Select and explain the religious rituals which might be performed when a Buddhist visits a temple.

Select and explain the religious rituals which might be performed when a Buddhist visits a temple In all schools of Buddhism, worship, whether on your own or inside a temple is considered a vital part of every day life. Inside a Buddhist temple, different kinds of worship and ceremonies take place. Mahayana worship tends not to be congregational, although there are opportunities to get together in shared activities. Offerings are made at the shrine as a mark of respect to the Buddha. Usually, seven different types of offerings are made at the shrine - two bowls of water, essential for drinking and washing, symbolise hospitality. Other offerings are white flowers, incense, lamps, perfume and food. These represent the five senses. Occasionally, all seven bowls will contain water and be symbolic of the seven offerings. In Theravada Buddhism worship may take place either at home or in the temple. No lay believer is obliged to visit a temple, although most of them do. Most lay believers will have their won shrines at home. The bhikkus worship in the shrine and meditation rooms of the vihara, usually once in the morning and once in the evening. Lay believers attend whenever they can, preferably once a day in Theravadin countries. There is no special time for attendance as such. The Theravadin philosophy is that each individual has to work out his or her salvation on their own,

  • Word count: 1705
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

Meditation as a Form of Psychotherapy

Meditation as a Form of Psychotherapy INTRODUCTION Although meditation practices have been in use for over 3000 years they have only been introduced into Western society in the last half a century (Walsh 1995). Before the 1960's meditation was rarely practiced and was widely misunderstood, labelled as "an attempt at psychological and physical regression. . . a sort of artificial schizophrenia" (Alexander et al 1946, cited in Walsh 1995: 388) by a well known psychiatrist. Recently, however, psychologists have become aware of the psychotherapeutic aspects of meditation. These aspects have proven to be so beneficial that meditation has even been controversially labelled by some as a form of psychotherapy (Walsh 1995). HOW MEDITATION FITS INTO THE DEFINITION OF 'PSYCHOTHERAPY' Contraversy over the labelling of meditation as a form of psychotherapy both arises and is resolved in the ambiguous nature of psychotherapy itself. The general definition of psychotherapy could be classed as: A formal process involving a professional and legally trained 'therapist' helping a person who has distress or disfunction in the areas of emotion, cognition, or behaviour. The therapist has a logical theory about how the problem developed and treats the patient in relation to this theory. (Based on Corsini 1995). Based on this definition some argue that meditation is not a psychotherapy

  • Word count: 1659
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

The Buddhapadipa Temple

History of Buddhism -the life of the Buddha When Siddhartha Gautama was born a wise man came to his father, the king, and told him that his son would either be a great king or a great holy man. The king was worried, he wanted his son to follow in his footsteps and become king. So Siddhartha was raised in luxury and his father made sure nothing would trouble him so that he would learn to love all the earthly things and would not choose to give everything up and become a holy man. He was married to a beautiful princess of a neighbouring country and they had a son, but he was not happy. One day he went out with his chariot to see the town. As he came near the town he saw a frail old man, he was distressed by this as he had never seen anyone who was old. He went back to the palace but the next day he went out again. This time he saw a sick man. He had never seen anyone who was sick, only healthy people were aloud into the palace, it distressed him deeply, so he went back to the palace again but the next day he went out again but this time he saw something that trouble him a lot. He saw a grieving family carrying a corpse. He thought about all he had seen. He thought about how much suffering was brought on by death, sickness and old age. He went out once more but this time he saw something which inspired him. He saw a holy man at peace with everyone and everything around him.

  • Word count: 1637
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

Discuss in as much the doctrine of Anicca is essential to the religion of Buddhism in understanding the human condition.

