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GCSE: Safety Aspects and Risk Assessment

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Why are risk assessments important?

  1. 1 These are commonplace and a legal requirement in every sports establishment. There should be policies in place that require the completion and updating of RAs.
  2. 2 To create a RA, firstly spend time IN the space/environment and look around. Think, what are the ‘hazards’; what are the things that COULD go wrong here and could possibly cause a problem or harm? Don’t overlook anything – think pessimistically – what could be even the slightest hazard to people in that space?
  3. 3 Then, think about what could be in place as a ‘control measure’ to reduce or remove the risk of the identified hazard. These should be written and explained and put into place.
  4. 4 It’s important to then generate a risk rating (out of 3) for the likelihood of the hazard occurring and the severity of the hazard. Multiply these by each other for the risk rating. Values over ¾ should then be looked at again as this indicates that ‘further action’ is required to reduce the risk. If the risk rating is higher (eg: 7), then the activity should NOT take place as it is considered too dangerous with the current risks and control measures.
  5. 5 If the risk assessments is not completed and signed by those leading the activities, then the individuals and organization could be considered ‘negligent’ if an accident occurs. RAs can be evidence that safety has been seriously considered and action taken to make the environment and activity a safe place for all present.

Sports injuries

  1. 1 Many students will have experienced some form of injury through their involvement of sport. This is a resource in itself. Discussion can reveal not only the cause and symptoms of the injury, but also the treatment of it.
  2. 2 It’s important to differentiate between acute and chronic injuries. Acute injuries are those that have occurred from a specific incident (eg, a sprained ankle or a fracture), whereas chronic injuries are a result of longer term activity or overuse (eg shin splints or tendonitis).
  3. 3 Exam questions or coursework tasks will often require you to write the cause of an injury, the symptoms it will show and how it can be treated. Make sure you include these elements to an answer.
  4. 4 Always remember to give examples of the injury and think about the sorts of sports or activities that this kind of injury might occur in (eg sprinters often pull their hamstrings, or tennis players often have tendonitis in the elbow – tennis elbow - from overusing these muscles / joits).
  5. 5 In some cases, the correct form of exercise can help avoid injuries (eg: strength training can increase joint stability and reduce the risks of dislocations and sprains).

Five safety aspects for a coach to consider

  1. 1 Personal Protective Equipment - When explaining how safety hazards can be reduced, remember to include the use of PPE by participants (and sometimes coaches). This is things such as gumshields, shin pads and body armour.
  2. 2 Qualifications – RAs should include the process of checking instructor or coach qualifications. Taking participants kayaking for eg, requires an appropriate level of instructor qualification from the National Governing Body (NGB). This MUST be checked.
  3. 3 Ethical factors – Ethics is simply explained as deciding what is right or wrong. Ethically, it would be wrong to knowing lead a session when there are uncontrolled dangers. It’s also ethically wrong to cause emotional harm to someone. If a participant is VERY frightened doing an activity, they should NOT be forced to do it.
  4. 4 Legal factors – If safety factors are NOT anticipated, the law may find you negligent and you will be accountable to the Health & Safety Executive and the law. This may result in dismissal from your job, fines or possibly a prison sentence.
  5. 5 Responsibilities – there are many contributing roles to maintaining safety : parents, coaches / teachers, participants. There are legal expectations too. Codes of Conduct should be in place (‘rules’ to clarify how things should be and how you should behave) and sports specifically have rules to maintain the safety of players and officials to employ them such as non-contact rules in netball and basketball. Assignments should not forget these factors.

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  1. Money obsessed barbarism or a persecuted sport? Boxing.

    Do those who appose boxing mean that the equipment necessary for boxing is expensive, when they say the sport is expensive to take up? If I was to buy bandages, a gumsheild, boxing boots, boxing gloves, a skipping rope and a punch bag, I may pay around �150 for quality set of these (from Boxing-zone.co.uk), but I could have access to the gloves, punch bag, and skipping rope for free at my local boxing club. Still, �150 may seem a bit much, then again if I wanted to start skiing for example, I may have to pay around �400 for

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  2. The warm up, is a vital part of any exercise.

