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GCSE: Organic Chemistry

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 10
  • Peer Reviewed essays 18
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Reaction of Alcohol Lab

    5 star(s)

    solubility; mixture should be heterogeneous Takes much longer than 5min to turn cloudy Colour changes; pH should turn acidic; since it becomes an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid s-butanol 2nd highest solubility; mixture should be heterogeneous Turns cloudy after ~5min Colour changes; pH should remain neutral, since it becomes a ketone t-butanol Highest solubility; mixture should be homogeneous Forms precipitate and turns cloudy immediately No colour change, since it doesn't react with potassium permanganate at all Observation Chart: Distilled Water Solution Colourless Transparent Odourless Lucas Reagent Solution Colourless Transparent A sharp, intense odour Distilled Water Solution Colourless Transparent Odourless

    • Word count: 699
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Hydrochloric acid

    It is commonly referred to as Hydrochloric acid, or Muriatic acid. Their valence electrons are shared to form this compound. Hydrochloric acid is widely used in the modern world for the pickling of steel, or removing rust from iron and steel, it is even used to digest food in our bodies. It is a very useful compound in our everyday lives. Hydrochloric acid is essential for living nowadays, its wide range of uses makes life easier for everyone.

    • Word count: 507
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Design- Rate of Reaction

    Increasing the concentration of reactants causes an increase in the frequency of collisions, thus increasing the rate of reaction. Although you keep the temperature constant, kinetic theory is relevant. This is because the molecules in the reaction mixture have a range of energy levels. When collisions occur, they do not always result in a reaction. If the two colliding molecules have sufficient energy they will react. HYPOTHESIS It can be predicted that if the concentration of a reactant is increased, the rate of reaction is increased. Thus, at a higher concentration of a reactant, the rate at which the reaction will occur will be higher whereas if the concentration of a reactant is lowered, the rate at which the reaction will occur will be lower i.e.

    • Word count: 864
  4. Peer reviewed

    Heat Energy Experiment Aim: To measure the heat energy released in a burning fuel.

    5 star(s)

    * The mass of the watch glass was then re-measured. * The final temperature of the water was recorded. For safety reasons a heat-proof tile was placed under the watch glass and goggles were used. The fuel was lighted with a splint and not the Bunsen burner, and the experiment area was completely clear for space. For accuracy, the maximum temperature of the water was measured. The fuel was not left for a long time as the water would evaporate and the bottom of the test tube was cleaned in order not to interfere with the heating process. To make it a fair test, the time taken of different fuels to burn could be measured.

    • Word count: 612
  5. Peer reviewed

    Chemistry coursework - Fuels

    5 star(s)

    Propanol will require the second largest amount of energy, Ethanol the third and Methanol the least amount of energy to break these bonds. Methanol CH3OH Ethanol C2H5OH Propanol C3H7OH Butanol C4H9OH Pentanol C5H10OH Therefore I predict that Methanol will be the 'best' fuel, followed by Ethanol, then Propanol and the worst fuel will be Butanol. Apparatus Clamp 100ml beaker Thermometer Matches Safety Goggles Heatproof mat Spirit burner Methanol Ethanol Propanol Butanol Preliminary work In year 7 we lit three alcohols and heated same amount of water to get the difference between the starting temperature and the ending temperature.

    • Word count: 965
  6. Peer reviewed

    Nutrients in a Balanced Diet

    3 star(s)

    Since we do not digest it, the fibre in food passes into the intestine and absorbs water. In the UK we eat on average 12g fibre per day, but new guidelines suggest this should rise to 18g, of both kinds of fibre. You get vitamins by eating foods from different food groups like pork, poultry, eggs and fish are the best sources of vitamin The vitamins work together to help your body use the energy you get from food. Some vitamins are also important in helping the body use protein from the diet to build new cells and tissues.

    • Word count: 688
  7. Peer reviewed

    oxidation of ethanol

    3 star(s)

    40�C � Vapour irritating to the respiratory system Brady's Reagent - Irritant to � Eyes � Skin � Respiratory System Sodium Dichromate - Very Toxic � Cause cancer if inhaled � Harmful if swallowed � Harmful if in contact with skin � Ulceration may occur on damaged skin - Sensitisation by skin contact Danger to environment - Very to toxic to aquatic environment may Cause long-term adverse effects Sulphuric Acid - Very corrosive - cause severe burns Dangerous with � Sodium - dangerous reactions can take place � Water - Vigorous reaction when the Concentrated acid is diluted.

    • Word count: 712
  8. Peer reviewed

    The aim is to investigate if there is a link between the number of carbon atoms in a fuel and the amount of heat produced by that fuel.

    3 star(s)

    This is used because it is non flammable so even when in close contacts with the fuels, it will not burn. � Tripod - this is used to keep calorimeter at a safe distance away from the fuels. � Heat proof mat - this is used so that the desk does not get burned or marked when the fuels are burning. � Thermometer - this is used to measure the temperature of the water, before and after the experiment. � Measuring cylinder - this was used to measure the 100ml of water that was needed for the experiment.

