#### Combustion of Alcohols Investigation.

Combustion of Alcohols Investigation PLAN Aim: To find out how much energy is required to burn enough of the following alcohols: methanol, ethanol, propanol and pentanol, in order to heat a beaker of water by 40°. The combustion of an alcohol is an exothermic reaction, meaning that more energy is given off during the process than is being taken in. by knowing the individual bond energies for each bond, we can calculate what the energy values obtained from our investigation should aspire to to be accurate. Each bond (eg. C-H, where the '-' signifies a single bond, or O=O, where the '=' denotes a double bond), have different energies. They are as follows: Bond Bond energy (kJmol-1) C-H O=O C=O H-O C-C C-O 435 497 803 464 347 358 MOLECULE DIAGRAMS The following are the reactions which occur when each alcohol combusts. METHANOL: CH3OH + 11/2 O2 CO2 + 2H2O ETHANOL: CH3CH2OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O PROPANOL: CH3CH2CH2OH + 41/2 O2 3CO2 + 4H2O PENTANOL: CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH + 71/2 O2 5CO2 + 6H2O Given this knowledge we can calculate how much energy should be given out per mole of alcohol that is combusted. To do this we add up the bond energies for each bond that is either broken or made during the combustion process. We then simply subtract the total energy given out from the total energy used up. We should in theory obtain a negative number from this, as

• Word count: 2518
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### To Determine The Concentration Of A Limewater Solution

To Determine The Concentration Of A Limewater Solution. Aim: To determine the concentration of a limewater solution using hydrochloric acid of a known concentration of 2.00 moldm-3. Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) --> CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) This shows that the reactants react in a 1:2 ratio. This will be carried out using a titration. However, as the concentration of the calcium hydroxide in the limewater is approximately 1g dm-3 and the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is 2.00moldm-3 the concentration of the hydrochloric acid needs to be reduced. This can be done by a dilution. To make the colour change in the titration distinct and so you know straight away when the solution has been neutralised phenolphthalein indicator will be used, as suggested in Understanding Chemistry. Safety: HCl is high in concentration and so could be irritant. Lab coat and safety goggles must be worn. Apparatus List: For dilution: * Graduated pipette (5cm-3) * 250cm3 volumetric flask. * Distilled Water. * HCl solution. For titration: * Graduated Pipette (25cm3) * Burette, Stand and Clamp * Funnel * Beaker containing 0.02moldm-3 HCl solution. * Beaker containing limewater of unknown concentration. * Conical Flask * Phenolphthalein Indicator & White Tile Preparations: To work out the number of moles we can use the 'n=m/M' equation. Concentration of Ca(OH)2(aq). g dm-3

• Word count: 722
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### To Show How the Volume of Fuel Affects the Energy Output In the Form of Heat

Investigation To Show How The Volume Of Fuel Affects The Energy Output In The Form Of Heat Prediction The choice of variables are as follows volume/mass of fuel, volume of water, distance from can & burning time. I chose volume/mass of fuel. I predict that the larger the volume/mass of fuel the more energy will be released. I believe this because if you have a larger volume/mass of fuel it will contain more bonds than a smaller volume/mass and so will have the potential to give off more energy when bonds are formed. This is backed up by the fact that atoms have a mass, and so when there is a larger mass it obviously means there is more atoms and where there is atoms there is bonds to hold the atoms together to form a compound. Thus having more atoms(weight) means there is more bonds(energy potential) to form and give off energy. Ethanol Bond Values H H C? C ?347j x 1=347j ? ? C? H ?413j x 5=2065j H? O ? C? C ? H C? O ?358j x 1=358j * ? O ? H ?464j x 1=464j H H 347+2065+358+464=3234 joules So 1 molecule of ethanol has the potential bond energy of 3234joules. The equation for this experiment is as follows:- CH3CH2OH + 3O2 ??Combustion??? 3H2O + 2CO2 Ethanol + Oxygen

• Word count: 1286
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### An experiment to investigate the factors that determine the amount of energy released when alcohols are burned.

