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# GCSE: Patterns of Behaviour

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• Marked by Teachers essays 45
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1. ## Hypothesis: some metal carbonates decompose more easily than others when they are heated.

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Use a pipette. Wash hands with cold water if lime water comes into contact with skin. It?s harmful. Can cause itchiness and pain. Wear goggles and take care when using it. If there is a spillage tell the teacher immediately. When not using the Bunsen burner use yellow safety flame. Don?t keep the boiling tubes on a blue flame for longer than 2 minutes as could break due to prolonged heat. Tie long hair up out of place to stop getting caught in flame Always follow lab rules.

• Word count: 852
2. ## Rates of Reaction Practial

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- Calcium Carbonate Powder (5g) - Hydrochloric Acid 1M (100ml) - Spatula - Accurate Scale - Stopwatch Method: 1. Collect all of the equipment and measure 5g of each size of surface area of Calcium Carbonate with a spatula. 2. Collect 100 ml of Hydrochloric Acid into one of the 400ml beakers. 3. Place the other beaker on the scale and then set the scale measure to zero. Pour the 100ml of HCl into the beaker on the scale. 4. Hold a stopwatch in one hand, and place the large CaCO3 chips into the beaker containing HCl. Start the stopwatch as soon as the chips contact with the surface of the acid.

• Word count: 839
3. ## Science Rate Of Reaction

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The effects of surface area: The effects of concentration: The effects of temperature: 2mph 25mph In order to calculate the rate of reaction I will use this formula: 1 Average time When sodium thiosulphate solution reacts with hydrochloric acid a solid is formed. The time taken for a certain amount of sulphur to form can be used to indicate the rate of reaction. In this experiment the effects of the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate on the rate of reaction is investigated.

• Word count: 671
4. ## How concentration affects rate of reaction

APPARATUS: - Conical flask (250cm3) - Beakers (large and small) - Large basin with water - Delivery tube & stopper - Measuring cylinders (large and small) - Clamp stand - Electronic balance - Stopwatch - Safety glases - Spatula - Pipette - Calcium carbonate - Hydrochloric acid (2M) - Plastic tray METHOD: 1. First collect all of the apparatus and set up the most important elements as in the image (you can use a clamp stand to secure the cylinder).

• Word count: 677
5. ## rates of reaction

We did this by measuring out the same volume of acid and add it to a measuring cylinder. We used 20 ml of acid. And we used the same weight of marble chips. But had them in three different sizes, Powdered, Large Chips and small chips. KEY 2Hcl + CaCo3 CaCl2+H2o+Co2 aq : aquaris (aq) (s) (aq) (l) (g) S: solid l: Liquid g: Gas We poured the acid into the measuring cylinder and got the stop watch ready and the right weight of marble set.

• Word count: 322
6. ## Coursework Rates of reaction

- Distilled water - Delivery tube - Bowl - Conical flask (100ml) - Beaker - Measuring cylinder (100 cm3) - Stop watch - Balance - Clamp - Clamp holder - Safety Glasses Method: 1. Collect all materials 2. Fill the bowl and the 100 cm3 cylinder with water 3. Holding the end so that the water doesn't go out, turn the cylinder upside down and place it down the bowl, keeping it still with the clamp, put the delivery tube at the hole of the cylinder 4.

• Word count: 756
7. ## rates of reaction

Lastly a catalyst is a chemical what we add what will increase the surface area, so there is more chance of collisions to take place, at the end of the reaction the catalyst can be removed. The reaction of the collision theory: Sodium thiosulphate+hydrochloric acid sodium chloride+ sulphur dioxide + water +sulphur My prediction I predict that as I increase the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate the rate of reaction will increase. This is because the number of particles will increase meaning more chance of collision further resulting in the rate of reaction to increase.

