Treatment of 'aliens' during ww2.
Treatment of 'aliens' during ww2 Prior to World War 2, Australia was home to many people of German, Italian and Japanese descent. After the outbreak of war these people were considered a threat to national security and became known as enemy 'aliens'. They were taken from their homes, arrested, jailed and later taken to internment camps, due to their nationality. In 1939, on the 1st day of declaration of war with Germany, the Germans were already being accused as spies. A total of 1,637 men were arrested, however the majority were from other countries such as Singapore and Palestine.1 With the entry of Italy into the War thousands of male Italians were also interned. But no group was as large as the number of Japanese. The Japanese had no equivalent to the Fascist Parties that were used as a guide to arrest the German and Italians. The Government justified that the only sure way to minimize risk was to intern them all. So in 1941, every Japanese family living in Australia, including women and children were arrested. There were no exceptions. In all, around 7000 Australian citizens and 18,720 civilians from abroad were taken to camps across Australia. 2 The conditions within these internment camps varied. To begin with camps were quite bare and unwelcoming. This is one internee's account upon arriving, "The camp had just been built and was completely bare; whatever grasses
Deciding on whether the UK should join the Euro and become a full member of a monetary union requires full knowledge of complex issues and should be left to our elected representative
Politics Essay on British Democracy by Marc Loakes ) Deciding on whether the UK should join the Euro and become a full member of a monetary union requires full knowledge of complex issues and should be left to our elected representative 2) The Decision to join or not to join the euro will profoundly affect every person In the UK. Such an important decision must be taken by referendum Write an essay that supports both statements, you are comparing / contrasting the merits of indirect (representative) and direct (referendum) democracy Min: 3 Sides A4 No one denies that the decision as to whether or not Britain becomes a part of the Euro will have deep consequences in the years that follow, affecting everyone in the United Kingdom. For some, it follows naturally from recognition of this that the decision ought to be made not by Parliament, but by the British people in a referendum. In a democracy, they believe that the future direction of a country must naturally be chosen by the electorate directly, with constitutional change up to them. For others, it is the very significance of the decision that suggests it must be taken by those with the greatest understanding of it. Economic and monetary union is not a simple matter, its effects constitutional, political and economic debatable and complex. For some, then, ordinary voters may - rightly - have control over the person
By 1914, how successful had Liberal Governments been at creating a united Italy?
By 1914, how successful had Liberal Governments been at creating a united Italy? By 1914 Italy was still a new country compared to Britain, France and other countries around the world. Italy by 1914 was a considered a country in its own right, however to have a successful country you need unification. To find out how successful the Liberal Governments had been, we need to look at Foreign Policy, Economy, Political System, Cultural/National identity, and National security. In 1881 Italy had hoped to take control of Tunisia but it had been lost to France. Then in 1882 Italy joined the Anti-France Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany. In 1896 the Liberal Government sent in troops to Adowa in Ethiopia, and suffered a massive defeat from the Abyssinians and there were 15000 Italian countries as well. The government wanted to have an empire to contend with that of Britains and Frances, however they had not looked at problems at home first and not only were people forced into the army the defeat had not improved unity only made the massed less united. However there was a success for Italy in 1911 when they had taken control of Libya from the Turks, but to pay for the wars the general public had to be taxed and by 1900 the Italians were believed to be the most heavily taxed people in Europe. Many people felt that the Liberal government was more worried about build and
Why Was There No British Revolution in Europe's 'Ageof Revolutions'?
Julia Slay Revolutionary Europe: Essay 3 Why Was There No British Revolution in Europe's 'Age of Revolutions'? Revolution: n. overthrow of a government by the governed. Great change; complete rotation. From the dawn of the French Revolution to the mid 19th Century, much of Europe was characterised by political upheaval, social dislocation, economic recession and huge demographic change. Britain retained an isolation from such events, taking the course of fast industrialisation, mass urbanisation, and demands for the reform of parliament; despite the revolutionary backdrop in Europe Britain managed to escape the phenomena and its government remained intact throughout our period. It experienced no such 'revolution', that is, in the strictest sense of the word. It did however witness widespread rioting and rebellion such as that at Peterloo, and calls for a political overhaul of parliament. It is thus that we enter into the controversial historical debate over Britain in our epoch. While many contemporaries felt they were in the midst of a revolutionary situation, for example, Place, who states that '[w]e were within a moment of general rebellion'1 some historians, such as Christie, suggest that there was nothing of revolutionary potential or even significance in Britain, thus, nothing to avoid. The crux of the argument regards the very definition of a 'revolution', as it
Influences on Voting Behaviour
Four types of voters are: o Loyal voters - remain loyal to one political party and always vote for that party. o Floating voters - people who vote for one party at one election and another at a later election. o Abstainers - people who don't vote at all. o Tactical voters - people who adopt a strategy in deciding who to vote for rather than automatically voting for their first choice. What factors affect voting? o Social class - up until the 1970's social class was considered to be the single most important influence on voting behaviour in Britain. Support for the two main parties was based broadly on social class. Working class people tended to vote labour while middle class people tended to vote conservative. o Age and gender - in the 1992 general election slightly more women than men voted conservative and slightly more men voted labour. In 1997 general election however there was virtually no difference in the way men and women voted. Traditionally young people have been more likely to vote labour and older people have been more inclined to vote conservative. o Ethnicity - sociologists point to the important link between ethnicity and voting behaviour. In 1992 general election, 90% of voters from an African Caribbean background and 71% of voters from an Asian background voted labour. This link can be explained partly in terms of social class and also as a
Describe the powers and structures of the presidency and the legislature of the Fifth Republic of France. Briefly assess whether these constitutional features have promoted both democracy and stability in this country.
