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GCSE: Ethics

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  1. Dante's Inferno

    "And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire". (Revelation 20:15) The book of life is where the sins of everyone is written down and from that list of sins is how it is decided who will go to hell. To many, like Dante one universal sin is unfair. Dante's vision of hell involved such eternal punishments as souls tormented by biting insects, wallowing in mud, immersed in boiling blood, being lashed with whips. Lesser punishments involve having heads on backwards, chasing unreachable goals for eternity, and walking endlessly in circles.

    • Word count: 674
  2. There is no point in marriage when you can live together in any case

    Some couples are engaged to be married, and decide to move in together before the wedding. Sometimes they are saving money for a wedding, and decided that they'll live together in the meantime. They maybe don't want to nor can't married but still want to spend the rest of their life together. Others might disagree because getting married means you will have love, security and commitment which are some things you will not get completely if you do not get married; this can only come also from this stable relationship of marriage.

    • Word count: 578
  3. Free essay

    Just War Theory

    I will conduct a case study on the Iraq war, further on in this essay. If I was able to add one extra agreement to the Just War theory, I would add that violence should always be kept to a minimum. I think this because violence causes the world's most deaths in society today. This, in my opinion, is completely wrong and unacceptable as people should be able to live in a safe and free society, but this is never possible as you always have to be watching around you, as with some cases, you don't know actually who to trust.

    • Word count: 598
  4. John Proctor and Abigail

    Salem being a very religious town, it is really hard for Abigail and John Proctor to be together. John Proctor who is considered to be very handsome and dashing is in a committed relationship with Elizabeth Proctor who also happens to be his bitter-half. John & Abigail have been hiding their "alleged" affair from the town of Salem because even though John and Elizabeth are together, John "used" Abigail when he needed it most. That is a severe crime in the Salem community, not that he committed adultery but he committed it with a servant working in that house.

    • Word count: 877
  5. Science and Religion, A1

    In genesis 1, god creates all of this with his voice, 'God said "let there be light" and there was light'. The cosmology in genesis 2 is very similar to the one in genesis 1; however, it implies that man was created early on, with everything else being created for man. Similar to genesis 1, it says that the heavens and earth were created on the first day, followed by man being created from 'the dust of the earth' on the second day, the garden of Eden along with the first trees being created on

    • Word count: 717
  6. R.e. Coursework

    Therefore no human being has the authority to take the life of any innocent person, even if that person wants to die. In the Christian perspective, human beings are valuable because they are in God's image this genuinely means human life possesses dignity and value of life because it is created by God in his own image for the distinctive destiny of sharing in God's own life.

    • Word count: 549
  7. Self Eulogy

    We exercised every morning in 5 o'clock before we go to school. That would be almost 60 years ago. He was also an intelligent man. Throughout school, he was aiming for dentistry. As far as I know, he had to get an OP 1 to enter the dentistry course. I also wanted to be a dentist, but I gave up because I thought it was impossible to be a dentist. Peter never gave up. I went to sleep around 11 o'clock at night, but Peter wouldn't sleep in until around 12 o'clock.

    • Word count: 883
  8. Describe the teachings of the religion which you are studying about war and pacifism.

    the government, the just war theory also says that the amount of force used within the war should only be enough to win not any more and that no citizens should be killed in this and also that no cruelty or torture must be used. Christians would agree with this because it is as a last resort and it isn't the type of violence that would destroy more then necessary, an example of this is the war in Iraq some Christians would say this meets the requirements of the just war theory bas the united nations had tried various means

    • Word count: 921
  9. Explain how these teachings might influence the actions of a believer?

    Persue, kill and completely destroy them, declares the LORD. Do everything I have commanded you.' This leads many Christians to believe war is acceptable they prey for support when going to war for them and for every other troop there. However even though agreeing to war they do have rules, in 1983 the Church of England agreed that although nuclear weapons were a bad thing however they have a duty to protect there citizens from other countries with nuclear weapons.

    • Word count: 900
  10. Describe the teachings of the religion which you are studying about the relationship between humanity and the rest of creation.

    for the animals by giving man the responsibility of naming every single animal and because of this they should care for them this also gives us power- making us like God, omnipotent (all powerful), if we treat animals how we like then we are being omnipotent. However animals shouldn't be killed so that humans could eat them they should care for them and help to not make the animals extinct. In the bible under Genesis 1:27 it says people are made in the image of God, 'So God created humankind in his image in the image of God he created them male and female he created them.'

