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GCSE: Organic Chemistry

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 10
  • Peer Reviewed essays 18
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Hydrocarbons and the importance of oil as a power source.

    3 star(s)

    The most widely used conversion method is called cracking because it uses heat and pressure to crack heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter ones. A cracking unit consists of one or more reactors and a network of furnaces, heat exchangers and other vessels. Catalytic cracking or cat cracking is the basic petrol making process. Using intense heat (600�C), low pressure and a powdered catalyst (a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction), the cat cracker can convert most heavy fractions into smaller more useful molecules.

    • Word count: 1682
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry SCIEP

    3 star(s)

    The pressure will also be the same because we will not change altitude when doing the experiment. Theory We will start with a 2molar (m is molar) HCL - this means 2m dissolved in 1 litre of water. The equation for concentration is 20cm3 of 2m = 100% concentration. 15cm3 of 2m +5cm3 water= 15/20X100 = 75% Hydrogen =1g Chlorine =36.5g Hcl 1m =36.5g Hcl 2m =73g This means 73g of Hcl was dissolved in 1 litre of water to make 2M solution.

    • Word count: 1935
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Iron ore: processes and History

    3 star(s)

    This molten metal is then collected from the base of the oven. A furnace for smelting ironstone at high temperatures beyond the melting point of Iron (Fe, 1540�C) is used. These furnaces are used to produce cast iron. The furnace was a tall cavity funnelling out from the base into which layers of ironstone, fuel (either charcoal or coke) and limestone were added. The limestone was used to remove the unwanted components of the ironstone. Coal was not used as a fuel - as it contains Sulphur (S)

    • Word count: 1454
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Viscosity of Alkanes

    3 star(s)

    I will carry out an experiment to measure the viscosity of the alkanes listed. Preliminary Testing Plan My preliminary testing is to find the best height for the microscope slide, to make it possible to time the flow (viscosity) of the 4 liquids easily. This will be done using 2 of the above alkanes, Pentane and Decane. My testing will make sure that I do not have the slide raised too high or too low.A ramp too high will give the Alkanes too much kinetic energy, making it flow too fast to be manually timed.

    • Word count: 1538
  5. Peer reviewed

    An experiment to investigate the rate of reaction between

    5 star(s)

    This will lead to more collision, so the rate of reaction will increase also. Doubling the concentration will double the number of particles and also double the number of collision, doubling the rate of reaction in direct proportion. Before I carried out my 'real' experiment, I completed a preliminary experiment. I chose to test 0.4, 1.2 and 2.0 molar. I left the reaction for a total of 25 seconds and my results are as follows. Concentration Mass before Mass after Mass change 0.4 4.99 4.72 0.27 1.2 4.98 4.49 0.49 2.0 4.99 4.01 0.98 From my results I have come to the conclusion that they do support my prediction.

    • Word count: 1522
  6. Free essay

    First aid project - treating common injuries in the laboratory.

    4 star(s)

    After all of the chemical is washed away and the burn is not painful, cover the it with a sterile dressing. Injury from breathing in fumes or swallowing chemicals- 1. Make sure the casualty is able to breathe and, if necessary, clear their airway. Check their pulse and begin CPR if necessary, but do not give mouth to mouth so as to not put yourself at risk 2. Do not make the casualty throw up, unless the Poison Control tells you to do so.

    • Word count: 1051
  7. Peer reviewed

    The purpose of this lab is to identify two different unknown organic compounds, through investigating different chemical properties by various experiments. The chemicals could be alkanes (hexane), alkenes (hex-1-ene) or alcohols (methylpentan-1-ol or hexa

    3 star(s)

    Alkanes are very useful compounds that can be used in the production of polymers and fuels. The main uses for alcohols are as solvents for gums, resins etc. This is why it is important to be able to determine what different substances are. If we can determine it we can used it for the production of other things. Materials; * 3 Unknown chemical substances (A56, B56, A+B56) * Bromine water (Br2) * Distilled water (H2O) * Paraffin oil () * 3 Test tubes with lids * Test tube rack * 3 Pipettes * 1 Beaker * 3 Measuring cylinders * Water bath * Thermometer * Bunsen burner * Tripod Safety Materials; * Safety goggles * Lab

    • Word count: 1605
  8. Peer reviewed

    Chemistry Gold

    3 star(s)

    The most prominent use of gold is in jewellery (an item of adornment). Its other uses are, currency, computer chips, store of value, sculpture (gold plated items). The Properties of Pure Gold Pure gold which is 24 carat the most expensive because it is the most purest and has the least amount of other metals, and is actually bought for jewellery, the colour is yellow which also makes it charisma, this type of gold is the softest and the heaviest, it is the brilliant conductor of heat, the pure gold is unreactive therefore it can remain for decades.

