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GCSE: Safety Aspects and Risk Assessment
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
Why are risk assessments important?
- 1 These are commonplace and a legal requirement in every sports establishment. There should be policies in place that require the completion and updating of RAs.
- 2 To create a RA, firstly spend time IN the space/environment and look around. Think, what are the ‘hazards’; what are the things that COULD go wrong here and could possibly cause a problem or harm? Don’t overlook anything – think pessimistically – what could be even the slightest hazard to people in that space?
- 3 Then, think about what could be in place as a ‘control measure’ to reduce or remove the risk of the identified hazard. These should be written and explained and put into place.
- 4 It’s important to then generate a risk rating (out of 3) for the likelihood of the hazard occurring and the severity of the hazard. Multiply these by each other for the risk rating. Values over ¾ should then be looked at again as this indicates that ‘further action’ is required to reduce the risk. If the risk rating is higher (eg: 7), then the activity should NOT take place as it is considered too dangerous with the current risks and control measures.
- 5 If the risk assessments is not completed and signed by those leading the activities, then the individuals and organization could be considered ‘negligent’ if an accident occurs. RAs can be evidence that safety has been seriously considered and action taken to make the environment and activity a safe place for all present.
- 1 Many students will have experienced some form of injury through their involvement of sport. This is a resource in itself. Discussion can reveal not only the cause and symptoms of the injury, but also the treatment of it.
- 2 It’s important to differentiate between acute and chronic injuries. Acute injuries are those that have occurred from a specific incident (eg, a sprained ankle or a fracture), whereas chronic injuries are a result of longer term activity or overuse (eg shin splints or tendonitis).
- 3 Exam questions or coursework tasks will often require you to write the cause of an injury, the symptoms it will show and how it can be treated. Make sure you include these elements to an answer.
- 4 Always remember to give examples of the injury and think about the sorts of sports or activities that this kind of injury might occur in (eg sprinters often pull their hamstrings, or tennis players often have tendonitis in the elbow – tennis elbow - from overusing these muscles / joits).
- 5 In some cases, the correct form of exercise can help avoid injuries (eg: strength training can increase joint stability and reduce the risks of dislocations and sprains).
Five safety aspects for a coach to consider
- 1 Personal Protective Equipment - When explaining how safety hazards can be reduced, remember to include the use of PPE by participants (and sometimes coaches). This is things such as gumshields, shin pads and body armour.
- 2 Qualifications – RAs should include the process of checking instructor or coach qualifications. Taking participants kayaking for eg, requires an appropriate level of instructor qualification from the National Governing Body (NGB). This MUST be checked.
- 3 Ethical factors – Ethics is simply explained as deciding what is right or wrong. Ethically, it would be wrong to knowing lead a session when there are uncontrolled dangers. It’s also ethically wrong to cause emotional harm to someone. If a participant is VERY frightened doing an activity, they should NOT be forced to do it.
- 4 Legal factors – If safety factors are NOT anticipated, the law may find you negligent and you will be accountable to the Health & Safety Executive and the law. This may result in dismissal from your job, fines or possibly a prison sentence.
- 5 Responsibilities – there are many contributing roles to maintaining safety : parents, coaches / teachers, participants. There are legal expectations too. Codes of Conduct should be in place (‘rules’ to clarify how things should be and how you should behave) and sports specifically have rules to maintain the safety of players and officials to employ them such as non-contact rules in netball and basketball. Assignments should not forget these factors.
A Warm Up it vital because it helps prevent injury by having the muscles prepared for exercise before they actually do the exercise. There are three main parts of a warm up: The Pulse Raiser, Muscle Stretch, Skills Cardiovascular: For five minutes, this will increase the body temperature and slowly increase the heart rate and improve the exchange of oxygen from Haemoglobin, it will improve your range of motion, your flexibility. By warming up you are decreasing and helping to prevent the risk of injury and preparing psychologically.
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You should also be standing on your toes so when you hit the ball you may get away quickly. Eyes on the ball After looking round the field you should always have your eyes on the ball just in case the bowler tries a quick and sharp bowl. Hand eye co-ordination To be a good batter you should have good hand eye co-ordination which is in this case enabling your eyes and arms to work together in producing a desired movement which in batting is connecting with the ball. Aiming To be a good batter you should have at least some sort of accuracy so that when you work out where you want the ball to go you can get it somewhere around that point.
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Hunters claim that they see hunting as nothing but a sport and if this is the case, should a sport be banned? According to the Countryside Alliance there are around 15 000 jobs in foxhunting, 910 of those in kennels. It is also claimed that the activity generates around �243m worth of trade. The main arguments made by pro-foxhunters are those made above- that many jobs could be lost and millions of pounds worth of trade lost too. The final point made by the supporters of foxhunting concerns the humanity.
