Manichean psychology and violence

MANICHEAN PSYCHOLOGY AND VIOLENCE Frantz Fanon was born in Martinique in the year 1925. He started studying medicine and later qualified as a psychiatrist. Born in a French colony and later working in Algeria (also a French colony), he joined the fight for Algeria's liberation. His books have exerted a fundamental influence on the study of oppression and post-colonialism. The following will provide a brief description of the master-slave paradigms of Georg Hegel and Fanon. The second section will discuss Manichean psychology and how I perceive its effect on the concept of alienation and violence. Master and slave paradigms In summary, Hegel's master-slave concept argues that man will only become conscious of himself through recognition by another. Hegel spoke about how man's self-consciousness originates in desire, a desire for recognition. Bulhan (1985, p. 103) says that "[recognition] is possible only in the presence and confrontation of the other. Thus recognition by the other confirms one's self-worth, identity, and even humanity". In terms of master and slave, he who receives recognition without having to return the recognition will become the master and the slave will be the one who is not recognised. Therefore, the master is in a position of elevation and the slave is reduced, this reduction results in the slave becoming "an extension of the master's will

  • Word count: 2216
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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Violence and Males

John Bozarjian Introduction to Gender Studies Professor Najmi Essay 2 December 7, 2004 Violence and Males In the short film, The Smell of Burning Ants, director Jay Rosenblatt discusses how boy's personalities and attitudes are shaped by fear, authority, and shame during their childhood stage. The movie is a chilling description of why boys are led to act in anger, frustration, and violence. Young boys from early ages are frequently restricted from expressing their emotions and are forced to act in a "masculine" fashion. This pressure to conform to masculinity induced by society and depicted on television screens has led males to be overly-aggressive and lead them to commit many acts of violence. In this essay I will argue how media, athletics, and peer pressure leads males to become more aggressive and violent opposed to females. According to statistics presented by William G. Brozo and Patricia Teri Placker in the Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, males commit ninety percent of all murders. According to the study, high school boys are four times more likely than girls to be murdered and ninety-four percent of the nearly 1 million inmates in United State prisons are male(Brozo, Placker 531). They also write, "By the time boys are 18, they are likely to have seen on their TV screens alone an average of 26,000 murders, and untold numbers of physical and

  • Word count: 1363
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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"Explain the beliefs Christians hold about their responsibility for those at the beginning and end of their lives."

R.E Coursework Kashif Rashid 1 R "Explain the beliefs Christians hold about their responsibility for those at the beginning and end of their lives." Beginning I will start out from the beliefs on the beginning of life and what the Roman Catholic view is on it. There are different views on some points but I will start with the "sanctity of human life" this means that all life is sacred, holy. Christians believe they are made in the image of god. (Genesis 1:27 Making them like himself) so therefore life is a gift from god and to prove my point furthermore I refer to the evangelium vitae 61-" human life is sacred & inviolable at every moment of existence. James 2:1-9 Roman Catholics believe that this relationship God begins at the moment of conception, due to this Christians believe that they have a responsibility to preserve life. - See Corinthians 3:16-17 James 2:1-4 "my brothers & sisters, as believers in our lord Jesus Christ, the lord of glory, you must never treat people in different ways according to their outward appearance." This clearly states no one is to be treated different no matter if they are one or one hundred out appearance should not influence your views. Mark: 12-31 "love your neighbour greater then you love yourself" its states your neighbour not the age or stage of life it clearly states neighbour so therefore you should care for all.

  • Word count: 587
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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"For a Christian to die for his/her beliefs does not make sense. It is better to live for them. "Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing you have thought of more than one point of view.