    • Word count: 1560
  9. Peer reviewed

    Should food additives be banned

    3 star(s)

    Preservatives prevent them from deteriorating too rapidly. Low-calorie, low-carb and diabetic products would not be possible without intense sweeteners. Additives are an important part of the convenience foods that form a staple part of the busy modern lifestyle". I got this information from: http://www.understandingfoodadditives.org/pages/Ch2p0.htm The above website I think is reliable because it is checked by the government and by reading it the information that you know it is reliable. Additives and food ingredients have been used for thousands of years, to preserve food from one harvest to the next, and make it taste and look nicer.

    • Word count: 1843
  10. Is the kind of sugar determinative for the release of a higher measure of ethanol? If so, which sugar releases the most ethanol?

    We used glucose, cane sugar, fruit sugar and malt sugar for our experiment. The molecular formulas of these sugars and their fermentation equations are: - C6H12O6 (glucose) C6H12O6 --> 2 CH3CH2OH (l) + 2 CO2 (g) - C6H12O6 (fruit sugar) C6H12O6 --> 2 CH3CH2OH (l) + 2 CO2 (g) - C12H22O11 (cane sugar) C12H22O11 --> 4 CH3CH2OH (l) + 4 CO2 (g) - C12H22O11 (malt sugar) C12H22O11 --> 4 CH3CH2OH (l) + 4 CO2 (g) So our question to be answered will be: Is the kind of sugar determinative for the release of a higher measure of ethanol?

    • Word count: 1756
  11. Alkanes and Alkenes

    Separation 2. Conversion 3. Purification Separation: * Separation is done by a fractional distillation tower * This is when you refine crude oil into parts. This is called distillation. * The first thing they do is pour the oil in a distillation tower and start to heat it. As it heats it starts to evaporates and goes up the tower and the higher it goes the cooler it is. Because of the temperature change the gas condenses and becomes a liquid and this is how they separate crude oil and the last layer is coal.

    • Word count: 1176
  12. Enthalpy Change - Alcohols

    To light the alcohol burner, I will need a flame, for this I will simply use matches. To time the experiment I will use a stop clock and for the temperatures a mercury thermometer. I will use a mercury thermometer instead of a box standard thermometer, as this will give a greater depth of accuracy. For weighing the alcohol burners I will use scales and to record this information including the temperatures I will use tables. To complete this experiment I will need the following equipment: a calorimeter; a water pump; 12x alcohol burners; matches; stop clock; mercury thermometer; wooden blocks; scales & tables to record the data.

    • Word count: 1470
  13. Salters Open Book 2008 Fission and Fusion

    Radioactive decay has a lower energy barrier than fission and therefore is more common. Nuclear Fission involves the absorption of one neutron, whereas radioactive decay does not. Fission also entails numerous neutrons alone being given out and radioactive decay releases particles, which contain neutrons/protons/electrons depending. Hydrogen and Helium nuclei in the synthesis of elements in stars. Hydrogen and helium are the most plentiful elements. They make up approximately 89% and 11% of atoms in the universe. This means they play a pretty major role.

    • Word count: 1325
  14. To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and dilute hydrochloric acid.

    Therefore as the concentration is increased, the same amount of hydrogen will be produced at a faster rate. The diagram below illustrates this. Apparatus: - * Trough * Delivery Tube * Rubber Bung * Boiling Tube * Magnesium Ribbon * Dilute Hydrochloric Acid (Concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) * 10cm� Measuring Tube * 100cm� Measuring Tube * 5 25cm� Beakers * Stop clock Diagram: - Safety: - Basis safety equipment must be used, such as a lab coat, wearing a hair band and using safety goggles to stop the dilute hydrochloric acid from getting onto the eyes or skin, and common sense, such as not to knock over beakers of acid.

    • Word count: 1270
  15. Global Warming

    This may not necessarily be bad news for people who live near the shore. The boundary waves could be caused by some relatively sudden event, such as a particularly warm year, in which case they will subside. However, if they are driven by an ongoing process of climate change, the difference between coast and ocean could get worse, and flooding could become a bigger problem than scientists have anticipated.

    • Word count: 1028
  16. The Vulcanization of Rubber

    When Goodyear scraped it off he noticed an elastic rim had formed at the edge of the hardened material. He had just got a glimpse of vulcanization rubber. He reasoned sulphur and heat were the key, but was unsure about the proportions. Finally, Goodyear came upon the answer: the application of steam to sulphurized rubber for several hours under pressure, at a temperature of about 270F (132C), resulted in weatherproofing. But he sent samples of his weatherproof rubber to British rubber plants before obtaining a foreign patent, and Thomas Hancock, a man who had been trying to make weatherproof rubber for 20 years saw one of the samples. He reinvented the weather proofing process in 1843 and patented it.

