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GCSE: Organic Chemistry

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 10
  • Peer Reviewed essays 18
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  5. 11
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Reaction of Alcohol Lab

    5 star(s)

    solubility; mixture should be heterogeneous Takes much longer than 5min to turn cloudy Colour changes; pH should turn acidic; since it becomes an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid s-butanol 2nd highest solubility; mixture should be heterogeneous Turns cloudy after ~5min Colour changes; pH should remain neutral, since it becomes a ketone t-butanol Highest solubility; mixture should be homogeneous Forms precipitate and turns cloudy immediately No colour change, since it doesn't react with potassium permanganate at all Observation Chart: Distilled Water Solution Colourless Transparent Odourless Lucas Reagent Solution Colourless Transparent A sharp, intense odour Distilled Water Solution Colourless Transparent Odourless

    • Word count: 699
  2. Marked by a teacher

    What an ester is, how it is made, examples of esters, animal testing issues and ethics.

    4 star(s)

    Cosmetics are things that many people want, but they do not necessarily need it, so when the cosmetic industry have to test on animals to meet the need of demanding customers, the animal testing argument prevails. Are humans selfish and care about the appearance of themselves than an animal that has to battle through their short life because someone wants to look better? What is an ester? An ester is an organic compound that is formed from an organic acid and alcohol.

    • Word count: 4112
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Experiment to investigate the heat of combustion of alcohols.

    4 star(s)

    * Heat Loss - Heat is always lost during this reaction. Some of the heat will not be used to heat the water in the beaker, altering the overall result. Therefore heat proof mats are used to keep it in as much as possible. * Equipment - Changing equipment may alter the result in some way due to flaws in the apparatus, which will alter the result. * Beaker Material - The tin can must always be used to avoid using both the glass and the tin, changing results as they both conduct heat differently.

    • Word count: 3115
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Hydrocarbons and the importance of oil as a power source.

    3 star(s)

    The most widely used conversion method is called cracking because it uses heat and pressure to crack heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter ones. A cracking unit consists of one or more reactors and a network of furnaces, heat exchangers and other vessels. Catalytic cracking or cat cracking is the basic petrol making process. Using intense heat (600�C), low pressure and a powdered catalyst (a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction), the cat cracker can convert most heavy fractions into smaller more useful molecules.

    • Word count: 1682
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid

    3 star(s)

    This is because there is more surface area and so the hydrochloric acid will react with it with more ease and speed. Throughout my investigation in preliminary work 1 there have been several problems. Firstly collecting the 50cm3 of hydrogen was hard as I was not sure of when to stop the stop clock and whether my readings were accurate or not as I feel I have a slower reaction time than others, also I was not definite that the measuring tube was completely filled with water which could have given me erroneous results as I found it difficult to handle and struggled on my own.

    • Word count: 2555
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry SCIEP

    3 star(s)

    The pressure will also be the same because we will not change altitude when doing the experiment. Theory We will start with a 2molar (m is molar) HCL - this means 2m dissolved in 1 litre of water. The equation for concentration is 20cm3 of 2m = 100% concentration. 15cm3 of 2m +5cm3 water= 15/20X100 = 75% Hydrogen =1g Chlorine =36.5g Hcl 1m =36.5g Hcl 2m =73g This means 73g of Hcl was dissolved in 1 litre of water to make 2M solution.

    • Word count: 1935
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Iron ore: processes and History

    3 star(s)

    This molten metal is then collected from the base of the oven. A furnace for smelting ironstone at high temperatures beyond the melting point of Iron (Fe, 1540�C) is used. These furnaces are used to produce cast iron. The furnace was a tall cavity funnelling out from the base into which layers of ironstone, fuel (either charcoal or coke) and limestone were added. The limestone was used to remove the unwanted components of the ironstone. Coal was not used as a fuel - as it contains Sulphur (S)

    • Word count: 1454
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Viscosity of Alkanes

    3 star(s)

    I will carry out an experiment to measure the viscosity of the alkanes listed. Preliminary Testing Plan My preliminary testing is to find the best height for the microscope slide, to make it possible to time the flow (viscosity) of the 4 liquids easily. This will be done using 2 of the above alkanes, Pentane and Decane. My testing will make sure that I do not have the slide raised too high or too low.A ramp too high will give the Alkanes too much kinetic energy, making it flow too fast to be manually timed.

    • Word count: 1538
  9. Marked by a teacher

    Hydrochloric acid

    It is commonly referred to as Hydrochloric acid, or Muriatic acid. Their valence electrons are shared to form this compound. Hydrochloric acid is widely used in the modern world for the pickling of steel, or removing rust from iron and steel, it is even used to digest food in our bodies. It is a very useful compound in our everyday lives. Hydrochloric acid is essential for living nowadays, its wide range of uses makes life easier for everyone.