Suffering, Death and Resurrection Coursework "For a Christian to die for his/her beliefs does not make sense. It is better to live for them." Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing you have thought of more than one point of view. Christians can die or live for their beliefs. Many different Christians have made a big impact on peoples' lives, both living and dying for their beliefs. Often, Christians becoming martyrs have brought recognition to the cause they died for and many Christians that lived for their faith have brought benefits to the lives of many. Oscar Romero is an example of a Christian who died for his faith, just as Jesus died for us. He was the Archbishop of El Salvador, a country torn apart by social injustice; the poor suffered and had no voice. He demanded explanations from the government and tried to raise awareness to the struggle of the poor. He was assassinated while saying Sunday Mass. He showed his support for the poor through his famous speeches and said: "If they kill me, I will rise again in the Salvadoran people." This shows that his death did not end the struggle of the poor, in fact it made them more determined to fight for justice. Jesus' death did not mean the apostles ended their mission, after Jesus ascended to heaven "the disciples went out and preached everywhere" (Mk 16:20) and they

  • Word count: 657
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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"Is domestic violence increasing?"

"Is domestic violence increasing?" He loved me, he loved me not Having decided to investigate this type of crime, one which I consider to be emotional and sensitive, I hope that by looking into it in more depth, I can satisfy my own curiosity, and be more aware and educated about something I consider to be an important issue for both women and men in society. In this study I will be covering definitions of domestic violence, views on why this happens (other than my own) the movements against violence, including government policy's and women's aid. Domestic violence is one of the most common crimes. It is present throughout society. It seems that it occurs in almost all cultures and countries, across all known divisions of wealth, race, caste and social class. There may never have been a time when it did not exist, and it certainly stretches back deep into history. Centuries, indeed even millenniums are filled with millions of assaults, attacks, violations, psychological abuses, rapes, maiming's and killings. There are many views on why domestic violence occurs, maybe by looking into it we will be able to understand why violence seems to be increasing. In the British context, domestic violence is usually regarded as violence between adults who are in an intimate or family relationship, most often a sexual relationship between a woman and a man. The definition

  • Word count: 1920
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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"It takes more courage to be a conscientious objector than to fight so Christians should always support the cause of peace rather than war."

"It takes more courage to be a conscientious objector than to fight so Christians should always support the cause of peace rather than war." Do you agree? I agree. A conscientious objector is a person, who has not used violence or encouraged others to do so and been imprisoned because of religious or political beliefs therefore, it would take a lot of courage to stay happy and hopeful when you are trapped in a cell without family and friends just due to your beliefs. A famous conscientious objector is Mohammed Ali. He was an army soldier and was due to fight in the Vietnam War but he refused. Afterwards, Ali said: "I refuse to be inducted into the armed forces of the United States because I claim to be exempt as a minister of the religion of Islam." Consequently, he was sent to prison, had to pay a fine and was stripped of his World Heavyweight Title. He appealed and later, in 1971, the Supreme Court ruled in his favour. He also said: "Keep asking, no matter how long on the war in Vietnam I sing this song. I ain't got no quarrel with the Vietcong" Also, like Ali, if you get imprisoned and persecuted for your beliefs you have to take a lot of courage and bravery as there may be a lot of betrayal from friends and family. Another example of a famous conscientious objector is Martin Luther King who was a human rights activist. King first came to the public attention

  • Word count: 727
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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"It's my life and I can do what I want"

RE coursework-A03 "It's my life and I can do what I want" There are two sides to this statement. On one hand a Christian could say it is his or her life and they should be able to make their own choices. Humans have free will and they are responsible for the choices they make whether they are good or bad. Since they are Christian they have the grace of the Holy Spirit given by god to make good moral choices, this means that god will help you decide what to do. Christians have Jesus as an example of what to live like and people are often persecuted for their beliefs in our society. Our society can put pressure on young Christians and use peer pressure to make them go againsed gods will. We might be pressured into sexual relationships before marriage, contraception or abortions. On the other hand Christians do not have the right to always do what they want in life. Christians become part of the body of Christ at their baptism; if they were going to have an abortion their choice would affect people such as their families and friends. Christians have a duty to respect their bodies because they are they are the temple of the Holy Spirit, "food for the stomach, and stomach for the food"(Matthew 5) this means to do things in moderation and not to abuse your body with issues regarding drugs, alcohol and sex immorality. Christians have a duty to preserve the moral law. Christians