    • Word count: 859
  9. Peer reviewed

    Car exhaustsEffect on environment/humansHow to reduceRole of catalysts

    3 star(s)

    Present in petrol. Released in exhaust fumes Carcinogens. Combine to produce photochemical smog. Affects asthmatics most. Use catalytic converters. Better engine design. Improve petrol tank and pump design.

    • Word count: 178
  10. Peer reviewed

    Testing Alcohol

    3 star(s)

    Put out the alcohol burner and weigh again. Then record the temperature the water is currently at and re-light the alcohol burner heat for another 10 c and then reweigh the alcohol burner and record the result. Repeat this for 10, 20, 30 and 40 c above the starting temperature, record the result for all of them. Now repeat the entire experiment again but using ethanol, then propanol in the alcohol burner. Results METHANOL 10 c 20 c 30 c 40 c Start temp ( c)

    • Word count: 545
  11. Chem experiment. Objectives: - To see if there are other solvents possible that can replace thinner (as it is quite harmful) while maintaining the dissolution effect of same strength on expanded polystyrene.

    due to manufacture of non-biodegradable lunch boxes which greatly aggravates the land pollution in Hong Kong Possible solvents needed to be tried out: Isoamyl acetate (banana oil) Artificial esters( including vanilla, strawberry and coconut favor) Part 2: In order to find out the main constituent component of thinner that is responsible for the dissolution of expanded polystyrene, we put the expanded polystyrene into different main components of thinner of equal amount to observe which main component is the primary cause for dissolution of expanded polystyrene.

    • Word count: 514
  12. Free essay

    Preparation and analysis of inorganic and organic compounds

    Use a Bunsen burner and an evaporating dish to reduce the volume to half 6) Finally leave to evaporate in a crystallizing dish to produce a white crystalline solid RESULTS My results for the experiment: Rough 1 2 Final burette reading 26.4 26.3 26.4 Initial Burette Reading 0.00 0.00 0.00 Titre 26.4 26.3 26.4 Average Volume = 26.35 Mass of Evaporating dish = 53.86 (Mass = 55.04 - 53.86 = 1.18g) Mass = n x Mr = 0.025 x 58.5 = 1.4625 Calculating Percentage Yield 1.18 x 100 = 80.7 % 1.4625 Test for ions present Sodium Na+ -- test

    • Word count: 779
  13. Benzoic acid lab report

    % Yield= (Final mass/Initial mass) X 100% % Yield (Benzoic acid) = (.56/1.1) X 100%= 55% % Yield (Benzil) = (.56/1.29) X 100% = 43% Discussion In this lab, a mixture of two solids was separated to their individual components by extraction. The yields for benzoic acid (55%) and benzyl (43%) were both low. Because of solubility issues (difficulty dissolving all of the starting material) I know that some of the starting material never left the first flask. After the extraction of the benzoic acid and the benzil, I saw that the two solids were now in the original form we started with but they were now separate from each other.

    • Word count: 580
  14. Formation of Ethanol

    This reduces ground-level ozone formation by lowering volatile organic compound and hydrocarbon emissions, decreasing carcinogenic benzene, particular matter emissions from the combustion of petrol, resulting in fuel burning more cleaning. As aforementioned, ethanol is made by two ways; hydration of ethylene and by the fermentation of sugars or cellulous. Fermentation Ethanol is the most common biologically produced alcohol.

    • Word count: 461
  15. Do you believe that the food price hikes are linked to the increased production of ethanol?

    This means that less food is produced throughout the region so there becomes a food shortage. Because there are less crops the price of those crops have to be increased which then causes a chain reaction of price increases. For example ethanol is produced from corn, because the corn is being used to produce ethanol there is less corn for food purposes. This leads to the price of corn increasing. Corn is used to feed chicken, hogs and cattle so the price of meat, eggs and dairy will also increase. Corn is the main link in this chain so if you damage this link by having small amounts of corn it in turn damages the rest of the chain, being the producers of meat, eggs, dairy etc.

    • Word count: 521
  16. Alkylation of 1,4-Dimethoxybenzene

    The melting point or boiling point and an H NMR will also help to determine which product formed. Equations: Data Tables: Reagent Molar Mass (g/mol) Density (g/ml) ml called for ml used grams called for grams used moles used 1,4-dimethoxybenzene 138 0.15 0.15 0.00108 2-methyl-2-propanol 74 0.786 0.25 0.25 0.00266 sulfuric acid (H2SO4) 98.078 1.84 1 1 0.0187 Table 1: Table showing the reagents and the moles used for each reagent used in the alkyation reaction. Limiting Reagent: 1,4-dimethoxybenzene Theoretical Yield Actual Yield Product MW Observed Melting point Literature melting point moles grams grams Percent yield 2,6-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene 250 - - 0.00108 0.27 0.232 85.80% Table 2: Shows the limiting reagent and the product formed from the reaction.