    Repeat all future leg rubs for ten seconds each. These three exercises will lightly stretch the Achilles tendon. We then move on to the calf muscles, spending time on each leg, front and back. Again moving up, we rub the hamstring, spending time on each leg, and on front rubbing the quads. To finish this part of the exercise we rub, and slap the b******s, to stretch, and increase blood flow, and give heat to that area. These exercises prepare the legs, to enable them to safely continue to warm up on the next part, which is a yoga move, known as the Sun Salutation.

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  3. Components of fitness required for throwing a javelin.

    It raises the pulse before performance and ensures that blood is pumped around the body more quickly. Muscles always work better when they are warm. In a normal warm up there should always be three specific phases that we go through in order to perform a warm up successfully. Phase 1:- Perform a continuous sub-maximal whole body cavity to increase Heart rate and body temperature. E.g. a light jog. Phase 2:- Now we should perform a flexibility session to make sure that all Muscles are stretched and ready for performance.

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  4. This assignment will cover the main and most occurring sporting injuries, the signs and symptoms, how to treat them and there long and short term affects in sports performance.

    Compression Bandage the injured part firmly (but not tightly) using a crepe bandage. This also reduces internal bleeding. Elevation Support the limb in an elevated (raised) position. This also reduces blood flow to the limb because the blood has to flow against gravity. Common injuries A) Skin Injuries There are many types of skin injuries such as..... Injury to the skin Signs and symptoms of injury Treatment Abrasion/graze PAIN Redness-Damage to damaged cells. Leaking fluid due to damaged skin cells Burning sensation. Clean and prevent infection Cover/Leave to air.

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  5. Description of personal warm up.

    Balance exercises walking, jogging/cycling or skipping. Can be included here an will improve levels of Neuromuscular co- ordination and concentration. I have found that to optimise the efficiency of my nervous system, I spend the last 3-5 minutes of my warm up on some basic balance and dynamic flexibility exercises. My personal warm up broke down into these sections; Pulse raiser: Generally I began by walking around a specific area for example the hall where I am training, just focusing my mind off the day gone by and the tasks in hand as I walk around.

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  6. Warm up and cool down for athletics.

    PNF. (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) This involves the contraction and relaxation of both agonist and antagonist muscles. Why stretch? Stretching techniques should be used before any type of physically vigorous activity to stop any incidence of soft tissue injuries. Stretching should also be used during the cool-down period to help muscles return to their normal relaxed state. For stretching a rule of opposites should be adhered to. This means that if the quadriceps group was to be stretched then the opposite group, the hamstring group should be stretched as well. Hamstring group 1. Stand with both knees bent slightly*. Bend over and reach as far as you can and hence hold in the maximum stretch position. 2.

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  7. Railway Station.

    The hustle and bustle of the ordinary public hurled its way into the calm, collected station. Information boards began to rustle and the sounds of trains departed from what was now like another world, the smelly crammed station that had lost all its sense of dignity was now ready and waiting for what the day had in store. When people boarded the train that was due to take them to their destination it was like they had no concept of what was going on around them, completely oblivious to all the other passengers.

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  8. Fucus week diary.

    Well we were put into four groups; mine is called 'Female Pride'. The name was Dominic's idea, which is why we all find it hilarious. Every time they call it out we crack up laughing. Since Hip Hop was switched to Friday the first thing we had to do was a Cardio blast YEAY! (not). The idea is to get you heart beating fast. If you repeat it often enough, and increase the intensity of you workout your heart should get stronger, and you'll get fitter. We had to go on the treadmills, X-cross trainer, Stairmaster and bikes.

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  9. Darren Mansaram (or Flash as he is better off known) scored one of the best goals he had ever scored in his short career.

