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GCSE: Organic Chemistry
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We will be using water as our substance with a known specific heat capacity. Prediction I predict that the longer the hydrocarbon chain the more energy will be transferred to the water, therefore fewer moles of fuel will be used to achieve the same temperature rise. So as the number of carbon atoms increases the enthalpy of combustion will become more negative. I think this because as you add a H-C-H bond you increase the energy required to break the bonds by 826KJ/Mol.
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water: hydration Pathways to other groups: * alcohols --> alkenes elimination reaction: dehydration * alcohols --> aldehydes --> carboxylic acids controlled oxidation reaction 1o, 2o, and 3o Alcohols Alcohols are classified according to the type of carbon to which the -OH group is attached. Since C atoms form four bonds, the C atom bearing the -OH group can be attached to a further 1, 2, or 3 alkyl groups, the resulting alcohols classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols (1o, 2o, and 3o).
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I have shown this information in a table below. Bond Energy released/required O-O +/-496 C-H +/-412 O-H +/-463 C-C +/-348 C-O +/-360 Alcohol Balanced Equations Methanol CH3OH+1.5O2=CO2+2H2O Ethanol CH3CH2OH+3O2 =2CO2+3H2O Propanol CH3CH2CH2OH+4.5O2 =3CO2+4H2O Butanol CH3CH2CH2CH2OH+6O2 =4CO2+5H2O Pentanol CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH+7.5O2 =5CO2+6H2O Alcohol Bonds Energy released when bonds are broken Energy needed to reform Total energy transfer Methanol C-H x 3 C-O x 1 O-H x 1 O-O x 1.5 +2803 -2572 231 KJ/mol Ethanol C-H x 5 C-C x 1 C-O x 1 O-H x 1 O-O x 3 +4719 -4218 501 KJ/mol Propanol O-O x 4.5 C-H x 7 O-H x 1 C-C x 2 C-O x 1 +6635 -5864
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If we only use a small volume of water the heat energy from the spirit burner will give the water molecules energy faster as there are will less of them so more heat energy per molecule, this means the bonds will loosen and break quicker so the reaction will be faster. * Distance between spirit burner and Copper Calorimeter: The further the copper calorimeter is from the heat source the more heat will be lost into the surrounding atmosphere and not directed towards the water and the slower the reaction will be.
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I�m lying here dying, Mom. I wish you�d get here soon. How cold this happen to me, Mom? My life just burst like a balloon. There is blood all around me, Mom, and most of it is mine. I hear the medic say, Mom, I�ll die in a short time. I just wanted to tell you, Mom, I swear I didn�t drink. It was the others, Mom. The others didn�t think. He was probably as the same party as I.
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This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document
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Then before lighting the fuel I weighed its initial mass. I lighted it under the beaker, the specified distance using a ruler and a tort stand. Once the water had changed the specified amount then I removed the fuel, put out the flame and measured its final mass. Results: Experiment Initial mass Final mass Mass change 1 198.63g 197.91g 0.72 2 208.01g Not finished Too long 3 165.45g 164.51g 0.94g Using the formula below I was able to calculate the amount of alcohol burnt per mole Calculation: Total head produced ( mass of water x specific heat capacity x temperature change)
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Investigate which fuels contain the most energy between; firelighter, wood, ethanol, paraffin and wax.
After the minute is up, I will blow out the flame or place the lid of the fuel over it, (cutting off the oxygen). I will then take the finial temperature. Then I will repeat the experiment for the other four fuels, in order to establish which two fuels produced the highest rise in temperature of the water. Method - Comparison: I will then compare these two fuels by heating them until they get to a certain temperature noting down the time every time the temperature increases by 10�C in order to form a scatter graph using line of best fit.
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That option may be a little off putting because many drunken people and tramps end up there. So you�re itinerary for the coming five days, what should you choose, where should you go? A whole day, if not more, should definitely be spent at Brent Cross shopping centre. It offers everything you could want, from food, to hairdressing salons and not to mention the rather expensive labels to the electronic gismos at Gadgetshop! At the moment there is a funfair opposite the centre, very promising for little kids with many merry go rounds, but if you are more daring there are only 2 scary rides with rip off prices.
