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GCSE: Psychology

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  1. Peer reviewed

    Behaviorism essay

    4 star(s)

    Dogs learned to response - open door - food coming --salivate in process. Pavlov called that Classical Conditioning. Classical conditioning is built in reflexes: the food is an un-conditioning stimulus and salivation is un-conditioning response. The sound of the open door is called neutral stimulus. After a number of repetitions the neutral stimulus by itself would extract the response. At this point the neutral stimulus is renamed to conditioned stimulus and the response is called conditioned response. Similar to Pavlov, other psychologist also outlined that learning is important in the Behaviorism - JB Watson. According to him, Psychology is science of stimuli and responses.

    • Word count: 791
  2. Peer reviewed

    What is Free Will?

    4 star(s)

    This work was further supported by Watson's study on Little Albert which showed that humans could be conditioned to fear a previously 'un-scary' object which as a white rat. This study showed that Albert did not have free will, he was conditioned by the environment to fear the rat i.e. His behaviour was determined by the environment. However, often researchers such as Minoke found that it is easier to condition a fear in animals of snakes rather than flowers or guns...

    • Word count: 668
  3. Peer reviewed

    In developmental psychology there are 3 major debates that is common in childcare, these are; the Nature/ Nurture debate, the Continuity/ Discontinuity debate and the Nomothetic/ Ideographic debate.

    4 star(s)

    This was proved in his experiment with the dogs and the bell. Nurture is also described as society influence, and some even believe that children are a blank slate in which information is written on for the children to understand. An example of this debate put into place is the case study of Oxana M. She was a child brought up by dogs; therefore all her actions were dog like. This would agree with the nurture side of the argument, because it was who the child was with from an early age and the environment around her that caused this.

    • Word count: 811
  4. Peer reviewed

    Evaluating Piaget and Vygotsky

    4 star(s)

    The second stage is the pre-operational stage. This is from two to seven years. This is where the child can now use symbols, but their concepts are general. It lacks logic. (daddies car) The third stage is the concrete operational stage. This is from seven to 11 years. This is where the child can now use logical and mental rules, but only in the context of concrete rather than abstract information. (mary,susan and anne) The fourth stage is the formal operational stage. This is 11 years then onwards. It is where abstract and systematic thoughts become possible.

    • Word count: 582
  5. Peer reviewed

    OUTLINE, DISCUSS AND EVALUATE DEFINITIONS AND THEORIES OF STRESS, INCLUDING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

    4 star(s)

    Risk factors in stress-related illnesses are a combination of personal, impersonal and social factors. These can include a loss of control over an individual's personal environment, and a severe lack, or loss of social support network. Those who depend on another human being, be it because they are a child, elderly or disabled, are at a higher risk of developing stress-related illnesses. There are numerous approaches to stress. The first approach is the Biological Approach. With the biological approach people see stress as something biologically wrong. Stress is experienced as anxiety. People with anxiety disorders are often prescribed tranquilisers.

    • Word count: 2041
  6. Peer reviewed

    Findings of the Obedience Studies

    4 star(s)

    An impressive study which shows the power that people can have over our behaviour was carried out by Milgram (1963). He set up an experiment in which volunteer research participants were required to give increasingly painful electric shocks to another person, as part of a study which they thought was about learning. The participants were aware of the danger involved and that it could prove fatal. They could hear the other person in the room next-door, who they had seen being strapped to the chair, giving out loud cries of pain, and then suddenly becoming silent, as if they had just died.

    • Word count: 1788
  7. Free essay

    Discuss one or more theories of Moral Understanding and evaluate its conclusions.

    4 star(s)

    The theory I am going to discuss is Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Approach. His theory of moral development is concerned with how the child's moral knowledge and understanding change with age. Piaget saw morality as any system of rules, which governs interaction between people. The methods of investigation he used to develop his theories were, he looked at the way children imposed rules in their games. He used games to study the development of children's moral development as he thought that by studying rules in the context of a game, he could study the child's spontaneous though directly.

    • Word count: 1355
  8. Peer reviewed

    Discuss one explanation of Personality Development and evaluate its conclusion.

    4 star(s)

    He believed that all human behaviour is controlled by drives, which he relates to human instincts. Freud insisted that there are two forces feeding our instinctual urges with energy; the Libido and the Death Instinct; the Libido being a sexual energy and the Death Instinct being more of an aggressive energy. According to Freud, the adult human mind is made up of three different parts and levels of awareness; the unconscious mind, which he named the 'Id'; the preconscious mind, which he named the 'Superego', and the conscious mind, which he named the 'Ego'.

