To what extent has New Labour abandoned traditional Labour values?
To what extent has New Labour abandoned traditional Labour values? After decades of consistent defeat, the Labour party sought the need for change in the early 1980s. Although Labour started to change under the leadership of Neil Kinnock in 1983, it wasn't until 1990 that Peter Mandelson, then the party's director of communications, was able to claim that "we have now effectively completed the building of the new model party". And it wasn't until 1994 when Tony Blair was chosen to lead the Labour party that the "New Labour" project was introduced. The introduction of New Labour was aimed at getting rid of the "party of the past" image that Labour had earned to itself and also to evolve into an electable party. For this to happen, radical policy changes needed to be made. In Blair's view, "Labour needed a quantum leap to become a serious party of government again". There were however, significant constraints on the way to achieving drastic changes. An attempt to modernise the Party was in need to change policies which were formulated based on values which the party was actually based and founded upon. The changes that were proposed by Tony Blair and those who shared his views were in clear contrast with the Socialist ideology on which the Labour Party had originated from. The proposed changes also sought to prevent the Trade Unions- another main source of the Party's
'First-past-the-post should be replaced as a method of electing political representatives.' Discuss.
Introduction to Politics for Economists - Essay (N0089998) Question 3): "First-past-the-post should be replaced as a method of electing political representatives." Discuss. __________________________________________________________________ Answer: The British electoral system is based on the "First-Past-The-Post" (FPTP) system. This system is also used in the USA, Canada, and India. It is a system in which the 'winner takes all' and usually gives a clear majority both at constituency and national level. This means that a candidate in a constituency only needs one more vote than the nearest rival to win the seat. Usually this has the effect of turning the largest single minority of votes cast in the nation into a clear majority of seats in the House of Commons for the largest single party, so in theory a candidate could be elected with only 2 votes if every other candidate only secured a single vote. In this way the system has benefited the two leading parties and discriminated against the political fortunes of all other parties, unless their votes are geographically concentrated in a particular part of the country. This pattern of discriminating has been discernable for years in the British electoral system. R. Rodgers and R. Walters refer to FPTP method as: "In this system there are no prizes for coming second; and it also means that the proportions of MPs of each party
Evaluate the case for using Referenda to decide important issues in the UK
Evaluate the case for using Referenda to decide important issues in the UK This essay is about the use of referenda in the UK Democracy. A referendum is when a nationwide vote is held by government to obtain the nations point of view on a political matter. They are used to decide what actions should be taken when an issue arises that effects the constitution. In this essay I will be assessing the pros and cons that referendums propose and using what I establish as good and bad aspects to answer if referenda should be used more often or if they should be used only in special circumstances. There are two types of democracy, the first being 'direct democracy'. Direct democracy involves the direct and continuous participation by the general public with political issues. This practically means that people have to vote everyday on issues that parliament have to decide on. The second type of democracy is 'representative democracy'. Representative democracy is indirect government by the people through representatives elected by the people. In the UK there are 658 constituencies each having their own representatives. People within those constituencies vote for both general and bi elections and depending on which party won in the constituency an MP for a party will go through. Referenda falls under the category of 'direct democracy'. There are many advantages of holding a
What have been the effects of the use of proportional electoral systems in the UK?
What have been the effects of the use of proportional electoral systems in the UK? Currently, the only pure forms of proportional representation used in the UK are the closed party list system, used to elect M.E.Ps, and the single transferable vote technique used in general elections in Northern Ireland. However, the additional member system, which combines elements of the first past the post and the closed party list systems is implemented in the Welsh and Scottish regional assemblies. The single transferable vote system is appropriate for use in Northern Ireland, where difficult cultural differences often cause community divides. Constituents order the candidates in preference, and the results of the election decide the politicians who will represent each multi-member constituency. In constituencies with both catholic and protestant regions, it is almost certain that both a catholic and protestant MP will be elected. This is a major advantage, as constituents in Northern Ireland often feel more comfortable discussing their concerns with an MP of the same religion and thus the single transferable vote system has had a positive effect on MP community links in Northern Ireland. If a majoritarian or first past the post system was implemented in Northern Ireland, this would result in only a catholic or protestant MP being elected per constituency, which would cause obvious
Describe the process by which MPs are elected to Westminster. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the First past the Post system? The Parliament in UK
Describe the process by which MPs are elected to Westminster. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the First past the Post system? The Parliament in UK id divided into the House of Commons and the House of Lords; though it is often assumed that an MP is a member of Commons, they can be a member of either house, however the letters MP are appended as a post nominal to an individuals name only if that person is a member of the House of Commons which currently consist of 646 members. MPs in the House of Commons are elected in general and by-elections to represent their constituency by the First past the Post system of elections and remain MPs until Parliament is dissolved. The members of the House of Lords however, are officially appointed by the monarch however today the selection is carried out by the Prime Minister. The term FPTP means that the candidate who gains the majority of the votes first wins; thus winner takes all. In a national election those who wish to fight an election must register to do so. When the election takes place, for example in a by-election for a constituency MP, the person who gains the most votes within that constituency wins the seat. Sometimes however if the votes are tight the opposing candidates may ask for a recount. FPTP is known for being a cheap, simple and fast form of an electorate system. The voter simply needs to make one
Evaluate the case for using referenda to decide important issues in the UK
Evaluate the case for using referenda to decide important issues in the UK A referendum is a popular vote in which the people, rather than the elected representatives, resolve a political issue. Since the electorate is asked to vote directly on a particular issue, holding a referendum is a way of exercising direct democracy within a system of representative democracy. It is normally on one single issue with a straight yes or no answer on the implementation or continuance of a reform. There are a number of advantages to holding a referendum. They encourage political participation as people are actively asked to take an interest in one issue and vote for what they think is best. Referendums are often asked when parliament can not resolve an issue so by asking the electorate to vote they are provided, hopefully, with one clear answer. Referendums can effectively end a deadlock when discussing a political issue. They can increase the legitimacy of major reforms or measures that the government is planning to implement and are a good way of determining the public mood and can provide justification for introducing a certain reform. Referendums should give a clear answer to a question however there are often problems with this. Referendums are also the most direct form of democracy as the people's views are clearly represented and help to make political decisions more legitimate.