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GCSE: Organic Chemistry
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We had four different alcohols, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, butan-1-ol and butan-2-ol. We soaked some mineral wool in the alcohols (not at the same time) and heated up the beaker of water with it until it went out. We had the starting temperature of the water before we did it and measured it when the flame had gone out. We decided to use 2mls of alcohol and 50mls of water. We chose to use these amounts because in our preliminary work we used 5mls of fuel, this took too long to burn.
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water: hydration Pathways to other groups: * alcohols --> alkenes elimination reaction: dehydration * alcohols --> aldehydes --> carboxylic acids controlled oxidation reaction 1o, 2o, and 3o Alcohols Alcohols are classified according to the type of carbon to which the -OH group is attached. Since C atoms form four bonds, the C atom bearing the -OH group can be attached to a further 1, 2, or 3 alkyl groups, the resulting alcohols classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols (1o, 2o, and 3o).
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I�m lying here dying, Mom. I wish you�d get here soon. How cold this happen to me, Mom? My life just burst like a balloon. There is blood all around me, Mom, and most of it is mine. I hear the medic say, Mom, I�ll die in a short time. I just wanted to tell you, Mom, I swear I didn�t drink. It was the others, Mom. The others didn�t think. He was probably as the same party as I.
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Then before lighting the fuel I weighed its initial mass. I lighted it under the beaker, the specified distance using a ruler and a tort stand. Once the water had changed the specified amount then I removed the fuel, put out the flame and measured its final mass. Results: Experiment Initial mass Final mass Mass change 1 198.63g 197.91g 0.72 2 208.01g Not finished Too long 3 165.45g 164.51g 0.94g Using the formula below I was able to calculate the amount of alcohol burnt per mole Calculation: Total head produced ( mass of water x specific heat capacity x temperature change)
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Investigate which fuels contain the most energy between; firelighter, wood, ethanol, paraffin and wax.
After the minute is up, I will blow out the flame or place the lid of the fuel over it, (cutting off the oxygen). I will then take the finial temperature. Then I will repeat the experiment for the other four fuels, in order to establish which two fuels produced the highest rise in temperature of the water. Method - Comparison: I will then compare these two fuels by heating them until they get to a certain temperature noting down the time every time the temperature increases by 10�C in order to form a scatter graph using line of best fit.
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Explanation I am not using more than 200cm3 of water because it would take longer to heat and therefore increase heat loss to surroundings, even though a higher volume of water would reduce the percentage error. I am not using less than 200cm3 because it would increase percentage error and make my results and conclusion less precise. I am using Methanol, Ethanol, Propan-1-ol and Butan-1-ol because they are consecutive, and all straight chain alcohols so I can easily make meaningful comparisons between their structures.
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For example Ethanol has the formula C H OH. In this formula you have five C-H bonds, one C-C bond, one C-O bond and one O-H bond. To separate these types of bonds you require a certain amount of energy, which I will show in a table. C-H 410 C-O 360 O-H 510 O=O 496 C=O 740 C-C 350 To separate C-H bond you need to apply 410 joules of energy. There are five such bonds in ethanol so you multiply 410 by five to get 2050 joules. You do these calculations for all the other types of bonds that make up ethanol, add them all together and you get 3270 joules.
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Hydrogen can react with oxygen to produce electricity in a fuel cell. Hydrogen is the lightest element occurring in nature and contains a large amount of energy in its chemical bond. Because of its low density, liquid hydrogen weighs less than petroleum-based fuels. The density of gaseous hydrogen is 0.0899 grams per liter (g/l). (Air is 1.4 times as dense.) Liquid hydrogen boils at -252.77 degrees Celsius, and it has a density of 70.99 g/l. With these properties, hydrogen has the highest energy-to-weight ratio of all fuels: 1 kilogram (kg)
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I always will be wearing impervious clothing.I will be tryingto keep the wind as low as possible by clothing the windows .When I will be measuring the mass of water I will be using a measuring zylinder so I could mearure the mass of water very precily and I weighed it aswell.On the thermometers that we used I could measure up to 0.0 . When I will weigh the burner containing the Alcohol in it I will weigh it as close as our weighing machine could measure it.I will be also very carefull about the measurement I checked every reading 2 x.