    The officials called in the two captains to determine who was to kick off. It was to be Grimsby to kick off left to right towards the away end. Flash and David 'Digger' Soames to kick off, playing the ball back to Stuart Campbell who in turn plays it to player/manager Paul Groves. Groves loses out to Paul Weller who plays a first time ball to Arthur Gnohere. He hits a long ball over the top of the Grimsby defence, Georges Santos looks over at the linesman to see if there is an off-side, Robbie Blake chases it down, takes it around the Grimsby keeper, Danny Coyne, and hits a shot which smacks the upright.

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  10. Why it is important to warm up and warm down?

    you pulled a muscle and you was out of all practices for four weeks you would have to build up your fitness again so it would be eight weeks you would be out for. That's why people say that it takes twice as long to recover than when from the injury, so to avoid this you should warm up so that there is less chance to pull a muscle. Also it is not just about pulling muscles it is about Raising your body temperature to help muscles to work better, move and loosen up your joints so that you can move easier and to Prepare physically and mentally.

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  11. We warm up in order to raise our body temperature and heart rate and it improve our exchange of oxygen from haemoglobin.

    And warm up provide a smooth transition from rest to the intensity of the main activity. I will be concentrating on abdonals, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. My warm up will be long for at least five minutes or ten minutes. We cool down in order to go back to our normal temperature and our heart rate and we should cool down with a period of exercise: : We should avoid going from hard exercise immediately to rest : Light exercise shortens recovery time by helping to remove carbon dioxide, lactic acid and other waste products :light exercise will prevent muscle soreness and stiffness.

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  12. Personal Exercise Program

    As it warms, muscle tissue also becomes suppler, reducing the risk of strains and tears. Yet typical water temperature is usually 15 to 20 degrees lower than our body temperature, meaning your first plunge can actually have a chilling effect on your muscles, constricting blood vessels and reducing circulation for the first few minutes. This can cause binding of muscle tissue and an increase in lactic acid levels. A few minutes of light calisthenics before entering the water will increase your body's resistance to that initial shock.

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  13. What is a Hurricane?

    Step 5: Warm air encourages evaporation which means that there is plenty of moisture available for rain. Where? In areas of intense low pressure where the air follows a spiral pattern. Over warm moist sea, 8 degrees to 15 degrees north and south of the equator.

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  14. Swimming as a competitive sport

    International swimming competitions are governed by the F�d�ration Internationale de Natation Amateur (FINA), which has over 160 member nations. The front crawl is the fastest and most efficient of all the swimming strokes. This is because the body is streamline there is less resistance. To perform it correctly requires lots of practice, and the important muscles to build up are in the shoulders and chest. Your body must be horizontal and your arms and legs must be constantly moving to propel you forward through the water. For the legs to work efficiently the kick must come from the hips and follow on though down to the feet.

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  15. Outline the range of precautions that can and should be taken to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries when participating in a sports activity. Give examples from your chosen sports.

    In sports such as Rugby there needs to be communication between team mates because there could be collisions etc which could result in serious injury. Also fitness is a factor to be considered as if a person runs competitively and is not fit either physically or mentally it not only affect their performance but could cause further injury. In any sport you should make sure you are prepared for what you are going to do. In activities like bike racing or rock climbing equipment is used to ensure your safety, but if the equipment is not safe then this is useless.

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  16. Improving Flexibility.

    Although women have a natural advantage due to the body structure allowing greater flexibility, both males and females can greatly improve their flexibility through training. The various techniques of stretching may be grouped as Static, Ballistic and Assisted. In both Static and Ballistic exercises the athlete is in control of the movements. In Assisted an external force controls the movement, which is usually a partner. Static stretching Static stretching involves gradually easing into the stretch position and holding the position.

