthritis.
Arthritis is actually a term used to represent over 100 medical conditions named under this term, that collectively affect nearly 70 million adults and 300,000 children in America alone. ‘The synovial membrane of one or more joints has become inflamed’ (Jennifer et al p376). Rheumatoid arthritis is an example of the many types of arthritis. ‘Rheumatic diseases are characterized by inflammation (signs are redness and/or heat, swelling, and pain) and loss of function of one or more connecting or supporting structures of the body. They especially affect joints, tendons, ligaments, bones, and muscles. Common symptoms are pain, swelling, and stiffness’. The cartilage for example in the knee acts as a shock absorb top prevent your knee’s hitting in to each other. When this comes damaged the inflamed cartilage will become inflamed therefore becoming rough and thin. This continues to rub away until the bones rub against each other, which is extremely painful, this will reduce movement. When people with arthritis exercise they should do aerobic exercises, this is because they are less stressful impact exercises. This will then help the person with more flexibility; improved strength and endurance are a few. People with arthritis should also concentrate on mobilising exercises this will prevent the joints become stiff and mobile. Synovial fluid production will increase when taking part in mobilising exercises. This synovial fluid will help lubricate the joint, which will cushion it. Also this will increase the blood flow to the tissues around the joint and keep it healthy. Swimming and hydrotherapy are specific examples of strength training. Strength training will also help someone with arthritis because in contrast to someone who didn’t do strength training like the examples given above there muscles would be weaker compared to someone who did do strength training therefore there muscles around the joint(s) will be more mobile as the muscles are stronger to contract. Exercising everyday for someone with arthritis will help to prevent joint(s) becoming stiff painful and keep muscles strong. Even though people with arthritis have bad days when they feel more pain they still should do exercise if they want to improve there mobility of there joint. Another example of arthritis is osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a disease where there is a lack of mineral ‘s therefore leading to the density of the bones decreasing. Because of this the bones have a higher risk of break or prone to deformity an example of these is lose of height. Osteoporosis is otherwise known as the ‘silent disease’, this is because not many people now they have osteoporosis until they fracture or break a bone. This can happen to any bone in the body. It is more likely to occur in the spine, hip and wrist but there is no cure. A moderate exercise program emphasizing weight-bearing activities and resistive or strength training is recommended. Weight bearing exercises simply means your bones and muscles are working against gravity. This is any activity in which your feet and legs are bearing your body weight including: walking, jogging, hiking, dancing, low-impact aerobics, stair climbing and racquet sports. Swimming and biking, although great aerobic exercise, are not weight-bearing. Resistive or strength training works your muscles to improve muscle mass and strength. Bones are strengthened in the process. Such exercise includes: hand-held weights, exercise bands/tubes, and variable-resistance machines (i.e. plate or pneumatic-air machines). Osteoporosis is preventable depending on the type of diet that you have The RDA of calcium for bone strength and vitamin D for calcium absorption. It also helps if a person has exercised through out child hood that they will grow up to have more likely build strong, dense bones. Many people feel that because they have arthritis exercise will not do them could. This could lead them to staying in the house feeling down and upset perhaps into depression
‘Depression is not something you can just "snap out of." It's caused by an imbalance of brain chemicals, along with other factors. Like any serious medical condition, depression needs to be treated.’ In any given 1-year period, 9.5 percent of the population, or about 18.8 million American adults, suffer from a depressive illness. Depression is the most common form of mental illness and can vary from ‘feeling blue’ or anxious through to major depression, people who suffer from serious depression have functional impairments that affect relationships quality of life, ability to work and physical health. It is twice more likely to affect women as it does in men. This could be because women are more about appearance etc. and when there are not it puts them down and affect other walks of life. Symptoms of depression include fatigue; so the person has no energy into do anything. Sleeplessness, the person cannot get a good night sleep they are always waking up etc. decreased appetite, they have no interest in eating much. Decreased sexual interest. Weight change so it could be an increase or decrease and constipation. It is reported that an estimated 15% of those with severe depression will commit suicide. Many people do not seek medical help want depressed. Usually when you are diagnosed with depression when they are feeling down for over two weeks. They may also feel they can’t concentrate others may fell irritate for no apparent reason. When undertaking exercise studies have proved that it ‘increases self esteem, improves mood, reduces anxiety levels, increases the ability to handle stress and makes generally makes people happier than those who did not do exercise’ (Jennifer et al). Some people believe that exercising can get rid of your catharsis, which are negative emotions such as anger, sadness and frustration. Releasing these emotions can help treat depression. Other people may say that people who are depressed look at their life and environment in a negative way, taking part in exercise can reverse this as they may get into the right body and weight shape and start looking at life in a positive manner. Doing this it gives them a sense of achievement because they have reached one of their goals, this good then give them a sense of achievement and success and want more of it and start to succeed in all walks of life. Research has shown that exercise decrease depression after only one session this includes anxiety is reduced for up to 6 hours after exercise exercising can have the same effect as antidepressant drugs. Some people however may get indicted to exercising therefore they need it all the same. When they can’t have it they may feel down etc and back to the beginning. When someone is depressed psychologically exercise enhances a sense of mastery, which is important for both healthy and depressed individuals who feel a loss of control over their lives. As taking in exercise improves overall health in puts them in good shape, weight and flexibility, which may enhance the way they look, as they feel confident as they have a good physique. Exercising can also take your mind off any worries they have in the real world this is only a temporally distraction though they may still worry about past failings etc. Physiologically exercise affects the body’s neurochemistry of mood regulation. It has been shown to raise levels of important chemicals in the brain such as endorphins, adrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. These chemicals reduce pain and can induce euphoria which is linked to ‘runner’s high’ that helps improve sleep disturbance, which is a symptom of depression. Aerobic activities are the best type of exercise when a person has depression. This includes walking and cycling. But its best to do weight training that could let out frustration and anger. ACSM say that ’20-60minutes aerobic exercise 3-5 times per week is acceptable. It is very important that they undertake group activities as well this will increase their social involvement and help them enjoy it and improve their mental health as well as physical health. This will help them break the fatigue barrier, as this is one of the symptoms that cause depression. Over the past decade or so exercise has been prescribed as a method of combating depression. Cardiovascular disease is one of the problems that depression can cause cardiovascular diseases include; hypertension Williams syndrome heart value disease and many, many more. It can also cause premature ageing.