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Theoretical Values: Methanol CH OH 17000 J/g Ethanol C H OH 22000 J/g Propanol C H OH 25000 J/g Butanol C H OH 27000 J/g Hexane C H 35000 J/g Variables: The variables used in this experiment are: Volume of water, mass of fuel, temperature of water, height of tube, height of flame, type of fuel, time it takes, width of flame, colour of flame, material of container, size and surface area, purity of fuel, heat loss and shape of type of wick.
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To calculate the amount of energy that each alcohol gives out I have to multiply the amount of water heated (60) by 4.2 and then multiply that answer by the rise in the temperature. Therefore; ENERGY (Joules) = Amount of water heated (ml) x 4.2(ml) x temperature rise (�C) Preliminary experiments To help design my experiment I shall need to do a preliminary experiment. This experiment shall determine how long I burn the alcohols for. Here is a diagram showing how the preliminary experiment will be set up: Equipment needed: * Crucible * Mineral wool * Heat proof mat * Timer Method for Preliminary experiment * Put 3ml of alcohol and a small amount of wool into a crucible.
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(The same temperature each time will produce the most accurate results.) -Record the weight of the Spirit Burner containing the alcohol you are testing. -Set the Calorimeter above the Spirit Burner using a Clamp Stand, just high enough for the flame to almost touch the bottom of the Calorimeter. This allows for the maximum amount of water being heated and reduces the amount of air around the flame being heated, as the more air that is heated, the higher the waste of energy, giving inaccurate results. There will also be a draught shield placed around the set-up, to again minimise the heating of air.
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I also used the results of my preliminary work (below) to give me an idea of what might happen. I also used the result from my preliminary work to see how I would set out the results by using the three equations. Preliminary Work: We did the preliminary work as a trial to see what factors should be changed and we were trying to find the factors that would give us accurate results. The preliminary work also gave us the chance to try our equations to figures out energy per mole.
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Burning Fuels - Fuels are substances that release energy when they react with oxygen. This reaction is known as burning, or combustion. Combustion is an exothermic reaction
CH4(g) + 11/2O2(g) � CO(g) + 2H2O(l) Carbon monoxide is an extremely poisonous gas. If the air/oxygen supply is very limited, carbon (soot) may be formed: e.g. CH4(g) + O2(g) � C(s) + 2H2O(l) Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels were formed from the remains of plants and animals that became buried in sediments millions of years ago. Heat and pressure (in the absence of oxygen) converted these remains into three major types of fossil fuel - coal, oil and natural gas. * * Coal Coal consists mostly of carbon, but also contains a complex mixture of other chemicals.
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Find out which of five chosen fuels; Ethanol, Propan-1-ol, Butan-1-ol, Hexan-1-ol and Octan-1-ol gives out the most heat energy.
This type of bond occurs when the atoms involved differ greatly in electro negativity. Prediction: I predict that the more energy given out, the higher the number of moles. Method: Equipment: * * Ethanol in fuel burner * Propan-1-ol in fuel burner * Butan-1-ol in fuel burner * Hexan-1-ol in fuel burner * Octan-1-ol in fuel burner * Heat proof mat * 20ml water * Boiling tube * Clamp and stand * Stop clock * Measuring cylinder * Splint/Matches (to light the burner)
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This is an exothermic process, as energy is released and not required. Diagram Aim In this experiment I will aim to see how much hexane and then pentane is required to boil water starting from 20�C (average room temp). I will set up the apparatus as show in the diagram and do the experiment, which I will go through on my plan. In the preliminary experiment, I did not take any results, but observed the experiment closely so as a smooth running takes place in my final experiment, where I will need to collect a good set of results.
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Carbon Monoxide, CO forms when, with rich fuel:air mixtures, there is insufficient oxygen to fully oxidise the carbon (the source being carbon-containing compounds from fuel input). In high temperature products, even with lean mixtures, dissociation ensures that there are quite significant levels of CO. Times during combustion when the oxygen content is often insufficient for complete oxidation are upon starting the engine (when a high air:fuel mixture is necessary), during idling and during acceleration, when the temperature is low or reaction time is short during flame spread in air:fuel mixture (on the lean fuel side).