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  17. Fox hunting - an entertainment sport or barbaric cruelty

    The cruelty does not end at these hunts. The hunters quite blatantly contradict their own claims that fox hunting is a form of pest control by sometimes going as far as providing artificial earths to encourage foxes to breed for their 'sport'. They provide habitats for foxes to be born into and then hunt them down and brutally torture them to death, all in the name of entertainment. The real reasons behind fox hunting are made clear in a ten year Oxford University study.

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  18. The importance of the Warm-up and Cool-down

    After this, one rehearsal of movement pattern should be performed. The warm-up enables the body to prepare itself for exercise so that the chance of injury is reduced. As the muscles warm-up, an enzyme is released which promotes the breakdown of glycogen to ensure that there is an energy supply to all the muscles.

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  19. It was a warm summer's afternoon but the wind blew cold around Sandra's legs as she stood waiting for the bus, her large green rucksack stood beside her.

    Her khaki shorts were indeed very short and highlighted by the fact she was wearing a matching shirt. The weather was warm probably about seventeen degrees but the side of the street she stood on was in the shade. The only thing that stopped her from having to warm on the other side of the street was her faithful dark blue regatta fleece, it had seen her through the last three winters one of which was spent in Norway Skiing with her Aunt Matilda.

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  20. Analysis of My Long Distance Running

    Warm Down I will do five minutes jogging and stretch off. Session Evaluation Session 2 (1 hour at home) Aim To find and note specific aspects of my running to work on. Warm-up One lap of the running track followed by stretches. Fitness Development In this session I will be running the 1500mtrs whilst being videoed.

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  21. Injuries and rehabilitation.

    Any of these ligaments may be damaged by abnormal strains. Usually, the strain is the result of a suddent twist. The strain may occur gradually, from repeated over-stretching, if, for instance, you wear unsuitable or unaccustomed shoes or if the ligament is pulled during a straining exercise. In either case, once a ligament is damaged, it will set up a painful spot which will be aggravated each time you subsequently over-stretch that point, or apply pressure over it. Even a tiny ligament can give severe pain when strained or pulled, and the pain can persist for some months.

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  22. The Basics of Snowboarding

    This is generally used in free-riding (the down-hill, speed-oriented side of the sport) and free-style (the tricks, for example jumps.) * Free-carving or Slalom boards These boards are more directional in shape, and specialise in speed rather than tricks. These are more difficult to control. Snowboard boots are thick and chunky, but especially are more comfortable than ski boots. They fit like trainers, and have blunted toes to give you a bigger surface area on your feet to give you more control. If you decide to continue snowboarding after a beginner session, I definitely advise buying your own boots as they mould to the shape of your feet.

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  23. Netball Analysis

    from the goal attacker to the goal scorer. This tactic did prove to be extremely useful. We also all attempted to all mainly use the roll off dodge because in other practices it proved to be very effective; we all still however used every other dodge when we thought that it would be most efficient. The whistle was blown twice in the game while I had possession of the ball. Both times however were due to the opposition's mistakes, such as making mistakes with their footwork as well as performing a foul against me. I do think however that at one point the referee did not notice when I had accidentally hit the opposition in the effort to hit the ball out of his hands.

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  24. Analysing and improving form: Badminton.

    * Greg lacks excellent knowledge about the sport and tactical knowledge is also lacking and needs improvement * Greg's shot execution also needs improving to gain better results * Greg lacks good acceleration which is vital for net shots * Greg lacks self-confidence Ways of improving.

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  25. Six week Rugby training program

    That's why its part of the cool down. Some dos and don'ts 1. You should feel the pull in the belly of the muscle. If you feel it at the joint, the ligaments are probably under stress. Stop and reposition yourself. 2. A correct stretch should cause only mild discomfort. Stop if you feel pain. 3. Hold stretch for at least 8-10 seconds These stretches are to be completed before and after a game or training session every time Calf Stretch Rest comfortably in a press up position. Crossing one leg over your ankle, gently apply pressure pushing the ankle down to the floor until you feel the calf stretching.

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