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Explanation I am not using more than 200cm3 of water because it would take longer to heat and therefore increase heat loss to surroundings, even though a higher volume of water would reduce the percentage error. I am not using less than 200cm3 because it would increase percentage error and make my results and conclusion less precise. I am using Methanol, Ethanol, Propan-1-ol and Butan-1-ol because they are consecutive, and all straight chain alcohols so I can easily make meaningful comparisons between their structures.
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The functional group of the Homologous series (the OH group) is in the same position on all of the alcohols we are using, therefore this will not effect our results. I carried out a trial experiment, to try and asses where error occurred within the experiment, using Methanol and Hexane. From the errors that occurred within the trial experiment I can adapt our final method to improve this error. The experiment that I used is outlined below. Apparatus * A small copper can which will act as a calorimeter.
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Fair Test: To make this investigation a fair test, you're going to have to make sure you have all the equipment and that they are up to date, especially the jug. Put the same amount of into each jug; make sure the room temperature for both thermometers are the same before burning the fuels. Measure the flame and make sure that they are the same size. Check the temperature at the same time after every 1-minute for 10- minutes. Repeat this twice to get the average temperature.
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H2O Pentanol 3- The Tools That I Used Are: * 5 spirit burners; each one containing one of the five alcohols ethanol, methanol, propanol, pentanol and butanol. * A empty can of any fizzy dink, but it should have thin walls. * Thermometer. * Accurate electronic balance. * Matches. * Measuring cylinder for make accurate volume of water (volume of water = 200 cm3). 4- The used apparatus: 5- Procedure: 1) Wash the can, dry it by tissue paper, measure it by the electronic balance and record the reading.
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Ethanol is made from grains and is renewable. Prediction: I think methanol will have a higher temperature than ethanol because Fair test: The test was fair because the amount of water and temperature for both experiments were the same. The height of the flame was also the same and we timed each experiment for 10 minutes. We used the same equipment for both experiment. Safety: To make the experiment safe we tied back long hair, put on our goggles and cleared the space in front of us.
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For example Ethanol has the formula C H OH. In this formula you have five C-H bonds, one C-C bond, one C-O bond and one O-H bond. To separate these types of bonds you require a certain amount of energy, which I will show in a table. C-H 410 C-O 360 O-H 510 O=O 496 C=O 740 C-C 350 To separate C-H bond you need to apply 410 joules of energy. There are five such bonds in ethanol so you multiply 410 by five to get 2050 joules. You do these calculations for all the other types of bonds that make up ethanol, add them all together and you get 3270 joules.
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= C4H9OH * Butan-2-ol = C4H9OH I have chosen these alcohols because I will have a chain containing 1 carbon atom, 3 carbon atoms, 4 carbon atoms and 5 carbon atoms. I have also decided to use structural isomers of two of these, Propanol and Butanol. (Propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol and Butan-1-ol and butan-2-ol). This will allow me to compare the enthalpy of combustion of increasing chain length and the structural isomers of some of these alcohols. Alcohol structure Methanol H H | / H - C - O | H Propan-1-ol H H H | | | H - 1C
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> To perform a detailed analysis of the strategic financial and non-financial implications of Sainsbury's switching to another fuel source > To give a recommendation based on our findings 1.4 Recommendation Having carried out a SWOT analysis, an investment appraisal, and considered non-financial implications of adopting a greener fuel source, this report recommends Sainsbury's would add value to their business by switching to Natural Gas in the medium term. 2. Research Agenda and Assumptions Made 2.1 Agenda In carrying out this investigation, the group agreed on a set of guidelines and basic philosophy to abide by in order to maximise the integrity and significance of our report.
