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GCSE: Ethics

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  1. Christian Aid - A Charity Helping Poverty

    Therefore when ever there is a natural disaster, such as a flood, storm, earthquake or a volcanic eruption, Christian aid will respond without any delay. On the incidents as such, the type of help Christian aid provides the victims with first aid, food and water supply, antibiotics and shelter etc. Recently, the Christian aid has supplied food, water and tents to war refugees of Iraq. Also more recently Christian aid team had to raise over �320,000 for the current crisis in Ethiopia for up to 12.6million people needing food aid, wanting 1.5 million metric tonnes of food aid in 2003.

    • Word count: 2878
  2. life after death

    You can be sure that whoever gives even a drink of cold water to one the least of these my followers because he is my follower, will certainly receive a reward." Here, it says that the people that help other Christians will be rewarded in the next life. In mark Roman Catholics believe that in addition to heaven and hell there is a place called purgatory, because humans are not perfect therefore before entering the afterlife most will go to purgatory where they are punished, and forgiven after that go to heaven.

    • Word count: 2127
  3. Different religious and philosophical views on controversial topics.

    Kantian A Kantian would say that to take a human life under any circumstances is wrong and as such abortion is wrong. They would also say that baby Amillia is further proof of this. The only situation in which abortion would be allowed is if the mother's life is in danger and because we have a duty to her life we may be able to sacrifice that of the child. Christian A Christian would fall upon the commandment "Do not kill" which states that any attempt on human life is murder.

    • Word count: 2599
  4. Explain how Aristotle and Alasdair Macintyre applied Virtue Theory to moral decision making?

    For example, the knife has a function, to cut, and it performs its function well when it cuts well. This argument is applied to man. Man has a function and the good man, is the man who performs his function well. This is the life of eudaimonia. Eudaimonia is the life of achieving virtues through activity in conjunction with reason, man's highest function. Therefore, when linked to moral decision making the person making the decision and wanting to become virtuous, will have an incentive of endless happiness, which should lead to the correct moral decision being chosen. The best way in which to achieve eudaimonia is by practice.

    • Word count: 2741
  5. Religion Speech IVF

    Catholics believe it is immoral to produce human embryos destined to be exploited as disposable biological material. In the usual practice of IVF, not all embryos are transferred to the woman's body; some are destroyed. By acting in this way, the scientist is said to take the place of God. Even though he may be unaware of this, he sets himself up as the master of others destiny, by way of arbitrarily choosing whom he will allow to live and who will die, resulting in the death of defenseless humans.

    • Word count: 2720
  6. How Does Virtue Ethics apply to Business Ethics?

    Fame, money and power would therefore not come into this so would be described as unvirtuous goals. He gives an example of two fishing communities; the first produces external goods and is a portrayal of current businesses. The fisherman catch as much fish as possible to meet the demand and to make profit which is the overriding goal. As soon as the demand for fish starts to wane the crew will quit as there will be an insufficient profit for them to make.

    • Word count: 2051
  7. Aristotle - Virtue Ethics Essay

    Aristotle argues virtue is not a quality that human beings are born with, nor is it hereditary; however Aristotle regards virtue as important as the care of the physical body. That said however, Aristotelian ethics can well be applied to business ethics. The war and empire worldview of the Ancient Greek civilisation (because of constant threat from other empires such as the Turks and the Persians) could be compared with the 'war-like' attitude of certain corporations fuelled by the fierce competition offered by rival companies.

    • Word count: 2436
  8. Utilitarianism (Weaknesses and strengths)

    Bentham gave us an illustration of how to choose which action to perform. It goes something like this: if immediate action (A) produces less happiness than future action (B), then you should do B. i.e. [A = +5 hedons (units of happiness) B = +7 hedons] However if B produces more happiness and more unhappiness than A, the unhappiness of B will take away from its happiness, so A will be the best choice if a greater sum total of happiness is produced. i.e. [ A = +5 and -1 = +4 hedons B = +7 and -4 = +3 hedons ] Although if A and B equaled in the amount of happiness but if A produced more unhappiness then you should choose B.

    • Word count: 2044
  9. What is the relationship between religion and morality?

    For why praise him for what he has done if he could be equally praiseworthy in doing exactly the contrary.' 'To a Christian, to do one's duty is to do the will of God.' D. Z. Phillips. If we are being good out of the obedience of God, then are we being good for the right reasons? Are we simply obeying a tyrant who commands us to obey, rather than making our own moral choices? Modern day scholars argue that religion prevents possible improvements of human civilization.

    • Word count: 2201
  10. How Successful is The Co-operative Banks Ethical policy?