    • Word count: 507
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Design- Rate of Reaction

    Increasing the concentration of reactants causes an increase in the frequency of collisions, thus increasing the rate of reaction. Although you keep the temperature constant, kinetic theory is relevant. This is because the molecules in the reaction mixture have a range of energy levels. When collisions occur, they do not always result in a reaction. If the two colliding molecules have sufficient energy they will react. HYPOTHESIS It can be predicted that if the concentration of a reactant is increased, the rate of reaction is increased. Thus, at a higher concentration of a reactant, the rate at which the reaction will occur will be higher whereas if the concentration of a reactant is lowered, the rate at which the reaction will occur will be lower i.e.

    • Word count: 864
  11. Peer reviewed

    An experiment to investigate the rate of reaction between

    5 star(s)

    This will lead to more collision, so the rate of reaction will increase also. Doubling the concentration will double the number of particles and also double the number of collision, doubling the rate of reaction in direct proportion. Before I carried out my 'real' experiment, I completed a preliminary experiment. I chose to test 0.4, 1.2 and 2.0 molar. I left the reaction for a total of 25 seconds and my results are as follows. Concentration Mass before Mass after Mass change 0.4 4.99 4.72 0.27 1.2 4.98 4.49 0.49 2.0 4.99 4.01 0.98 From my results I have come to the conclusion that they do support my prediction.

    • Word count: 1522
  12. Peer reviewed

    Heat Energy Experiment Aim: To measure the heat energy released in a burning fuel.

    5 star(s)

    * The mass of the watch glass was then re-measured. * The final temperature of the water was recorded. For safety reasons a heat-proof tile was placed under the watch glass and goggles were used. The fuel was lighted with a splint and not the Bunsen burner, and the experiment area was completely clear for space. For accuracy, the maximum temperature of the water was measured. The fuel was not left for a long time as the water would evaporate and the bottom of the test tube was cleaned in order not to interfere with the heating process. To make it a fair test, the time taken of different fuels to burn could be measured.

    • Word count: 612
  13. Peer reviewed

    Chemistry coursework - Fuels

    5 star(s)

    Propanol will require the second largest amount of energy, Ethanol the third and Methanol the least amount of energy to break these bonds. Methanol CH3OH Ethanol C2H5OH Propanol C3H7OH Butanol C4H9OH Pentanol C5H10OH Therefore I predict that Methanol will be the 'best' fuel, followed by Ethanol, then Propanol and the worst fuel will be Butanol. Apparatus Clamp 100ml beaker Thermometer Matches Safety Goggles Heatproof mat Spirit burner Methanol Ethanol Propanol Butanol Preliminary work In year 7 we lit three alcohols and heated same amount of water to get the difference between the starting temperature and the ending temperature.

    • Word count: 965
  14. Free essay

    First aid project - treating common injuries in the laboratory.

    4 star(s)

    After all of the chemical is washed away and the burn is not painful, cover the it with a sterile dressing. Injury from breathing in fumes or swallowing chemicals- 1. Make sure the casualty is able to breathe and, if necessary, clear their airway. Check their pulse and begin CPR if necessary, but do not give mouth to mouth so as to not put yourself at risk 2. Do not make the casualty throw up, unless the Poison Control tells you to do so.

    • Word count: 1051
  15. Peer reviewed

    Growing Alum Crystals

    4 star(s)

    It is also used in dyeing, tanning, fire proofing textiles, vegetable glues and baking powder (Orica Watercare, 2008). An ionic lattice is a structure of millions of atomic formations of an ionic substance like buildings into one 3-D formation. The molecules are positioned orderly with a repetitive arrangement. In an ionic crystal lattice structure, the anions are mostly larger than the cations where the anions form crystal array and the cations reside in holds between the anions. Many different kinds of ionic lattices and patterns depend on the complexity of the molecules.

    • Word count: 2997
  16. Peer reviewed

    Burning Fuels Coursework

    4 star(s)

    This is because of its relatively low price when compared to the other fuels. Buntanol is the fourth largest molecule - and as such it provides more energy (27.10 KJ/g) and at the lowest price (�6.10) than any of the others specified. To measure the energy expelled by each of the fuels, the following formula was used: Mass x Specific Heat Capacity X Temperature Rise = Heat Energy Gained (kg) (J/KgoC) (oC) (J) Specific heat capacity is the measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a specific quantity of a substance by one Kelvin.

    • Word count: 2683
  17. Free essay

    Chemistry - Reactivity Serires report

    4 star(s)

    Planning: Aims: In this experiment, I'm trying to prove that the higher reactivity metals in the metal solution will be able to replace the lower reactivity metal pieces. Also to prove the metal, magnesium, will have the highest reactivity out of the five different metals. Then I believe that after the experiment we should be able to learn which metal is reactive and be careful with them in the future time. Variables: 1. The metal pieces used in the experiment. 2. The metal solutions used in the solution. Control Variables: 1. The measurement of metal solutions for the experiment. 2.