Discuss in as much the doctrine of Anicca is essential to the religion of Buddhism in understanding the human condition. The word Anicca is a household word in every Buddhist country. It means impermanence. Impermanence or change is a fundamental concept in Buddhism. According to Buddhists belief everything is impermanent. Without a realisation of impermnanence Buddhists believe there can never be any true insight through which we can see things as they really are. It is therefore necessary to discuss in as much the doctrine of Anicca is essential to the religion of Buddhism in understanding the human condition. Firstly, it is necessary to explain the link between our human condition and Anicca. The concept if Anicca is one of the "Three Marks of Existence" along with Anatta (no-self)and Dukkha (suffering.) The Buddha teaches that we can only understand Dukkha and Anatta through an understanding of Anicca. It is the knowledge of Anicca, impermanence, that heals Dukkha, suffering, and consequently leads to Nirvana (enlightenment). Buddhists believe that by understanding Anicca, we come to understand that there is no permanent entity underlying our life (Anatta). The concept of Anicca is related to Anatta when related to human beings. Buddhism centres round the belief that as nothing is permanent there can be no soul. Thus, by seeing no difference between

  • Word count: 1456
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

Buddhist funerals

Buddhist Funeral By Alexandra Hebden AO1- Describe a Buddhist funeral and ways in which the mourning period might be observed. Funerals vary from culture to culture; some are simple and quite, whilst others are loud including party's, celebrating life and death. However for Buddhist a funeral is usually a simple and private affair. There are many different types of Buddhist communities, and each one holds a different type of funeral, from a cremation, to a 'sky burial'. Some of the main Buddhist communities are the Theravada Buddhists, the Tibetan Buddhists and the Mahayana Buddhists, each of them holding a different style of ceremony. The Theravada Buddhists who mainly live in Thailand, encourage a dying person to read or chant passages from the Suttas, they do this to try and improve their Karma as they are very close to the time of their re-birth. After the death, the relatives, pour water over a hand of their dead family member, the body is then placed in a coffin. However he or she is not then just shut away in the dark, the body is surrounded by lights and incense, and sometimes passages from the Abhidhamma will be read over the body, by Bhikkus's. Traditionally the bodies are cremated, as was the Buddha. In Theravada Buddhist communities the cremation usually takes place about three days after the death, until his point the body lays in the home, visited

  • Word count: 1403
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

Review of Adorno and Horkheimer's The dialectic of enlightenment

Book Review: Adorno and Horkheimer's 'Dialectic of Enlightenment' Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer from the 'Frankfurt School' of thought, with their 'collective of understanding reality', were both educated German Jews. Who took an examining look at the 'Enlightenment'. Written in 1947 at the In their book, they synthesis both Freud and Marx, accepting both theories as being feasable. They accept the Marxist approach whereby economics is the sole aspect of society, the class struggle, commodity and the exchange of goods. However they recognise that this is merely one side and that there is the spiritual being which in itself needs catering for. The needs and desires of the individuals that are repressed by the society and constraints in which we live in. The Psychic development of the individual from birth, as it grows and learns how to conform to society. Freud and Marx both agreed however that conflict was the 'motor' of history, although differing on the conflict levels. For Freud it is the 'individual's conflict with society' and for Marx it is as we know the neverending 'class conflict'. The importance of these two philosophical thinkers is that they have pathed the way for Adorno and Horkheimer to understand the both the 'individual' and 'society', by incorporating the two. The three main aspects to their approach are: The economic life of society (Marx), the

  • Word count: 1366
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

Describe Buddhist teaching about how people should treat the environment and animals.

Jenna Wake Buddhism coursework a) Describe Buddhist teaching about how people should treat the environment and animals. Buddhists believe we should live in harmony with each other and nature. Buddhists try to educate people to respect the environment, this includes yourself, other people and nature. Buddhists believe people should show Metta, loving kindness to all things. Doing this promotes a person good karma, this results in Punna, skilful acts, which in turn earns Merit. Merit helps people gain enlightenment. Buddhists believe that Metta reflects collective karma. This is the idea that everything, everybody does are reflected onto everything and everybody, around them. So good karma makes the environment a better place and bad karma can cause bad changes to the environment. A Buddhists tries, through their karma to get rid of greed, hatred and ignorance, this also applies to institutions that run our societies and multinational corporations that work in our societies. Through institutions and multinational companies, the three poisons of greed, hatred and ignorance are spread across the world. Tich Nhat Hahn, a Buddhist from Vietnam, speaks of engaged Buddhism. This is the belief that Buddhism is concerned about the way people live and is engaged in trying to improve life for them. An example of engaged Buddhism in Britain is the group called "Network of engaged

  • Word count: 1365
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

Describe Buddhist teaching about how people should treat the environment and animals.