    • Word count: 850
  17. What is Biofuel?

    it has many advantages, when it burns it has no harmful products and it gives out more energy per gram than natural gas or petrol. Not only this but existing car engines need only minor changes to adapt to this source. * So what's stopping us splitting water now to get hydrogen??....well that's because a lot more energy is needed as in the UK we would have to burn fossil fuels to get the energy to do this which cancels out any environmental advantages!

    • Word count: 546
  18. Oil Exploitation- the environmental impact

    Other geographic regions' consumption patterns are as follows: South and Central America (44%), Africa (41%), and North America (40%). The world at large consumes 30 billion barrels (4.8 km�) of oil per year, and the top oil consumers largely consist of developed nations. In fact, 24% of the oil consumed in 2004 went to the United States alone. The production, distribution, refining, and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represent the single largest industry in terms of dollar value on earth. The huge business of oil has not been kind to the world and has left behind a huge environmental impact.

    • Word count: 617
  19. Is it healthier to live in the country or a city?

    Acid rain - from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide - is harmful to the environment. It reacts with metals and rocks such as limestone. Buildings and statues are damaged as a result. Acid rain also damages the waxy layer on the leaves of trees, making it more difficult for them to absorb the minerals they need for healthy growth. These trees may die. And it can make rivers and lakes too acidic for some aquatic life to survive. These things happen in both country and city Page 1... Are the members of the public that live in the country generally healthier than the members of public that live in the city?

    • Word count: 626
  20. To Determine The Concentration Of A Limewater Solution

    Safety: HCl is high in concentration and so could be irritant. Lab coat and safety goggles must be worn. Apparatus List: For dilution: * Graduated pipette (5cm-3) * 250cm3 volumetric flask. * Distilled Water. * HCl solution. For titration: * Graduated Pipette (25cm3) * Burette, Stand and Clamp * Funnel * Beaker containing 0.02moldm-3 HCl solution. * Beaker containing limewater of unknown concentration. * Conical Flask * Phenolphthalein Indicator & White Tile Preparations: To work out the number of moles we can use the 'n=m/M' equation.

    • Word count: 722
  21. Determination of the Relative Atomic Mass of Lithium

    From this, I can work out the relative atomic mass of lithium. Ar = Mass so, = 0.11 = 9.16gmol-1 Number of moles 0.012 Resuls/Method 2: Titration of aqueous LiOH with 0.100 moldm-3 HCl. 1 2 3 4 Start Volume (cm3) 0 25.9 0.1 21.5 End Volume (cm3) 25.9 51.5 25.1 47.8 Titre (cm3) 25.9 25.6 25.0 26.3 Summary: On average, 25.0cm3 of LiOH(aq) required 25.7cm3 of 0.100 moldm-3 HCl. LiOH(aq) + HCl(aq) -> LiCl(aq) + H2O(l) The number of moles of HCl used in this titration is the concentration times by the volume.

    • Word count: 847
  22. Which Equation Is Correct?

    Safety: CuCO3 is harmful and irritant. Goggles and a lab coat must be worn. Apparatus/Chemical List: * Conical Flask - 250cm3 * 100cm3 Gas Syringe. * Clamp Stand * Clamp and Boss * Delivery Tube with bung * Boiling Tube * Bunsen Burner * Top-Pan Balance * Spatula * Copper Carbonate, CuCO3 Introduction: As the gas syringe can hold a maximum volume of 100cm3 I am going to work out how much CuCO3 to use so that the maximum volume isn't reached and error is reduced.

    • Word count: 540
  23. The Decomposition of Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate

    Variables: Independent: the independent variable is the mass of crucible Dependent: the dependent variable in this experiment is the mass of residue. Controlled: 1. The power loss was controlled. 2. How long the mixture was heated was controlled. 3. The mass of the mixture will be constantly measured. 4. A lid would cover the mixture to minimize power loss. Apparatus: * Bunsen burner * Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate * Lid * Crucible * Tongs * Tripod * Safety glasses * Scale Method: 1.

    • Word count: 926
  24. acid rain

    Another large factor is the internal combustion engine. As when any type of fossil fuel is burned, in factories, power stations and homes, they produce lots of different gaseous acids that are harmful to the environment, such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO+). The effect of releasing gaseous acids into the atmosphere, as a result of modern lifestyles, results in Acid Rain and more serious Global Warming. The gaseous acids released into the atmosphere are blown into the sky.

    • Word count: 902
  25. Are Congestion Zone a Good Idea?

    Central London has had a dramatic cut in traffic since the introduction of the congestion charge. 40 000 less people are driving through the zone each day as the number of cars entering the zone has dropped by 38%. Since the introduction of congestion charges average speeds have risen considerably. For example: average speeds have risen from 3mph to 7.4 mph and 9.8 mph was the highest average speed on the Embankment. This however is not recent research which could mean that it is slightly unreliable. More recent research therefore, suggests that traffic levels have built up to be closer to pre-charging levels since February 2004.

    • Word count: 780

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