Chemistry SC1 An experiment to investigate the factors that determine the amount of energy released when alcohols are burned By Khalid Attia Planning Statement of Problem In this investigation, I will be investigating all of the factors that determine the amount of energy released when any given alcohol is burnt. Input Variables In this investigation, there are many different variables that will affect the amount of energy produced when alcohols are burnt. These variables are called the Input Variables and they are the following: ) Number of Carbon atoms present (type of alcohol) 2) Concentration of alcohol (purity) 3) Amount of alcohol (volume or mass) 4) Oxygen supply (for combustion) Each of these variables will affect the amount of energy produced when an alcohol is burnt in similar ways but some variables have a larger affect than others, therefore choosing the right one is essential. If the number of carbon atoms in the alcohol is increased, its molecular structure will be larger. This can be seen from this general equation - CnH2n+1OH. When combustion is complete, carbon dioxide and water are formed, therefore if there are more carbon atoms, there will be more carbon dioxide and water produced, this will require a large amount of energy to make the bonds in these compounds. Therefore if more carbon atoms are present in the alcohol, more energy will

• Word count: 4604
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Investigating energy when fuels burn.

Investigating energy when fuels burn Aim The aim of my investigation is to find out how much energy certain alcohols give off when they are combusting. I will then see which of the alcohols are the best and worst fuels, the best fuel being the alcohol giving off the most energy and the worst fuel giving off the least energy. Variables Here is a list of all the possible variables in my experiment: * Amount of water * Amount of time water is heated * Amount of alcohol used * Type of Alcohol used. The input variable in my investigation will be the type of alcohol I use. The output variable will be the amount of energy given out per ml by the alcohols. The variables in which I will control are; the amount of water heated, amount of time the water is heated and the amount of alcohol heated. I will keep these variables the same to keep my investigation a fair test. Calculating the amount of energy given out My experiment involves heating 60ml of water by burning four different alcohols, one at a time. To calculate the amount of energy that each alcohol gives out I have to multiply the amount of water heated (60) by 4.2 and then multiply that answer by the rise in the temperature. Therefore; ENERGY (Joules) = Amount of water heated (ml) x 4.2(ml) x temperature rise (°C) Preliminary experiments To help design my experiment I shall need to do a preliminary

• Word count: 1482
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### GSCE Coursework: Burning Fuels.

GCSE Science Coursework Title: Burning Fuels. What are you trying to find out? I will be carrying out an investigation, which allows me to calculate and compare how much energy/fuel is used to raise 100cmcubed of water to 20 degrees centigrade. I will be using 5 different fuels; Butanol, Pentanol, Propanol, Methanol and Ethanol. The aim is to find out how much energy is produced when burning these alcohols. Alcohol's react with oxygen in the air to form water and carbon dioxide. This is an exothermic reaction, meaning that when energy is put in, more energy is given off. The formulae of the alcohols that I will be using are. Methanol CH OH Ethanol C H OH Propanol C H OH Butanol C H OH Pentanol C H OH Prediction: I predict that the more bonds there are holding the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms together; more energy will be required to break them apart. For example Ethanol has the formula C H OH. In this formula you have five C-H bonds, one C-C bond, one C-O bond and one O-H bond. To separate these types of bonds you require a certain amount of energy, which I will show in a table. C-H 410 C-O 360 O-H 510 O=O 496 C=O 740 C-C 350 To separate C-H bond you need to apply 410 joules of energy. There are five such bonds in ethanol so you multiply 410 by five to get 2050 joules. You do these calculations for all the other types of bonds that make up ethanol, add

• Word count: 1179
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Investigate the enthalpy change of different alcohol

Investigate the enthalpy change of different alcohol My aim is to compare the enthalpy change of combustion of different alcohols in relation to the structure of each molecule. The enthalpy change of combustion of a fuel is a measure of the energy transferred when one mole of the fuel burns completely. In a chemical reaction, bonds must either be made or broken, this involves an enthalpy change. The formation of bonds is exothermic, energy is lost to the surrounding; on the other hand, breaking bonds is endothermic, energy is taken in. I obtain the value for the enthalpy change of each fuel by using the formula: Energy transferred from the fuel=cm?T where c is the specific heating capacity of water (4.17 Jg-1K-1) -m is the mass of water, in g -?T is the change of temperature of the water Apparatus Apparatus I will use Size of the apparatus Value /quantity distill water / >3 litres, as much as possible* thermometer 0-110C thermometer measuring cylinder 00 cm3 electronic balance correct to 2 decimal places Bunsen burner / draught shielding each approx. 20cm x 20cm 5 metal calorimeter *** 4 clamp about 1 meter 6 spirit burner with wick / 4 match/wooden stick / as many as possible burner cap / 4 tile as big as possible Propan-1-ol / half filled the spirit burner * Butan-1-ol / half filled the spirit burner * Butan-2-ol / half

• Word count: 4418
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### The aim is to investigate if there is a link between the number of carbon atoms in a fuel and the amount of heat produced by that fuel.

