Recovery- is one of the most overlooked principles of training. It is during the recovery sessions that the adaptations to training take place. Recovery sessions may not necessarily mean complete rest. Periods of lower intensity activity will allow the body to adapt without increasing the stress placed on it. In swimming these periods are excellent opportunities for work on technique and tactics.
The two sports I’m going to be using are Swimming and Football.
Swimming and Rugby both contrasts really well because with the principles of training as they both use all of the principles. For example, with ‘adaptation’, if a swimmer wanted to improve their strength when pushing off the wall they would increase the amount of work they do on their legs i.e. hamstrings, quadriceps, gastrocnemius. e.g. leg curl, leg press and leg extension. And it’s exactly the same for a Rugby player if they also wanted to improve their Power they would work on improving their muscles in their Upper Body e.g. pectorals, deltoids, biceps and triceps, as well as your abdominal muscles to a certain extent.
There are different types of swimming; but these principles of training are mainly used for ‘sprint swimming’ middle distance and long distance. I will be explaining assessing and evaluating sprint swimming. In sprint swimming, these are the four main aspects. You would use strength, speed, power and muscular endurance.
Speed - You would use sprinting, (SAQ) speed, agility and quickness, assisted training and also short sprints.
Strength - You would use the 25m-sprint test, the ability to move the body as quickly as possible over the given distance.
Power - You would use the standing broad jump (this is crucial as a race might depend on how quick your reaction time is) or the standing Vertical jump. Power is the amount of work done per unit of time; it is also a product of speed and strength. Power can be improved by training but they rely on inheritance of fast twitch fibres.
Muscular endurance - is the ability of any given muscle to repeatedly contract, without getting tired. The tests for muscular endurance are the sit up bleep test, press up test and the triceps dip test.
Swimming requires both health related and skill related fitness. Muscular endurance and muscular strength both fall into the health related fitness categorise, whereas speed and power are both components of skill related.
There are many positions available when playing Rugby. Each position takes many different aspects of the fitness components. For example, Fly Halves need good cardiovascular endurance as they need to run up and down the pitch helping out the rest of the team with his kicking. The back row need good muscular endurance as they need to be big and strong, both in the air challenging for a collecting the ball from kick off and good at tackling the player when they are running down the wing. The front rows need to be built with great muscular endurance as well as strength because they are the players who hold up the scrum and help when forcing the team over the line.
Reaction Time – is the ability to react to a circumstance that might occur. This could include a miss placed pass, they need to be alert at this because this could cause the opposition into difficulty and could give the defending team the chance to attack.
Cardiovascular Endurance - endurance is how good your body is at keeping your muscles supplied with oxygen. This is the job of the heart and lungs. An example of this component is when a player is running to try and tackle the opposite teams player.
Muscular Endurance – is the ability of a muscle, or a group of muscles, to sustain repeated contractions. In order to improve muscular endurance, it is necessary to exercise the specific muscle groups for periods of time. An example in Rugby for this component is when a player is trying to shield the rugby ball out of play using his body and holding off an opponent at the same time.
Flexibility – is defined as the range of motion around a joint. This movement, however, is restricted by the structure of the joint. An example in Rugby is when a player is 2meters away from the touch line with his team in a scrum and he jumps over the line to score a try.
There is one type of Training method for CV Endurance this is Interval training, Interval training consists of repeated intervals of relatively high intensity events such as jogging or running or sprinting incongruent with relatively light intensity events such as walking. The light interval would be done in range from 50-70% of your maximum heart rate while the hard interval training would range from 85%-100% of your maximum heart rate. As mentioned earlier, interval training is highly desirable for the competitive athlete. It is also interesting and beneficial for anti-aging purposes if provided as a break in routine and to train your body to adapt to different stresses from different activity. Interval training also causes a rise in our base metabolic rate (BMR) after the exercise has ended. This increase has effectively caused a body to burn more calories and keeps our fat off. It is, therefore, especially good if you want to reduce the fat in your body.
When athletes carry out strength-training workouts designed to improve their power, they often choose to work with relatively light resistances, which permit more explosive movements. However, they often alternate light loads with heavy ones, because heavy resistance seems to create a greater activation and preparation for maximal effort in subsequent explosive movements. When athletes carry out strength-training workouts designed to improve their power, they often choose to work with relatively light resistances, which permit more explosive movements. However, they often alternate light loads with heavy ones, because heavy resistance seems to create a greater activation and preparation for maximal effort in subsequent explosive movements.
You may think this training method is old school, but it is brilliant for endurance athletes. Circuit workouts were modest in length (you could complete most of them in less than an hour), and they were said to be good for both your cardiovascular system and muscles.
Speed is influenced by the athlete's , special , strength and . for absolute speed is supplied by the anaerobic alactic pathway. The anaerobic (without oxygen) alactic (without lactate) energy system is best challenged as an athlete approaches top speed between 30 and 60 metres while running at 95% to 100% of maximum. This speed component of anaerobic metabolism lasts for approximately six seconds and should be trained when no muscle fatigue is present (usually after 24 to 36 hours of rest)
The objective of endurance training is to develop the energy production system(s) to meet the demands of the event. In the human body, food energy is used to manufacture adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the chemical compound that supplies energy for muscular contraction. Since ATP is in very low concentrations in the muscle, and since it decreases only to a minor extent, even in the most intense voluntary contraction, tightly controlled exist for the continual regeneration of ATP as muscular contraction continues.
Flexibility training, or stretching, is used in varying forms by practically every coach, athlete and physiotherapist on a regular basis. That is to say, a form of stretching is likely to take place at some point in every training or therapy session. In terms of its scientific basis, flexibility training is probably the least understood of fitness components. This article will discuss research findings and recommendations to explain why and how stretching should best be carried out.