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Method 1. Set up all the apparatuses; design a suitable draught system that can reduce energy loss to the minimum. 2. Add 200cm 3 of cold distill water into copper calorimeter, measure and write down the temperature. 3. Weight the spirit burner, including the alcohol fuel and the burner cap. Record the weight. 4. Replace the Bunsen burner under calorimeter and light the wick. 5. Go on heating until the temperature has risen by about 15-20C. 6. Extinguish the burner. Record the temperature on thermometer. 7. Weight and record the mass of spirit burner with liquid fuel that has been burned. 8.
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Hydrogen can react with oxygen to produce electricity in a fuel cell. Hydrogen is the lightest element occurring in nature and contains a large amount of energy in its chemical bond. Because of its low density, liquid hydrogen weighs less than petroleum-based fuels. The density of gaseous hydrogen is 0.0899 grams per liter (g/l). (Air is 1.4 times as dense.) Liquid hydrogen boils at -252.77 degrees Celsius, and it has a density of 70.99 g/l. With these properties, hydrogen has the highest energy-to-weight ratio of all fuels: 1 kilogram (kg)
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I always will be wearing impervious clothing.I will be tryingto keep the wind as low as possible by clothing the windows .When I will be measuring the mass of water I will be using a measuring zylinder so I could mearure the mass of water very precily and I weighed it aswell.On the thermometers that we used I could measure up to 0.0 . When I will weigh the burner containing the Alcohol in it I will weigh it as close as our weighing machine could measure it.I will be also very carefull about the measurement I checked every reading 2 x.
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The crude oil I extracted from under the ground by placing a drilling platform within the sea drilling out the crude oil. Many things can be extracted from crude oils such as petroleum gas, naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, lubricating oil, fuel oil and the residuals. Petroleum gas is used for heating cooking and making plastics. It's also common by the names: methane, ethane, propane and butane. It is often a liquid pressurised to create LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). Naphtha or also called Ligroin it's a part of crude oil that is in the process of being able to be made into gasoline.
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He died there the following year. Aristotle, like Plato, used his dialogue in his beginning years at the Academy. Apart from a few fragments in the works of later writers, his dialogues have been wholly lost. Aristotle also wrote some short technical writings, including a dictionary of philosophic terms and a summary of the "doctrines of Pythagoras" (the guy from the Pythagorean Theorem). Of these, only a few short pieces have survived. Still in good shape, though, are Aristotle's lecture notes for carefully outlined courses treating almost every type of knowledge and art.
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Place the burner directly beneath the beaker. 6. Light the burner. 7. Adjust the ring clamp so that the distance between the flame and the base of the beaker is 3cm. 8. Heat the water until its temperature rises by about 30�C. 9. Put the cap back on the burner to extinguish the flame. 10. Weigh the alcohol burner again with the cap on, and record the result. 11. Repeat the experiment with the other 3 alcohols. ring clamp thermometer metal beaker 100ml water retort stand Burner Observations were made upon the experiment.
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Theoretical Values: Methanol CH OH 17000 J/g Ethanol C H OH 22000 J/g Propanol C H OH 25000 J/g Butanol C H OH 27000 J/g Hexane C H 35000 J/g Variables: The variables used in this experiment are: Volume of water, mass of fuel, temperature of water, height of tube, height of flame, type of fuel, time it takes, width of flame, colour of flame, material of container, size and surface area, purity of fuel, heat loss and shape of type of wick.
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In this experiment, the fuel to be used is alcohol. Seven different alcohols will be used. The general formula of an alcohol is CnH2n+1OH. The individual formulas are: methanol CH3OH ethanol C2H5OH propanol C3H7OH butanol C4H9OH pentanol C5H11OH hexanol C6H13OH octanol C8H17OH The reaction that is involved in burning alcohols is exothermic, as heat energy is lost. The energy is given off when the alcohol reacts with the oxygen in the air to form water and carbon dioxide. The longer alcohol molecules need more energy to break their bonds compared to smaller molecules, and so will be less energy efficient than the smaller alcohol molecules.
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