    • Word count: 999
  11. Explain Why There Is a Need For World Development

    If in a poor continent for example Africa, the percentage of people who are educated is very low. The environment which is already in a bad state will remain the same or even become worse and then the health services will suffer. It is only if the world will develop that changes will happen. Countries become less developed because of a number of different reasons. The most common reason is being hit with a natural disaster such as a flood or an earthquake.

    • Word count: 560
  12. "It is easier to forgive than be forgiven" Discuss.

    A Christian would also say that it is harder to receive forgiveness from someone you have wronged because you feel guilty for having done a bad action, and is therefore much easy to forgive. Some people would disagree with this statement; they would say that in fact it is harder to forgive someone than to be forgiven. If you are the person who is able to forgive someone then you may find it hard to forgive, you may be suffering as a result of a person's actions or you may be constantly reminded of what that person has done and this can make it harder to forgive.

    • Word count: 564
  13. How might a religious believer be influenced by their beliefs and teachings in their attitude towards the use of animals for entertainment

    In the Bible, in Genesis 8:22-9:17 it says "All the animals...will live in fear of you. They are all placed under your power." The fact that it says "They are all placed under your power", might influence a religious believer to think that we are allowed to control animals and we can do whatever we want with them, they would therefore think that it is alright to use animals for entertainment.

    • Word count: 554
  14. What do Christians teach about the soul and what happens to it after death?

    The soul is a spiritual, non-physical thing. Soma and psyche are separate things, the Bible teaches that in each of us humans, they are strongly connected and tied into each other, such that only death can separate them. Christianity teaches that we will be resurrected by God after we die. It does not teach that the soul goes to heaven and the body decays into nothingness. This is not what Christianity teaches but this is the idea taught by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato."It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body "This is the Christians view point made by St Paul.

    • Word count: 516
  15. Free essay

    Describe the Christian teachings about the way in which believers should treat people who are less fortunate than themselves

    So we should help but do we? The bible tells us to help those less fortunate and not to just ignore problems in society 'do not go over your vineyard a second time or pick up the grapes that have fallen, leave them for the poor and the alien' in this god is telling Christians to help the poor and the outcast from society because they are less fortunate than us and they may need help more than others. 'There will always be poor people in the land.

    • Word count: 771
  16. Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

    Most Italians that came to the United States were illiterate and unskilled causing them to work as common laborers. But by 1910 many Italians showed that they could progress upward in the types of jobs that they were able to take. Italians faced prejudice, segregation, and racism in the United States. According to clevelandmemory.org "Italians were lynched in the South as were blacks, in some cases for permitting blacks equal status with whites in their shops."(P. 122) Even though statistics showed that Italians were responsible for a small amount of crimes and murders and that most murders committed by Italians in the United States were committed against other Italians they earned a bad reputation anyway.

    • Word count: 588
  17. Utilitarianism. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of utilitarianism

    From this Bentham proposed the hedonic calculus which had seven criteria; intensity, duration, purity, extent, certainty, fecundity and remoteness. These factors weigh up the potential amount of pleasure or pain which might arise from moral actions to decide which would be the best option to take. Ideally, this formula should determine which act has the best tendency and is therefore right. Bentham hoped this theory could be used for criminal law reform. Incorporating it into criminal law seemed almost too easy. Given a certain crime, it would be possible to work out the minimum penalty necessary for its prevention.

    • Word count: 805
  18. Can Euthanasia Ever be justified?

    At least 5% of terminal pain cannot be controlled by drugs. It would prevent patients from suffering needlessly. Passive euthanasia is sometimes allowed and it is not any better than active euthanasia. The government has nothing to say on your religion so has no right to determine your faith or even if you have any faith at all and the main arguments against euthanasia are based in religion. So the state's intervention is only justified when the argument goes beyond religion. Arguments against euthanasia: One of the most important arguments against euthanasia is that we never know if the person will recover or not, "miracles" do happen (e.g.

    • Word count: 762
  19. Religious Ethics

    Utilitarian's would want to maximise the good things about sex and minimise the down sides. Using utilitarianism to assess the morality of adultery, we need to go back to the main principle of the theory which is 'the greatest good for the greatest number.' From this angle it would seem that the adulterous relationship would be tolerated as long as the other married partner did not find out and the affair was kept secret. Therefore harm is avoided and pleasure is still gained for most people, representing the 'greatest good for the greatest number.

    • Word count: 687
  20. which are the best ways to achieve knowledge?