A) Describe Buddhist teaching About How People Should Treat The Environment And Animals Buddhists care for the environment and some are vegetarians, so the rate of suffering is reduced. They do not think it is right to kill another living thing for money or another person's pleasure. This is a sign of Right (or perfect) intention, from the Eightfold Path. 'Right Intention' is a choice to follow the Eightfold Path, both for the sake of your freedom and eventual enlightenment, but also unselfish love for all beings. Buddhist's believe that they should lead their lives by following the middle way, by only taking what you need and nothing more. In this essay I am going to explore what Buddhists believe about how people should treat animals and the environment. Buddhists believe that Buddhism has a strong link with the environment and animals. There is a Buddhist principle, "the oneness of life and environment". This principle means to take responsibility for everything around us in the environment, and that to make positive changes in our environment requires, a leap of faith. Buddhists believe that nothing has a fixed self and nothing exists without that conditions which form it. It follows humankind cannot be separate from the rest of nature. When looking after the world surrounding we are looking after ourselves. Buddhists believe that everything in the environment is

  • Word count: 1311
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

Overview of Buddhism.

Overview of Buddhism Buddhism was founded by Gautama Buddha, who lived on the Indian subcontinent, in or around fifth century BCE. Buddha taught life was inherently suffering, that is caused by craving, but curable by the Eightfold Path, which is used to gain nirvana.The eight aspects of the path are not to be understood as a sequence of single steps, instead they are interdependent that have to be seen in relationship with each other. . Right View Right view is the beginning and the end of the path, it simply means to see and to understand things as they really are and to realize the Four Noble Truth. As such, right view is an aspect of wisdom. It means to see things through, to grasp the impermanent and imperfect nature of worldly objects and ideas, and to understand the law of karma and karmic conditioning. Right view is not necessarily just intellectual , just as wisdom is not just a matter of intelligence. Instead, right view is attained, sustained, and enhanced through all capacities of mind. It begins with the insight that all beings are subject to suffering and it ends with complete understanding of the true nature of all things. Since our view of the world forms our thoughts and our actions, right view yields right thoughts and right actions. 2. Right Intention Right intention can be described best as ethical and mental self-improvement. Buddha distinguishes

  • Word count: 1297
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay

Buddhism and The Buddha.

Buddhism Practice Buddhism is one of the major world state religions. It is also one of the oldest in the world. It began over 2000 years ago in northeast India, with the teachings of Siddharta Gautama the founder, otherwise known as the Buddha. Buddhism has spread all over India and through the Himalayan Mountain passes into China, Tibet, Korea, Japan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, and Vietnam, Europe, USA, and even Australia. The number of Buddhists in the world is estimated to be about 300 million. This is because Buddhism has always adapted well to other cultures and therefore it has developed several distinctive forms in different countries. Buddhists believe that the best way of life is found in moderation. This is called The Middle Way. It is based on the Buddha's discovery that happiness is found neither in self-indulgence nor in extreme self-denial. There is also a strong belief in Karma. The word Karma means deeds but the teaching of karma is a law of cause and effect. Karma influences the way people behave. However unfair life seems, nothing is wasted at any given moment. They say that the present is the fruit of the past and the seed of the future. Thoughts and actions bear fruit in our lives, according to the intentions behind them, though this is not always obvious to other people. The Buddha Siddharta Guatama lived in northern India over

  • Word count: 1252
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
Access this essay