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I can only do my part. Time: I have six weeks in which to improve my weaknesses and keep my strength at the same high level. Enjoyable: I will enjoy improving these aspects because I love playing football and often go on jogs anyway. Recorded: Shooting: The number I score or get on target will be recorded as a number out of the number of shots I take (12 out of 30). Endurance: The level that I achieve will be written down.
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I glanced at my dad who was sitting in the stadium and gave him a wave. I stood in my position frozen to the ground listening to the frantic thumping of my heart. The referee called each captain to come up for the coin toss and tossed the coin high up into the deep warm air. The Spartans won the coin toss, and they decided that they would kick off. They kicked the ball into play. Their players dribbled the ball down towards our half, passing the ball between our players.
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o These loosen the joints to be used, (shoulders/hips/neck) and help injury prevention. o They are simple. Stretches: o Quadricep stretch, by holding the foot behind the performer and pushing the hips forwards slightly. o Hamstring stretch, by bending one leg at the knee and putting the other leg out straight so that the heel is on the floor. The hands should rest on the bent knee. o Calf stretch, by putting one foot back and parallel but not adjacent to the other foot, and pushing down on the back heel until a slight strain is felt.
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Reversibility is any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training. This did not affect my PEP as I didn't receive any injuries that required me to stop training. 5. I have avoided my programme getting boring by trying not to repeat the types of training. Also I have used different locations and terrain types when jogging. Method of Training In my PEP I used the following methods of training: * Continuous- to improve my aerobic fitness. * Fartlek- used when doing weights so to improve my strength. I could have used the multi-stage fitness test to test my aerobic fitness at the beginning.
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Stretches These are the stretches that I would go through. Each stretch has a diagram, to demonstrate how the stretch is done, and the names of the muscles being stretched. Neck muscles (Sternocleidomastoid and scalenes) Shoulder muscle (Deltoids, Trapezius and Triceps) Spine Quadriceps (Rectus temoris and Sartoius) Hamstrings Gluteus Maximas (Gluteuls) Groin (Pectinus, Odducta longas and Odducta magnus) Skilled drills The final part of my warm up consists of practicing skills with my teammates. There are many forms that we can practice skills with. Grid work Grid work will be set out with players on four corners facing each other as shown in the diagram.
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The body should be raised and lowered by the bending of the arm. Shuttle Runs On this station you run a distance of 3-4 metres. Here you run back and forth. You run continuously throughout the 1-minute. Tricep Dips You perform as many dips as you can on this station. You do the dips by placing your arms on a bench with your legs stretched out in front of you. Your body is lowered and raised when bending the arm but still keeping the legs straight.
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vital tackles), strength (to out muscle opponents and kick the ball far), speed (to get to the ball quicker than the opponent), and good reaction time (this is so I can react to the ball quicker than an opponent.) My PEP should help me to improve all of these skills and as a result I will become a better football player. I have never suffered any long-term injuries of any kind and have no recurring injuries. Other sports that I enjoy to do are fishing, golf, tennis and table tennis.
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Here is a simple routine your kids can follow to prepare their muscles for sports or other vigorous activity. Toe Touches: While standing, bend over and reach for your toes. Hold for 15 seconds without bouncing. Side Bends: While standing, bend sideways reaching over with the opposite arm. Hold for 15 seconds. Repeat for each side. Thigh Stretches: While standing, balance yourself against a wall or chair. Bend one leg behind you and grasp it, holding it in place for 15 seconds. Repeat for each leg. Ankle Rotations: While sitting extend one leg out straight. Turn your ankle in circles, one direction then reverse.
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I will build my progression up, hopefully getting my fitness to a higher level. I will include the F.I.T.T principle to every activity I do. What methods will I use? I will use continuous training when jogging and I will use interval training doing shuttle runs. The work on both the rowing machine and the bike will be continuous because I will be trying to stay at the same speed for the amount of time stated because this will work my heart more and for a longer compared to interval training. What should a warm up include?
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Opponents of boxing feel it should be banned because of the number of tragic cases involving boxers. They assert that the risks they take cannot be denied. So can we carry on letting these young men put their lives at risk for sport? Here are some examples of people that have been hurt in the ring by boxing. The talented Welsh boxer, Johnny Owen died in 1980 during a Bantam-Weight World Title Fight against Mexican, Lupe Pinter in Los Angeles. After being knocked out he lay in a coma for six weeks before dying. He was only 24 years old.
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Here are just a few stretches that I will carry out : Lower Leg Step back with one foot. Bend front knee. Ensure both feet are facing forward. Push back heel into floor. Back straight. Use wall for support. Repeat for other leg. Upper Arm (Triceps) Stand with feet hip width apart, knees slightly bent. Place one hand flat between shoulder blades, keeping the upper arm close to ear. Using the other arm apply gentle pressure onto the elbow to push hand down back thus assisting with the stretch.