    To answer the essay question I am going to base it on this argument. There are various sources where we can get knowledge from: experience, reason, emotions... It can be said that all human-beings adopt knowledge by simple nature; it is our senses that see, tough, smell, taste or hear a reality and transform it into knowledge for our brains to store. Our memory will keep these realities for a short or long period of time. Memory is very important in that she allows us to access her in order to recuperate previously stored data that will help us remember some moment or reality.

    • Word count: 629
  21. Television and Religion - Give your response to the view that television always presents religious people as out of touch with the modern world.

    I would say that the modern world is the one we live in reality today, where religion is not such an issue for many people compared to 50 or 100 years ago. Out of touch could mean a number of things, but the basic idea is that of being old-fashioned and not being capable of understanding the major issues of modern Society such as relationships, crime and politics. In the soap opera Eastenders, a character called Alex was a protestant priest.

    • Word count: 698
  22. Death & Afterlife-B

    This means most Christians live according to the 10 commandments to avoid any notoriety when they are judged. Christians follow these as closely as possible and do good to secure a place in Heaven this belief affects their whole lives as they believe death is a part of life. Living your life in sin is reversible, if you are a Catholic, you can go to confession. This is a common Catholic tradition, where a member of the congregation can sit in a booth and anonymously confess his sins to his priest.

    • Word count: 951
  23. Euthanasia should be a mater of choice.

    The baby was then put up for adoption. There are many issues with this event, since the baby isn't fully conscious yet the decision should therefore lie with the parents who believed that if the baby had this disease it was natures will to let it die. However it is a human life which had not consented for its demise and as such should be kept alive until it is ready to do so. Also in many studies patients diagnosed with "terminal" illnesses were either cured or incorrectly diagnosed, what would have happened to these patients of euthanasia was legal?

    • Word count: 918
  24. Just war theory

    In my opinion this theory is flawed because if someone starts a civil war, not in a position of power, and wins, is it then alright. This clause supported by the bible in Romans 13:1-4, "Everyone must obey the state authority... Gods permission". This teaching supports the first clause because it states that all authorities are put forth by god and that they have the right. The second clause is "the cause of the war must be just". St Augustine believed that there were only three just causes: * defending against attack * recapturing things taken * punishing people who have done wrong These are all just because they deserve to be harmed because they have done wrong.

    • Word count: 571
  25. Emotivism Essay

    Emotivism came about from the theory of logical positivism. This is the view that only those things that can be tested are meaningful. For example ... The theory says roughly says that any genuine truth claim must be able to be tested by sense experience. Since moral judgments can't be tested by sense experience, they aren't genuine truth claims. So moral judgments only express feelings. Thus logical positivism leads to Emotivism. Emotivism is also known as the boo/hurrah theory in which we say boo to bad things e.g. poverty and illness, but hurrah to the good things e.g.

    • Word count: 551

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Describe and evaluate Emotivism, showing knowledge of its key thinkers and critics?"

    "In conclusion, Emotivism is a theory where moral judgements are used to express our emotions. Many philosophers feel differently about why we make moral statements, and in essence a statement is not meaningful, unless it can be verified by our sense perceptions. By analysing the views and opinions of the philosophers, a sound and concise evaluation has been produced."

  • What are the main features of classical utilitarianism? Assess the strengths and weaknesses of classical utilitarianism.

    "The whole aim of utilitarianism is to produce the greatest good for the greatest number and it is true that the majority of pleasure is followed. This is a suitable conclusion in many situations but we have to consider whether this is always a good thing. W.D.Ross considered the duties he thought should be put beside happiness such as fidelity, justice, beneficence, self-improvement and nonmalificence. It is also not always beneficial to have constant majority rule as this excludes many minorities such as pressure groups like Greenpeace or previously the Suffragettes. It also excludes disabled people and could lead to eugenics as initiated by Hitler as he ethnically cleansed Germany of all Jews and other minorities. Hannah Fleming L6E 6.10.03"

  • Explain and discuss one critique of the link between religion and morality

    "In conclusion it is clear that Professor Chung has a strong argument against the link between religion and morality. He points out on more than one occasion that religious moral codes are not only impractical and often lead to immoral acts, but are self contradicting and often ignored by religious believers. Moreover he also points out that a person does not have to be religious to be moral, and therefore how can religion shape morality if some people are not religious but still moral. This clearly shows that morality comes from human nature and not religion, and therefore his argument is very effective, and in my opinion disproves the link of morality and religion."

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