Chemistry - Coursework Aim The aim is to investigate if there is a link between the number of carbon atoms in a fuel and the amount of heat produced by that fuel. Prediction I predict that the more carbon atoms that are in a fuel, the more heat the fuel will generate. Risk Assessment There are some safety precautions that will have to be taken when the experiment is carried out. These will be determined by the hazards that are in the room and hazards that could occur. These are: * Heatproof mat * Goggles * Tie tucked in shirt * Hair clipped back * The alcohol's are flammable so care must be taken with them * Equipment might get hot * There will be naked flames Equipment used and reasons ³ Calorimeter - this is used to hold water. This is used because it is non flammable so even when in close contacts with the fuels, it will not burn. ³ Tripod - this is used to keep calorimeter at a safe distance away from the fuels. ³ Heat proof mat - this is used so that the desk does not get burned or marked when the fuels are burning. ³ Thermometer - this is used to measure the temperature of the water, before and after the experiment. ³ Measuring cylinder - this was used to measure the 100ml of water that was needed for the experiment. ³ Alcohols - this is used as the fuels for the experiment ³ Foil - this is used to stop heat escaping for the fuels so

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• Word count: 859
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Calculate and compare how much energy/fuel is used to raise 100cmcubed of water to 20 degrees centigrade

GCSE Science Coursework Title: Burning Fuels. What are you trying to find out? I will be carrying out an investigation, which allows me to calculate and compare how much energy/fuel is used to raise 100cmcubed of water to 20 degrees centigrade. I will be using 5 different fuels; Butanol, Pentanol, Propanol, Methanol and Ethanol. The aim is to find out how much energy is produced when burning these alcohols. Alcohol's react with oxygen in the air to form water and carbon dioxide. This is an exothermic reaction, meaning that when energy is put in, more energy is given off. The formulae of the alcohols that I will be using are. Methanol CH OH Ethanol C H OH Propanol C H OH Butanol C H OH Pentanol C H OH Prediction: I predict that the more bonds there are holding the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms together; more energy will be required to break them apart. For example Ethanol has the formula C H OH. In this formula you have five C-H bonds, one C-C bond, one C-O bond and one O-H bond. To separate these types of bonds you require a certain amount of energy, which I will show in a table. C-H 410 C-O 360 O-H 510 O=O 496 C=O 740 C-C 350 To separate C-H bond you need to apply 410 joules of energy. There are five such bonds in ethanol so you multiply 410 by five to get 2050 joules. You do these calculations for all the other types of bonds that make up ethanol, add

• Word count: 1179
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Pollution from the internal combustion engine.

In the process of internal combustion, numerous substances are released that are potentially of great damage to the environment. Here we shall be looking at > the processes in which the harmful outputs are formed, > effects of their output, often linked with > major global issues such as acid rain. When discussing such issues only the effects of exhaust gases from internal combustion are included. CONTENTS - PAGE 1 - Carbon Dioxide - Global Warming - Carbon Monoxide - PAGE 2 - Hydrocarbons - Oxides of Nitrogen - PAGE 3 - Ozone Layer - Oxides of Sulphur - Acid Rain - Lead Carbon Dioxide, CO2 is formed during internal combustion in engines using oil related fuel, especially when the three way catalyst oxidises Carbon Monoxide, CO, converting it into CO2. The source of carbon is the carbon-containing compounds from the fuel input, which fully oxidise. Carbon Dioxide does not directly harm the human body. However, it has a great role in the process of global warming and is considered as the key "greenhouse gas" - its contribution to global warming is 57%. This is because it is a great absorber of Infra Red radiation that is emitted towards the space from the earth surface. Methods of reducing CO2 emissions are by either improving the heat efficiency of engines thus reducing the amount of fuel consumption, or by using alternative fuels not related to oil. Carbon Monoxide, CO

• Word count: 1540
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science