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As I am slammed down upon the stone cold dirty floor, arrows of pain sear through my sole. The beating continues as others join me, all stomping in unison creating a loud, hollow thudding noise which echoes a hundred times off the grimy walls. As we arrive outside, the cold hits me like a brushful of freezing polish from an underground storeroom. The mud covers me, suffocates me, blocks every pore in my hide. He hurls me through stinking puddles of degradation, drenching me and drowning my cries.
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This increases the blood flow and helps with the transportation of oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles. This also helps to increase the muscle temperature, allowing for a more effective static stretch. Jogging Jogging slowly for 3-5 minutes is the first exercise of my routine. This circulates the blood through all the muscles, providing greater flexibility for stretching. My jog starts out slowly, and then gradually increases in speed to its completion; however, when I am jogging I never reach 50% of my maximum effort by the end of the jog, as the sole objective of this phase of the warm-up is circulating the blood.
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Temperature is a factor that needs to be considered. For dancers to rehearse or perform, they must be in a temperature that does not allow them to become chilled before, during or after any activity. The ambient temperature should not be any lower than 68-70o F. Muscle injuries in particular are more likely to take place if the dancers are adequately warmed up. Temperatures too high will also cause complications. Although not immediate injuries to the muscles, excessively high temperatures will lead to excessive sweating, causing water loss and the loss of sugars and salts.
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* Draw chin forwards and level the head. * Keeping head level, return to upright. * Tilt chin forwards, towards the chest. * Ease head backwards, leaving chin downwards * Finish by slowly raising the chin and head back to the upright position. The deep stretch - Stand upright with feet hip width apart. Lock fingers together behind back. Gently ease the elbows up and away from the body, until the stretch is felt. Hold this for 20 to 30 seconds. Press-ups - Start with your hands flat on the floor, underneath shoulders. Support body on toes, keeping legs straight.
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There are 3 parts to a training session - the warm-up, the main activity and then after, the cool down.
This is the one I will be doing during my training programme. There are several important things to consider when designing a warm-up. * Athletes that do short explosive sports benefit most from warm-ups. In trained athletes direct warm-ups are very beneficial. * Progressive or endurance type sports, such as cross country running - do not benefit from intense direct warming up, this is because they may carry out a light aerobic session - resulting in lesser energy and this may decrease their performance. Moderate indirect warm-ups however will help performance. * Intense indirect warm-ups interfere in performance through tiredness and can be harmful to skilled sports.
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Place two mats 1-2 inches high shoulder width apart. A box should be places for feet high enough to elevate feet higher than shoulders. Place hands As close to the sides of the mats as possible. Lower your chest parallel to the floor, concentrating on keeping a straight back and looking straight ahead. Push off from the floor powerfully enough to remove hands from starting position and place them onto the mats. Lower your self again, then push off the mats and catch your self in the starting position.
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The programme of activities would improve each aspect in football. For example, speed is compulsory when sprinting up the wing, dribbling a ball a player or moving into space. Stamina is essential t last two halves, each of 45 minutes duration. Warm up Reasons for warming up includes: > Loosen up joints and warm up muscles. > Reduce the risk of injury. > Increase blood flow to the working muscles. > Physical and mental preparation. The second phase of the warm up will include mobility work of the stretching of most important muscle groups.
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I could. Suddenly I felt an excessive surge of pain in my left shoulder. I tried to scream aloud, let them know I was not all right, but all that came out was a muted squeak. I was subsequently helped to my feet, my arm being supported, my legs like jelly. I wobbled and swayed uneasily on the spot for a few seconds, being assisted I walked lamely over to the side. Without hesitation I sat down, the weight on my legs was unbearable; I could feel my knees buckling underneath me.
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In my study I am aiming to help a selected number of pupils improve their hockey skills in passing. Through out my the six week investigation I will take 5 pupils and teach them the skills required to make a successful hit and push pass. I will do this but using the information below. Throughout my sessions I will amylase each person in my study and will keep a close eye on the improvements and corrections, which need help with.
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The motor neurones that stimulate fast twitch muscle fibres have a thicker myelin sheath to speed up contraction. 3. Endurance strength-ability of muscles to withstand fatigue. It requires anaerobic capacity/muscular endurance. * Flexibility (static) - range of movement possible around a joint depending on the amount of stretch allowed by the muscles, joints, tendons and ligaments. Dynamic flexibility - resistance of a joint to movement. * Body composition - your body mass is made up of lean body mass and body fat.
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Then once on the other side they should repeat it again but from the corner they are standing on. To make it a bit more complicated it would be ideal to make it harder. E.g. once they reach the middle of the square they could do a three sixty with the basketball or even turn to another direction and go the opposite way. This is a good warm up because it helps improve dribbling and handling skills and also warms the body up and especially the muscles that are mainly used in basketball.
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