    • Word count: 1366
  9. Peer reviewed

    Explain the effectiveness of the biological perspective in explaining one psychological or social problem.

    4 star(s)

    Lorenz stated that aggression was controlled by environmental cues called sign stimuli, which either would stop the animal from being aggressive or on the contrary cause it to be aggressive. As aggression is innate and therefore unavoidable, Lorenz thought that if humans did vacuum activities, like exercise, was necessary to avoid having an aggressive behaviour against another.

    • Word count: 403
  10. Peer reviewed

    Three Approaches To Psychology

    4 star(s)

    Laboratory experimentation and observation of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, neurochemistry and genes has contributed to an understanding of gender development, aggression, abnormality, memory, motivation and awareness. Biopsychology's input has been applied mainly to therapy and localisation of function. The very scientific biological approach lends itself to the nurture debate with effective practical applications such as the treatment of mental disorder however could be considered over simplistic and to encourage reductionism thus not adequately explaining how mind and body interact.

    • Word count: 661
  11. Peer reviewed

    Describe and evaluate one or more psychodynamic explanations of personality development.

    4 star(s)

    It takes into account what is going on in reality and it acknowledges that acting impulsively can hurt us. Then finally the superego, this develops during the phallic stage and it is the child's conscience and sense of right and wrong. It is formed when the child adopts many of the values of the same sex parent. It is said that there is conflict between the three parts. Evidence into the tripartite personality is Solms, who used PET scans to provide support for the concept of the id and the ego. During REM sleep the rational part of the brain is inactive and Freud's theory would say that the ego does indeed become suspended while the id is active during dreaming.

    • Word count: 748
  12. Peer reviewed

    Theories from the psychodynamic approach have helped to explain how mental health issues may be dealt with. Discuss how mental health issues are tackled by the psychodynamic approach

    4 star(s)

    The psychodynamic approach is mainly comprised of ideas and notions suggested by Sigmund Freud, based partly on his psychosexual development theory. In essence, the child passes through stages such as oral and the anal. Major conflicts or excessive gratification at any of these stages can lead to fixation, therefore if an adult experiences great personal problems, he or she will tend to show regression (going back through the stages of the psychosexual development) to the stage at which he or she had previously been fixated.

    • Word count: 684
  13. Peer reviewed

    Critically evaluate the psychoanalytic approach

    4 star(s)

    Anal stage - (approx 2-4 years) Pleasure is focused on the passing or excreaton of faces. On this stage Freud said that if parents were too pushy and strict with toilet training then the child may become anally retentive - resulting in excessive tiredness and cleanliness and very self controlled. If the child enjoyed the training this could lead to an anally expulsive personality - messy, untidy and sadistic. However where did Freud provide this evidence that this is caused in later life if the child does not pass through this stage sufficiently? Phallic stage (approx 3-6 years)- Child becomes aware of new pleasures - playing with themselves.

    • Word count: 2013
  14. Peer reviewed

    Definition of Psychology.

    4 star(s)

    But it was not excepted, for the reason that it had too much of religious flavour. Soul generally conveys the idea of a supernatural thing. it is immortal, beyond one's control. It is not easy to observe and study the soul so this theory was discarded. The science of mind: Then, Psychology was defined as the science of mind. Later , it was changed to mental processes, by Psychologists as Hume and Tichener. This "invisible" world of mind involves many different aspects, functions and potentials. Imagination, attention, intellect, awareness, intention, reason, will, responsibility, memory, and many other things exist in each of us.

    • Word count: 827
  15. Peer reviewed

    Describe & evaluate explanations of schizophrenia (1 bioloigcal & 1 psychological).

    4 star(s)

    This suggests that the stronger the genetic link the greater the chance that you will get schizophrenia. However, the fact that family members who are more similar genetically tend to spend more time together means that environmental factors are also indicated in this evidence. The concept that genetic factors are important in producing schizophrenia is supported by adoption studies. Tienari (1991) managed to find 155 schizophrenic mothers who had given up their children for adoption, and they were compared against 155 adopted children not having a schizophrenic parent.

    • Word count: 665
  16. Peer reviewed

    The Psychodynamic Approach.

    4 star(s)

    He studied in Vienna and most of his life he spent in this town. Later on he became a doctor and during that time he learned about hysteria disorders and techniques of hypnosis. These two were to play a big role in his career. Soon he became more specialized in neurological disorders and became a leading figure in the area. Freud became famous for his writings on psychoanalysis. In 1919 he granted the title of professor at the University of Vienna. Later on in his life he underwent a series of surgeries for cancer in the jaw.