    How a firm treats its staff, a company with a good policy would give its staff good working conditions and good pay rates. 4. The accounting practices of the firm, it would have to keep its accounts accurate. 5. Environmental policies: a. They would have to take responsibility for any negative externalities. b. It would have to take responsibility for specifically pollution. c. The company would have to make a positive contribution to the environment. d. They would have to sell environmentally products.

    • Word count: 2035
  11. Utilitarianism is a contrast to classic approaches to ethics. One of the main features or indeed the basis of Utilitarianism is the 'Greatest happiness for the greatest number' theory which posses a secular oUtlook to ethics.

    Classic approaches to ethics stress good intentions as essential to morality. For example, 'tell the trUth because it is morally good to tell the truth, even if it hurts'. Classic approaches to ethics often stress the intrinsic value of morality. Unlike classic approaches Utilitarianism does not distribute happiness or goodness in an equalariean manner. Utilitarianism is not about having ideals; it is an aprori approach to morality, a basis that experience counts for everything. One might call it a moral theory of usefulness in terms of the greater good, not in terms of ones selfish desires.

    • Word count: 2380
  12. Explain ethical egoism. Do you believe that it is true? Why or why not?

    We cannot expect people to do things that they cannot do. In the scenario of a drowning child, if one cannot swim, then one is not physically capable of saving the drowning child, and there is no sense in our saying that one ought to save the victim. Psychological egoism is not an affirmation that all people behave selfishly in concenquences. It would not disagree that people assist others, contribute to charity or even provide an organ to somebody who will die if they didn't receive a transplant.

    • Word count: 2165
  13. Problems with Utilitarian and Kantian Ethics.

    One popular criticism of utilitarianism is that it deals too much with the consequences of one's actions, and the same for Kant except that it focuses too much upon intentions. For the purposes of this essay I will explain how both theories fail as moral guideline on how to live life, and touch upon some components of morality, which I feel are imperative in order to live the good life. Utilitarianism is a theory that maintains that pleasure/happiness is the only intrinsic good, and that whatever act, choice etc.

    • Word count: 2823
  14. Can there be a coherent Relativism?

    And if not what are the problems with the thesis that may render it incoherent? Through the history of ethics, relativism has remained a controversial thesis that has been in stark contrast to more conventional systems of ethics, such as that of Immanuel Kant, that have advocated an ideal standard of absolute morality. And unlike ethical systems such as utilitarianism or duty based theses, relativism is meta-ethical. It says nothing about particular actions of themselves but rather asks about ethics itself, in this sense relativism is a second order thesis. It is an interesting point to note at this stage that since relativism as an ethical system has no classical formulation or notable exponents it has at times been developed more by its critics than those who overtly defend the position.

    • Word count: 2032
  15. Kant’s moral theory

    Now, obviously, individuals often free in the above sense - nobody is forcing them to behave in a certain way, or otherwise constraining their behaviour. For instance I am free tonight either to go to a movie or to stay at home and book, or even to continue to type this chapter. In a significant sense is up to me which of these I will do. But which of these ought I do? If I have promised my publisher to finish this chapter tonight, then I am under an 'obligation' to continue to work on it.

    • Word count: 2322

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Describe and evaluate Emotivism, showing knowledge of its key thinkers and critics?"

    "In conclusion, Emotivism is a theory where moral judgements are used to express our emotions. Many philosophers feel differently about why we make moral statements, and in essence a statement is not meaningful, unless it can be verified by our sense perceptions. By analysing the views and opinions of the philosophers, a sound and concise evaluation has been produced."

  • What are the main features of classical utilitarianism? Assess the strengths and weaknesses of classical utilitarianism.

    "The whole aim of utilitarianism is to produce the greatest good for the greatest number and it is true that the majority of pleasure is followed. This is a suitable conclusion in many situations but we have to consider whether this is always a good thing. W.D.Ross considered the duties he thought should be put beside happiness such as fidelity, justice, beneficence, self-improvement and nonmalificence. It is also not always beneficial to have constant majority rule as this excludes many minorities such as pressure groups like Greenpeace or previously the Suffragettes. It also excludes disabled people and could lead to eugenics as initiated by Hitler as he ethnically cleansed Germany of all Jews and other minorities. Hannah Fleming L6E 6.10.03"

  • Explain and discuss one critique of the link between religion and morality

    "In conclusion it is clear that Professor Chung has a strong argument against the link between religion and morality. He points out on more than one occasion that religious moral codes are not only impractical and often lead to immoral acts, but are self contradicting and often ignored by religious believers. Moreover he also points out that a person does not have to be religious to be moral, and therefore how can religion shape morality if some people are not religious but still moral. This clearly shows that morality comes from human nature and not religion, and therefore his argument is very effective, and in my opinion disproves the link of morality and religion."

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