Kristen Critelli 3/10/03 AP Government Odd Essay #2 2. Describe the powers and structures of the presidency and the legislature of the Fifth Republic of France. Briefly assess whether these constitutional features have promoted both democracy and stability in this country. France has one of the richest constitutional histories in the world. It was one of the first countries to put into practice the modern idea of a constitution. Unfortunately, the French Constitution of 1791 didn't even last a year. A dozen regimes were instituted until the idea of the Republic triumphed and finally, in 1958 the Fifth Republic brought a stable regime to France. Since the government is answerable to parliament, and the president is elected directly by the people, France has a semi-presidential political system. It combines elements of both presidential and parliamentary systems. There is not total separation between the legislature and the executive. In cases where the political system of the Fifth Republic deviates from being purely parliamentary or purely presidential, the result is a strengthening of the executive, primarily the president, not parliament. The Constitution of the Fifth Republic endows the president with the ceremonial powers of head of state. The president, who holds a five-year term, is the only official chosen in a nation-wide
Outline the main principles of the Constitution.
THE CONSTITUTION a) Outline the main principles of the Constitution [YN1] There are several principles to the constitution, the first being Parliamentary Sovereignty. This is the cornerstone of the United Kingdom's Constitution, and where before the monarch would have been sovereign, now a democratically elected body has this role. Parliament has absolute power in the country, and there is no higher authority. It is not bound by its predecessor, nor can one Parliament bind a successor. Although it has become weakened by the dominance of the executive, developments with the EU, devolution and referenda, it still remains a fundamental part of the UK Constitution. Another important principle is Conventions. These are basic practices and traditions considered binding on those to whom they apply, even though this is not legally the case. There are several main constitutional conventions: the first is parliamentary supremacy and sovereignty, whereby Parliament is not subordinate to any institution. Collective Cabinet Responsibility and Individual Ministerial responsibility are also key Conventions, which means that ministers are held accountable for their actions, for example where Lord Carrington the Foreign Secretary apologised to the Foreign Office for invading the Falklands. As well as this, the Monarch's Royal Assent to legislation passed by Parliament and the maintenance
Analyse the transition from 'Old' Labour to 'New' Labour.
Paul Ambrose A259446 Analyse the transition from 'Old' Labour to 'New' Labour Introduction To analyse the development of the Labour Party it is logical to start with understanding how it began, and from there study the continuing evolution of one of Britain's most influential political parties. I will be documenting the changes in policy regarding the economy, nationalisation, the welfare state, political institutions and the party's political positioning. Labour's Beginnings In the late 19th century there was an economic downturn which lead to an increase in legislative controls on trade unionism. This prompted the unions to realise they would no longer be able to achieve their goals simply through industrial action. The formation of the Labour Representation Committee (the LRC) on the 27th February 1900, in the hope of representing the working people of England politically, can be considered the true beginnings of the Labour Party. The LRC began with the idea of mass membership, a system by which the leaders and representatives of the party are supposed to voice the views and beliefs of the masses. This lead to a 'bottom-up' party structure that was to prevent major reform taking place quickly as leaders have to act on members views. Old Labour Views The party began with very distinct left wing views. The strong role that the trade unions played in the party's
Pakistan's Political and Economic Development
JPE400Y1 Prof: Dickson Eyoh Pakistan's Political and Economic Development Pakistan gained independence from British colonial rule in August 1947 to provide a better homeland to the Moslems of the Indian Sub Continent. 58 years on we have yet to see this country fulfill any of these promises. What Pakistan has witnessed is growing disparity between class structures, internal contradictions and a power struggle between the political elites and the military. Civilian and Military governments have both been responsible for such actions but looking at statistics it shows that military regimes have performed better than civilian governments. This essays looks to examine the precarious relationship between civilian and military governments, and to analyze the affect they had on political and economic development of Pakistan as a state. It looks to establish that the weak civilian governments were not beneficial economically for Pakistan; instead the military apparatus of Pakistan which works as an internal force within the setup have out performed the civilian governments economically and in providing political stability. Since independence Pakistan has been ruled by Military regimes four times. The first taste of military authoritarianism was in 1958 to 1968 under Ayub Khan as martial law administrator. He was followed by General Yahya Khan. A short period of civilian
Why did the National party in South Africa put forward the policy of apartheid in the 1948 general election campaign?
South Africa Question 2 Why did the National party in South Africa put forward the policy of apartheid in the 1948 general election campaign? Why was the policy of apartheid put forward in the 1948 election? Apartheid means segregation and white domination of all other races. Was apartheid put forward cause of Afrikaners fear of change, fear of blacks or cause apartheid was going to be a vote winner among whites? The white South Africans feared about black South African was change. The Afrikaners were frightened of losing their culture and language. The Afrikaners community was very worried by the 'Swart Gevaar" (the black danger). The A.N.C was getting well organised and had started a big campaign for more rights for blacks. The world was becoming less segregated and more integrated; this was for whites national suicide. Afrikaners feared blacks protesters, such as the A.N.C, which was an active black political organisation. The A.N.C set up a youth league: Which the white government feared increasingly. In 1943 the A.N.C published "Africans Claims", this made clear how much the blacks wanted freedom, equality and democracy. In 1944 the A.N.C led a series of demonstrations against passed laws. In 1946 the black mine workers went on strike for higher wages and the right to have trade unions. The mine owners were supported by the government and broke up the strike using