Ageing is a process that will affect everybody eventually. Ageing can affect the body in many ways it decreases a persons physical fitness levels we can see this when not many top athletes (sportsmen/women) are not over the age of 30. This is because after the age of 30 the body has several effects, ‘muscles mass decreases, joints become less mobile, hormone levels are lowered and immune system becomes less effective’ (Jennifer et al p379). Ageing not only effects physical health but mental health too, as you get older brain mass also decreases, once the cells of the central nervous system die, they do not get replaced. Also when you get older artery walls become thicker and less elastic this is because of the cardiovascular system becomes impaired which is a result of 70% of deaths from coronary heart disease in those over the age of 65. When someone gets older their activity levels decrease as their muscle mass has decreased and their muscle tissue too decreases. Scientists therefore do not know how much muscle tissue is lost due to the ageing process because people get less active when they grow older. As we age performance in both endurance and strength events decrease by about 1-2% per year starting between ages 25-30. Therefore research proves that physiological performance reaches its maximum between late teens and 30 years old. It generally improves rapidly during childhood. Also from research that at best no more than 20% and possibly less than 10% of adults obtain sufficient regular exercise to impact health and fitness benefits. Maximum strength usually achieved between 20-30years of age. Thereafter there is a progressive decline in strength for most muscle groups. There is a decline of at least 16% by persons 3rd decade of life. Taking part in exercise has huge benefits especially if you exercise when you’re older. It is proven that when older people exercise regularly it improves muscle strength, balance, joint suppleness and overall physical co-ordination. As heart disease is more common in older people exercising can reduce blood pressure and reduce weight, which is causes of heart disease. Exercising can also prevent a number of diseases above for example osteoporosis and diabetes. Many older people suffer from loneliness therefore it is important that they get involved in-group activities, which can improve physical health as well as mental health. To make sure that a person stays fit and healthy they should undertake a balanced programme, which may include a moderate activity such as walking for 30 minutes a day, walking is the easiest activity as it has no skills required. This 30minutes can also be split up in to 10 minute period then you could choose a different activity like swimming is a example so u don’t get bored of the same activity. Swimming is a good activity as it uses leg and arm muscles and not just leg muscles in walking. Walking improves posture, balance and strength, which is great for an old age pensioner. Resistance training is also advised doing as this helps improve muscle strength because as you age muscle strength decrease. Doing such exercises can help prevent older people from getting disabilities. USA researches say that as you age there is some decline in physical activity but they warn that inactivity can hasten the decline and lose balance flexibility and muscle wastage. They took several studies to illustrate this ‘a walking programme for people in their seventies that reversed 22years of declining lung capacity in 22 weeks. A 12-week weights programme that more than doubled the leg muscle strength of some women aged 64 years and over; A study in which people who exercised by walking several days a week decreased their risk of disability and improved their ability to climb stairs, stoop, crouch and kneel’. A sedentary lifestyle can also increase the risk of a hip fracture and lots of exercise can decrease reduces the risk particular if you start in your middle ages.
After evaluating to see if exercise has an effect on your overall health, I think it is pretty conclusive that exercise can have a major effect on improving not just your health but lifestyle as well. Its not only Doctors and G.P’s etc. who have said that exercise can decrease killer diseases but this is backed up by figures as well for example. A study was taken with patients who had already coronary heart disease reduced their risk of fatal heart complications by ’20-25% through exercise’. Also they warn that a sedentary lifestyle can increase the risk of a hip fracture, this is because that when doing exercise it can make the joint more movable as synovial fluid is production is increased which helps cushion the knee give it support. ‘In one study women who spent less than four hours a day on their feet had nearly twice the risk of hip fractures than their more active counterparts’. So spending time on doing exercise or physical activity is beneficial to them. No matter what size, age or disability there is a physical activity for them.
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