    • Word count: 3075
  18. Peer reviewed

    The purpose of this lab is to identify two different unknown organic compounds, through investigating different chemical properties by various experiments. The chemicals could be alkanes (hexane), alkenes (hex-1-ene) or alcohols (methylpentan-1-ol or hexa

    3 star(s)

    Alkanes are very useful compounds that can be used in the production of polymers and fuels. The main uses for alcohols are as solvents for gums, resins etc. This is why it is important to be able to determine what different substances are. If we can determine it we can used it for the production of other things. Materials; * 3 Unknown chemical substances (A56, B56, A+B56) * Bromine water (Br2) * Distilled water (H2O) * Paraffin oil () * 3 Test tubes with lids * Test tube rack * 3 Pipettes * 1 Beaker * 3 Measuring cylinders * Water bath * Thermometer * Bunsen burner * Tripod Safety Materials; * Safety goggles * Lab

    • Word count: 1605
  19. Peer reviewed

    Chemistry Gold

    3 star(s)

    The most prominent use of gold is in jewellery (an item of adornment). Its other uses are, currency, computer chips, store of value, sculpture (gold plated items). The Properties of Pure Gold Pure gold which is 24 carat the most expensive because it is the most purest and has the least amount of other metals, and is actually bought for jewellery, the colour is yellow which also makes it charisma, this type of gold is the softest and the heaviest, it is the brilliant conductor of heat, the pure gold is unreactive therefore it can remain for decades.

    • Word count: 1560
  20. Peer reviewed

    Should food additives be banned

    3 star(s)

    Preservatives prevent them from deteriorating too rapidly. Low-calorie, low-carb and diabetic products would not be possible without intense sweeteners. Additives are an important part of the convenience foods that form a staple part of the busy modern lifestyle". I got this information from: http://www.understandingfoodadditives.org/pages/Ch2p0.htm The above website I think is reliable because it is checked by the government and by reading it the information that you know it is reliable. Additives and food ingredients have been used for thousands of years, to preserve food from one harvest to the next, and make it taste and look nicer.

    • Word count: 1843
  21. Peer reviewed

    Nutrients in a Balanced Diet

    3 star(s)

    Since we do not digest it, the fibre in food passes into the intestine and absorbs water. In the UK we eat on average 12g fibre per day, but new guidelines suggest this should rise to 18g, of both kinds of fibre. You get vitamins by eating foods from different food groups like pork, poultry, eggs and fish are the best sources of vitamin The vitamins work together to help your body use the energy you get from food. Some vitamins are also important in helping the body use protein from the diet to build new cells and tissues.

    • Word count: 688
  22. Peer reviewed

    oxidation of ethanol

    3 star(s)

    40�C � Vapour irritating to the respiratory system Brady's Reagent - Irritant to � Eyes � Skin � Respiratory System Sodium Dichromate - Very Toxic � Cause cancer if inhaled � Harmful if swallowed � Harmful if in contact with skin � Ulceration may occur on damaged skin - Sensitisation by skin contact Danger to environment - Very to toxic to aquatic environment may Cause long-term adverse effects Sulphuric Acid - Very corrosive - cause severe burns Dangerous with � Sodium - dangerous reactions can take place � Water - Vigorous reaction when the Concentrated acid is diluted.

    • Word count: 712
  23. Peer reviewed

    The aim is to investigate if there is a link between the number of carbon atoms in a fuel and the amount of heat produced by that fuel.

    3 star(s)

    This is used because it is non flammable so even when in close contacts with the fuels, it will not burn. � Tripod - this is used to keep calorimeter at a safe distance away from the fuels. � Heat proof mat - this is used so that the desk does not get burned or marked when the fuels are burning. � Thermometer - this is used to measure the temperature of the water, before and after the experiment. � Measuring cylinder - this was used to measure the 100ml of water that was needed for the experiment.

    • Word count: 859
  24. Peer reviewed

    Car exhaustsEffect on environment/humansHow to reduceRole of catalysts

    3 star(s)

    Present in petrol. Released in exhaust fumes Carcinogens. Combine to produce photochemical smog. Affects asthmatics most. Use catalytic converters. Better engine design. Improve petrol tank and pump design.

    • Word count: 178
  25. Peer reviewed

    Testing Alcohol

    3 star(s)

    Put out the alcohol burner and weigh again. Then record the temperature the water is currently at and re-light the alcohol burner heat for another 10 c and then reweigh the alcohol burner and record the result. Repeat this for 10, 20, 30 and 40 c above the starting temperature, record the result for all of them. Now repeat the entire experiment again but using ethanol, then propanol in the alcohol burner. Results METHANOL 10 c 20 c 30 c 40 c Start temp ( c)

    • Word count: 545

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