    • Word count: 691
  17. Peer reviewed

    "Is behavior mainly inherited or it is learned?" Discuss based on your knowledge concerning modern Psychological theories.

    4 star(s)

    The empiricists position states that a baby's mind at birth is like a blank page, known as tabula rasa and there are recorded all future experiences from which the baby learns how to behave. Therefore environment has a direct effect on an individuals behavior. For example, both sides can explain the situation of an individual being aggressive. From the nature's side it is believed that aggression is due to hormones and certain stimulations in the brain area (Freud, Lorenz). In addition, the empiricists side support that aggression is learned by the environment and imitated.

    • Word count: 639
  18. Peer reviewed

    Stanley Milgrams Obedience to Authority study and the Stanford Prison Experiment both show that everyday people react in ways we find unimaginable when put in certain situations.

    3 star(s)

    These studies, in current society's views, would be extremely unethical; especially the Prison Experiment. While not forcibly controlling the participants' actions or thoughts, the administrators of the studies still caused them much mental distress because of the situations they were placed in. I don't believe that the information gained was worth the amount of suffering some of these people went through. Yes, knowing that everyone would act in the same manner put into certain situations is interesting to know but where does that get us? Do we just allow people to commit murder because we would most likely do the same thing if we were in their shoes?

    • Word count: 571
  19. Peer reviewed

    Gognitive psychology essay

    3 star(s)

    Behaviorist as Watson and Skinner rejected his view, because for them the content and workings of the human mind were private and personal. It relies to the time they lived in, because it was not easy to conduct and understand the scientific work in cognition. Later on the 1st half of 20th century cognitive psychology developed. New computer technology was introduced and this processing of information was proposed by cognitive psychologists. They explained behavior using computer concepts that describe how people process information in their mind.

    • Word count: 729
  20. Peer reviewed

    Outline and compare the cognitive and behaviourist approach in psychology

    3 star(s)

    It also supports reductionism as complex human behaviour is reduced to simple component parts. Environmentalism is another assumption of the behaviourist approach as behaviourists believe that all learning comes from experience and that heredity has no play. The cognitive approach believes that mental process can be studied scientifically. It argues that mental processes can be regarded as information processing. The mind operates in a similar way to a computer and introspection can be classed as a valid scientific method of studying cognitive process.

    • Word count: 542
  21. Peer reviewed

    Child and Death

    3 star(s)

    The problem arises when daddy is put in a casket and buried, which more often than not creates a fear of sleeping so as not to be put in a box! I remember two years ago attending a funeral of a fallen soldier where his son was told he was sleeping.

    • Word count: 430
  22. Peer reviewed

    Birth Order

    3 star(s)

    Based on research by Diana Baumrind, best known for her theories on parenting styles, there are four styles based upon two categories of parenting styles. The two categories are control and warmth, the first being control refers to how a parent manages their children's behavior ranging from controlling to having a few rules and demands. Warmth, which entails the degree to which parents accept and responded to their children's behaviors opposed to being unresponsive and rejecting. The four parental patterns that were formed from these two categories are authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful.

    • Word count: 866
  23. Peer reviewed

    Discuss the contribution that psychology has made to contemporary society.

    3 star(s)

    An occupational psychologist is able to find a job for those who are disabled and that would be able to meet their skills and knowledge. A couple of centuries ago, people who had mental illnesses wouldn't be able to get a job, and are likely to be distinguished as 'insane' or 'crazy', because of the lack of help that was given at that time.

    • Word count: 443
  24. Peer reviewed

    How useful is psychoanalytical approach to understanding a person? Choose one of Freud's case studies. How credible and useful do you find Freud's way of making sense of this person's problem? Which, if any, limitations of the theory do you see?

    3 star(s)

    Freud focused a lot of his workings on childhood development and split the development into stages. The first stage is known as the Pre-Oedipal stage. He suggested that all human beings are born with certain instincts, such as the need to eat or drink. These needs are necessary for the biological development of any human being. When these needs are satisfied both satisfaction and relief are felt. Freud believed that at a very early age, a child's sexuality is realised, this can be activated by the sucking of a mother's breast. This feeling is then rediscovered in later life through various experiences.

    • Word count: 1464
  25. Many advertisements use fallacies to boost their effectiveness and impact on readers and the audience.

    It also encourages customers to start "winning" instead of "buying", adding to the psychological effect that they are gaining from this promotion. However, the seller or manufacturer may not be in actual fact giving a free gift. He may have simply increased the selling price so that his profits can cover the cost of the "gift".

    • Word count: 485

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