    • Word count: 1412
  17. Biofuels next generation

    Information taken from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6294133.stm Bioethanol is a biofuel and is produced from starch which later breaks down into glucose by the enzymes and forms yeast. When this is mixed with petrol it becomes a fuel which could be used in our cars and other purposes. It is a good idea because it is carbon neutral. It is carbon neutral in the sense it produces only a small amount of carbon dioxide during combustion and the plants makes use of all that carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis which therefore neutralizes the whole balance of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

    • Word count: 1295
  18. How does the amount of the enzyme catalayse affect the speed of a chemical reaction

    Meaning that the enzyme can carry on and react with another molecule of substrate. Problems will occur when an enzyme is denatured this can happen because an enzyme is raised above a certain temperature this is because the substrates cannot bind to the active site anymore. What Will I do? In this experiment I will find out how the amount of an enzyme within a reaction will affect the reaction. In this experiment, I will be using hydrogen peroxide and the enzyme catalyse that can be found in places such as yeast, the liver and many plants.

    • Word count: 1642
  19. Forensic Fire Investigation

    All possible causes of static electricity should be checked to prevent build-up and discharge and to make sure the equipment is secured to the floor to ensure it is grounded. All flammable liquids will need to be secured in an area where no sources of ignition can be located. It is also helpful to understand the terms which will be used to describe their chemical properties. When stored all information about the flammable liquids needs to be noted these would include the flash point, flammable range, Ignition Temperature and Vapour Density.

    • Word count: 1124
  20. History and developement of automobiles

    The disadvantage was that it had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up its steam power and it could only go at two and a half miles per hour. The steam engine and the boiler were separated from the other parts of the vehicle and were put on the front of the automobile which gave it a very ugly design and the steam engine was very heavy as well. This vehicle needed forty-five minutes to start and had no gear shifting.

    • Word count: 1534
  21. Determination of the heat of combustion of alcohols

    The distance between the bottle cap and the Coke can should be as close as possible (BUT the wick should not touch the bottom of the can and its burning should not be interrupted) to reduce heat loss. 2. The temperature of water should close to room temperature at initial, to avoid any extra heat loss to (or gain from) the surroundings, which may increase the percentage error. 3. The wick should be centered or it will be put off easily since the bottle cap absorb most of its heat.

    • Word count: 1476
  22. Outline how the main pollutants are formed in vehicle engines and the environmental problems they cause. Explain why different types of vehicle engines produce different exhaust emissions

    NOx is formed by reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in the air so is pretty much unavoidable. It can be reduced by decreasing the time that combustion occurs for and this is why airplane jet engines have become shorter in length over the years - a shorter combustion path through the engine will produce less NOx. A range of sulphur oxides (SOx), which will form sulphuric or sulphurous acid that will also contribute to acid rain. SOx are formed by reaction of sulphur in the fuel with oxygen in the air and can be avoided by using low-sulphur fuels. (iii)

    • Word count: 1248
  23. Relationship between the increasing length of the carbon chain and the enthalpy of combustion of the alcohol that contains the carbon chain.

    The energy required to break a bond and the energy released when a new bond is formed is called the bond energy. These bond energies are always the same whether they are making or breaking bonds. Bonds made Bonds broken Bond type Bond energy kj/mol-1 Bond type Bond energy kjmol-1 C=O 805 C-O from coursewrok work info 336 O-H 464 O-H 464 C-H 413 C-C 347 O=O 498 These bond energy values in the above table are only averages. This is because not all atoms the same they contain the same number of protons but some contain different numbers of neutrons.

    • Word count: 1259
  24. Physics Report on a Visit to the Royal Naval Engineer College

    is the change in length per unit length. When stress and strain are proportional they are obeying Hooke's Law. Tension ? extension or Stress ? strain The Elastic Constant or Youngs Modulus (E) is related to stress and strain as follows: Young's modulus is a fundamental property of a material which describes its stiffness, the ability to maintain its shape. A high Young's modulus value indicates that the material will not stretch by much under load. A Tensile Test is carried out to determine the properties, where a force is applied to a material of known length and uniform shape, in gradual increment noting the extension, the test load is applied until the material breaks.

    • Word count: 1853
  25. Aninvestigationintothecombustionofalcohol

    in it must have a lid on to stop the alcohol from evaporating * clamp this will hold the metal calorimeter in place and a specific distance * a stand to hold the clamp in position * A heat proof mat this will minimise and reduce the transfer of heat energy from experiment. Steps: ???????* You must gather all the requirements shown above. * Empty a place where you can carry out the experiment ???????* put your lab coat and goggles on for safety and protection for the eye and the clothes * Measure 200 cm3 of water using the

    • Word count: 1665

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