• Word count: 770
8. ## How concentration effects the rate of a chemical reaction

Using 30ml of 2M acid, 3g of each of the particles had filled the measuring cylinder with hydrogen gas, the large bits filling it slowest and the powder filling it fastest. Equipment: Gas Cylinder Conical flask with rubber tube 50ml measuring cylinder 10ml measuring cylinder 6 100ml beakers Pipette Balance Stop clock Calcium Carbonate (large marble chips)

• Word count: 389
9. ## Temp labreport

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Therefore, increasing the temperature increases the energy between the particles and makes them move around a lot more and collide more often. Hypothesis: - The rate of reaction has a positive relationship with the temperature of the Hydrochloric Acid. Apparatus:- 1) Test tube 2) Rubber tube (a.k.a. delivery tube) 3) Measuring cylinder X2 [1-10ml, 1-100 ml] 4) Rubber Bung 5) Stopwatch 6) HCL - 150ml 7) 5x 3 cm of magnesium ribbon 8) Trough full of water 9) Beaker - 400ml 10)

• Word count: 851
10. ## Formula of Magnesium Oxide

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mass of crucible and magnesium after heating: 15.18g ? mass of magnesium before heating: 0.90g ? mass of magnesium oxide: 0.97g ? mass of oxygen: 0.07g Changes occurring during the reaction: � Magnesium stripe glowed and burned bright orange � Sparks appeared on the surface of the magnesium stripe � Started to shrink and change into white powder form but still glowing This shows that magnesium has reacted with oxygen to form magnesium oxide, a white powder. Appearance of contents at the end of experiment: � White powder � Not in a shape of a coil Number of moles of magnesium and oxygen in magnesium oxide: moles = mass moles = mass molar mass molar mass

• Word count: 847
11. ## Rate of Reaction Lab

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The variables are as follows: Independent Variable: I shall be changing the surface area of the Calcium Carbonate to prove or disprove that it actually makes a difference to the rate of reaction. Dependant Variable: The Carbon Dioxide given off will be my dependant variable in this experiment. Control: I shall try to control the amount of Calcium Carbonate and acid in each experiment, so it is as close to being the same as possible. Apparatus: -Beaker -Measuring Cylinder -Calcium Carbonate -Scales -Hydrochloric Acid (0.4M)

• Word count: 705
12. ## displacement reactions of metal

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Iron will displace copper only as it is a less reactive metal. And copper will not be able to displace any metals because it is a very weak metal. * Method 1. I had placed the three pieces of the four different metals on a tile containing twelve holes. 2. Then I added the aqueous solution that is magnesium solution, iron solution, zinc solution & copper solution onto the different metals.

• Word count: 414
13. ## rate of reaction

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A reaction which is over in a fraction of a second is a very fast reaction. We say it has a high rate of reaction. As the time taken for the reaction to be completed increases, the rate of reaction decreases. What factors affect the rate of reaction? The effect of increasing concentration on the rate of reaction is relatively easy to predict qualitatively. It is not possible to be sure of a quantitive relationship without carrying out experimental studies.

• Word count: 784
14. ## Who's cheating on the vinegar?

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I will do this by using a technique called Titration. Vinegar is ethonoic acid What is Titration? Titration is a form of neutralisation. This is a process of determining the concentration of a substance in solution. A measured amount of a known solution concentration (molarity) is added to an unknown volume of a second solution in carefully measured amounts until a reaction of definite and known proportion is completed. Neutralisation is when a Hydrogen ion and a Hydroxide ion react together to form water which is neutral. + - H (aq) + OH (aq) � H2O Variables: * Amount of acid (vinegar)

• Word count: 877
15. ## There are certain factors that affect the rate of reaction the four main factors are:

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a slow reaction like rusting an explosion is a fast reaction. There are certain factors that affect the rate of reaction the four main factors are: Temperature: When gasses or liquids are heated the particles gain kinetic energy and move faster.

• Word count: 212
16. ## The effect of concentration of hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium.

Factors to be investigated: To accomplish my aim I will vary the concentration of hydrochloric acid, and keep all other variables at a constant. Prediction: I predict that when the concentration of hydrochloric acid is higher, the speed of the formation of the gas (hydrogen)

• Word count: 270
17. ## In this exercise, it was required to observe carefully what happened when certain substances were heated in a burner, and to note the appearance of the residue after heating.

Distilled water was used to dampen the red and blue litmus paper. Using the flame of the Bunsen burner the splint was lit and then blown out leaving a glowing splint. The tongs was used to hold the test tube over the lit Bunsen burner and the blue and red litmus paper was held at the opening of the test tube. The glowing splint was then placed inside test tube.