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How does the Heat Energy given out during the Combustion of Alcohols Change as the Carbon Chain of the Alcohols used is increased?
Exothermic is a reaction that gives out energy, normally in the form of heat. It is observed by an increase in temperature. An example of an exothermic reaction is respiration or the burning of fuels. Exothermic reactions have been used for thousands of years-whenever people have burned fuels. When coal is burnt several reactions occur, but the outcome is that carbon atoms from the coal combine with oxygen from the air to form carbon dioxide gas, while hydrogen atoms react with oxygen to produce water vapour. Fossil fuels, such as natural gas and petrol (which is refined from crude oil), contain a high proportion of carbon.
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The narcotic effect of ethanol is well known, and may come about from inhalation of the vapour. Methanol is toxic by inhalation, if swallowed and by skin absorption. If swallowed: wash out the mouth with water and seek medical attention if victim shows drunken symptoms. If vapour inhaled: Remove victim to fresh air to rest. Keep warm. If liquid splashed in eyes: Flood the eye with running tap water for 10 minutes. Seek medical attention. If spilt in lab: Shut off all sources of ignition. Open all windows and apply mineral absorbent to the spill. When heating, eye protection must be worn.
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Temperature of water before the wick was lit. 21 24 26 20 28 (oC) Temperature of water after the flame was 41 45 45 39 49 blown out (oC) Table 2: Results from the experiment the second time round. FUEL METHANOL ETHANOL PROPAN-1-OL PROPAN-2-OL BUTAN-1-OL Water. (g) 192.8 190.3 194.1 192.7 182.8 Mass of burner and alcohol before the 115 143.7 138.3 143.7 115 experiment. (g) Mass of burner and alcohol after the 113.3 142.6 137.6 142.6 113.6 experiment.
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4.2 is the specific heat capacity of water. This are the predicted results for burning fuels, calculated using bond energies from a book of data. Alcohol Joules/g released Ethanol -17450 Propanol -20850 Buntanol -23070 Pentanol -24700 Hexanol -25930 Heptanol -26890 Octanol -27660 Variables: � Mass of the water 100ml � Type of beaker � Surrounding temperature of around 23�C � The height of the beaker from the wick � Same set of scales Pendiction: I predict that Octanol will release more energy because it has more bonds that the other alcohols, and than Ethanol will release the least due to its few bond properties.
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'Petroleum.'Crude oil is a mixture of different hydrocarbons and can be broken down into separate fractions by a process called fractional distillation.
The majority of compounds in crude oil are straight alkanes, but the mixture also contains cycloalkanes and arenas. Separation is possible because individual hydrocarbons in the fractions all have different boiling points. As the alkane carbon chain increases in length, the boiling point increase. Fractional distillation takes place in an oil refinery, in a fractionating column. Before the crude oil reaches the fractionating column it is heated until it vaporises. The temperature at the bottom of the column is higher than at the top, this creates a temperature gradient, so different fractions can be drawn off at different levels.
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Out of the five alchols which we will be testing (i.e. Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol and Pentanol), Pentanol has the largest structure. The structure of Pentanol is C5H11OH, which means it has more molecules than the rest. Since it has more molecules, as a result, there are more atoms to burn. The more being burnt means that there is a stronger likely hood that the atoms will collide and have more effective collisions. This will produce more heated molecules and they will heat the water up more quickly, as there are more molecules heating it.
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The other form of bonding is covalent where atoms share electrons to complete their outer orbit. An example being Methane where four hydrogen atoms each share an electron with a carbon atom. Key Variables: Some of the variables that will be relevant to this investigation are: - Mass of water - Amount of wick on burner - Type of alcohol - Height of can above flame - Type of can - Time of burning Prediction and Hypothesis: I think that the more hydrocarbons there are in the alcohol, the more the energy is produced and the more heat is given off.
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