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Acid Rain Investigation

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Introduction

AT1 CHEMISTRY Introduction A large statue was erected on a hill above a town in Derbyshire, many years ago. It was built of the local stone which is limestone. Limestone is Calcium and its formula is CaCO3. The town has grown since then and there is a lot more traffic , with cars and lorries giving off fumes from their exhausts . Also, more factories have been built in the area , increasing the air pollution . Consequently the statue is showing signs of deterioation . The ideas that I have come up with of the causes of the problem is Acid rain which is more acidic than normal rain and forms through a complex process of chemical reactions involving air pollution. The two most important pollutants that contribute to the formation of acid rain are oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide, which react with moisture in the atmosphere to form nitric and sulphuric acid. The sulphur and nitrogen compounds that contribute to acid rain primarily come from manmade sources, such as industries and utilities. Emissions also come from automobiles and other forms of transportation and industrial processes, such as smelting. Acid rain can harm forests and crops, damage bodies of water, and contribute to the damage of statues and buildings. ...read more.

Middle

I will repeat this process using 25ml water, 23ml of acid and 38ml acid , 12ml water. I will repeat each concentration twice so my results are fair. I will average the results to find the average reading for each concentration. In order to make the test as fair as possible I will try and keep the marble chips the same size, the room should stay at a constant temperature. There will be no catalyst in this reaction. The only variable that I am going to change throughout the experiment is the concentration of acid. Apparatus:One bung, A piece of delivery tube ,One measuring cylinder ,Clamp stand, a conical flask, 9 pieces of marble chip(same size), altogether 75ml of hydrochloric and 75ml of water. Diagram of apparatus set up Prediction: I predict that the "solution with the highest concentration of acid will have a much faster reaction than the weaker solution of acid." I have predicted this from my knowledge my trail run experiment and scientific knowledge. I think that this happened because the more HCl in the solution the greater the concentration and there will be more particles colliding and more energy and therefore a faster rate of reaction. The reason I think that the rate of reaction will increase is that the experiment is exothermic, this means that it will give itself more energy and therefore more collisions and faster collisions. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is such a long sequence of activities to do in the time it takes the marble chips to hit the surface of the solution. There is a potential for error. I think this is the reason for the abnormalities in my results as I did not start the watch at the correct time as I had trouble putting the bung into the conical flask. This means my results are higher than they should be. The truth of my conclusion is not undermined by this however, as the same effect happened to each concentration. I could overcome this problem and the one mentioned in the previous paragraph by only starting the timer when the gas starts to fill the measuring cylinder. This would not include the time taken to push the water down the delivery tube in my results, and I would not have to start the stopwatch at the same time as putting the marble chips in the flask. To provide more evidence for my investigation I could use a thermometer to measure the temperature during the experiment as then I could produce a fairer test as the temperature will differ throughout the whole experiment. Also, I could measure the mass loss of the reaction by having the conical flask on a top pan balance. I could take away the mass at regular intervals from the original and find out how quickly the reaction takes place. ...read more.

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