• Word count: 473
18. ## The Rise and fall of the Iron and Steel Industry in Great Britain

These areas contained plenty of woodlands to provide the charcoal needed in the smelting process. But the charcoal was running out, and half of Britain's iron had to be imported from Sweden and Russia. The steel industry, which used Benjamin Huntsman's "crucible" process, was also small-scale and centred on Sheffield. During the 18th century, there was a revolution in the production of iron, and in the 19th century, a revolution in the production of steel. During this time: The growth of the iron and steel industry involved Technological innovation. As well as Large-scale production, centred on famous ironmasters.

• Word count: 642
19. ## The experiment which I carried out aimed to monitor the quantity of Copper (Cu) metal that deposited during the electrolysis of Copper Sulphate solution (CuSo4) using Copper electrodes, when certain variables were changed.

was poured into a small beaker. The two copper electrodes were firstly cleaned using water. Then electrodes were weighed, their masses recorded and placed into the beaker containing the Copper Sulphate solution. The electrodes were connected to a battery set (cell) and ammeter. A current flowed (0.2 Amps) and the experiment was stopped at certain points (after each minute) to record the results. At the end of the experiment (when all the results were obtained)

• Word count: 456
20. ## Rusting Lab. Hypothesis: I think that the presence of salt will speed up the rusting. The greater the amount of salt present in the test tube, the faster/more the iron nails will rust.

Hypothesis: I think that the presence of salt will speed up the rusting. The greater the amount of salt present in the test tube, the faster/more the iron nails will rust. Variables: Independent variable: Amount of salt (NaCl) Dependant variable: The amount the iron nails rust (increase in mass of iron nail) Controlled: All apparatus All ambient conditions Time for experiment Apparatus: 1. 6 test tubes 2. 60 ml of water 3. A Measuring cylinder 4. 6 bungs 5. 12 iron nails 6. Electronic weighing scale 7. 6g of NaCl Method: 1. Use the measuring cylinder to measure out 10ml of distilled water each in 6 test tubes.

• Word count: 824
21. ## Objective: To determine the content of oxygen absorber in a moon cake package.

Test for iron powder 1. Open a pack of oxygen absorber, and place the substances inside package on the white tile. 2. Place a magnet wrapped with paper above the sample on the white tile. 3. Some of the substances are attracted by the magnet, and add them in warm 1M H2SO4. (If nothing is drawn, add about 1/4 of the sample into 1M H2SO4 )

• Word count: 732
22. ## Changing the rate of a reaction by changing the concentration:

* Using a measuring cylinder, measure out 25ml of sodium thiosulphate and pour that into the conical flask and put on top of the paper. The cross should be easy to see through the solution, from above. * 40ml of hydrochloric acid is added quickly, and a clock started at the same time. The cross grows fainter as the precipitate forms.

• Word count: 564
23. ## Soddium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid

This increased rate of reaction would then cause the time taken for the cross to disappear to decrease. From my results and my analysis above you can see clearly that as concentration increases so does the rate and the recorded time of the reaction falls. I feel that my analysis of the results and the trend shown by the graph clearly shows that in my investigation the predictions that rate increases with concentration and rate doubles upon concentration doubling are fully supported.

• Word count: 566
24. ## How useful are sources F, G and H as evidence of conditions in the Hertford Gaol in the first half of the nineteenth century?

Source F talks about some of the punishments which the prisoners got for rule breaking in the Hertford Gaol. The examples which the source gives are punishments such as; a one day bread diet for laughing and or two days in solitary for making signs at another prisoner. This gives us a good idea about how rule breaking was dealt with. We also know that this source is reliable because it is an extract from a Governor's diary so it is very likely to be true, and what

• Word count: 776
25. ## Rates of Reactions

partly filled with water. 4. Place the beakers (B and C) containing the test tubes on an electrical hot plate, switch on the power and place a thermometer into each of the four test tubes. 5. Read each thermometer until the water in beaker B reaches 37�C and the water in beaker C reaches 100�C (i.e. when the water boils). At these points, remove the beakers from the hot plate and switch off the power. 6. Wait a few minutes and check the thermometers until the test tube temperatures are constant, and similar to the temperature of the water bath.

• Word count: 848