  • Word count: 357
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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"King Billy" by Edwin Morgan is a poem about the life and death of Glasgow gang leader Billy Fullarton

"King Billy" by Edwin Morgan King Billy is a poem about the life and death of Glasgow gang leader Billy Fullarton. It is written in free verse and uses many writing techniques to get across the feeling and emotions of Edwin Morgan. Morgan opens the poem by giving us a powerful image of a dark, dismal graveyard. He uses personification to describe the "Gravestones huddled together in drizzling shadow" giving human characteristics to inanimate lumps of stone, making us imagine ourselves, hunched over trying to keep warm. The image of the wreath "blown from its grave" gives us a powerful feeling of loneliness and not fitting in because, as a bright "red, white, blue and gold," object it stands out and looks out of place in the dank, gloomy place, which arouses our sympathy for whoever it is that has died. This first verse is in a very different style from the rest of the poem as it is entirely about "setting the scene". In the second verse, Morgan starts to tell us about the man whose funeral it was and makes us think again about our sympathy, as he was clearly a violent man and perhaps does not deserve our pity. He starts the verse in a strange way, using the word, "bareheaded" at the start of the line, so bringing attention to it and emphasising the respect being shown, which, as we find out later, does not seem to fit with the kind of man being talked about. Morgan

  • Word count: 864
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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"Lifelong marriage is too difficult even for Christians today. The church should be willing to drop this vow.""Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have considered more than one point of view."

R.e. - Marriage - AO3 "Lifelong marriage is too difficult even for Christians today. The church should be willing to drop this vow." "Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have considered more than one point of view." Today, statistics show that there are many more marriage breakdowns than ever before. No relationship last forever, as people change. 3000 children a week are told that their parents are splitting up in the UK. 40% of all marriages breakdown, therefore this shows that divorce is on the increase. Many people believe that there are more temptations to cheat on your partner these days. Films, television, books and magazines, and the lives of some celebrities play a big part in this. In soap operas such as Eastenders, affairs are portrayed as part of normal life, therefore people react less shocked when it happens. Celebrities such as Tom Cruise, Zöe Ball and Les Dennis also help to make adultery more "normal". Other pressures that can harm marriages include working partner - if you work with a person of the opposite sex, then this could lead to adultery. Lack of communication can also break down a marriage, as partners can't express their feelings/problems to each other. Violence can cause a marriage to break down, as no one should have to put up with violence just so they stay married. Finance can help a marriage to break

  • Word count: 542
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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SOC102 Social Problems

SOC102 Social Problems Tutor: John Warren Domestic Violence Student: Jennifer Gartland Student ID: 032805136 Domestic Violence is defined by the Home Office as, 'any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship, wherever and whenever the violence occurs. The violence may include physical, sexual, emotional and financial abuse' (Home Office 2003, p. 6). The Safety and Justice consultation paper also highlights that, 'domestic violence occurs across society, regardless of age, gender, race, sexuality, wealth and geography. However, it is predominantly women who suffer as a result of it' (Home Office 2003, p. 6). Dallos (1993, p. 11) also points out that what constitutes as violence to one person is not to another. For example in the use of, 'threats, damaging property, energetic sexual behaviour or play fighting', it is often down to the couple to agree on what level of behaviour is acceptable (Dallos and Foreman 1993, p. 11). The solutions and policies on Domestic Violence stem from what is determined as the 'cause' or definition of the violence and this is investigated through a variety of discourses often delivering a different explanation (Radford 2001, pp. 70, 71). This Essay will investigate some of the major policies undertaken by the government in addressing Domestic Violence. It will also look into the discourses in which they

  • Word count: 1402
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Religious Studies (Philosophy & Ethics)
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