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GCSE: Patterns of Behaviour

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1. To Find Out How Much Surface Area Affects the Rate of a Reaction Between a Potassium Tablet (K2co3) and Hydrochloric Acid (Hcl).

I think this because there is more K2CO3 for the HCl to collide with. Diagram Plan First you must add water to a basin (enough to put an upside-down 250 ml measuring cylinder in), fill a 250 ml measuring cylinder and place it upside-down in the basin and keep it off the bottom by a clamp. You must then add 30 ml of HCl to a conical flask, then place a K2CO3 tablet to it, place a bung with a tube coming out of the top and going into the basin and into the measuring cylinder, you must time the experiment for 3 mins.

• Word count: 510
2. Lab Report: How the temperature of water will affect the reaction time of sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid

Draw an 'x' on three pieces of papers 4. Add 100 ml of 10degrees water to a beaker. If the tap water is not cold enough add some ice to the beaker to decrease the temperature. 5. Measure 10 ml of Sodium Thiosulfate and add this into a flask. 6. Put the flask into the beaker containing water 7.Measure 5ml of Hydrochloric Acid and pour that into the flask containing the Sodium Thiosulfate. 8.Make sure to have a piece of paper with an 'x' underneath the beaker. 9. Record your results on your results table 10.Repeat steps 4 to 9 two more times, then calculate your average for that temperature.

• Word count: 848
3. Making Salts Methods

Therefore, the problem can be overcome by adding a third chemical into the reaction mixture called an indicator. Indicators are chemicals that change colour with a change in ph. The indicator is added to the acid and as the soluble base is added, the pH of the solution is raised until all the acid has reacted (been neutralized). The experiment can be run a number of times to gain a more accurate average value for the volume of base that needs to be added to neutralise the acid used.

• Word count: 594
4. Hypothesis - I am going to be examining how much energy is transferred as heat when acids react with alkalis, also known as the heat of neutralisation.

Sulphurous acid 7. Citric acid What are alkalis? An alkali is a base that is soluble in water. An alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. Alkalis are best known for being bases (compounds with pH greater than 7) that dissolve in water. Examples of alkalis 1. Sodium hydroxide - NaOH 2. Calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH)2 3. Potassium hydroxide - KOH Neutralisation When an alkali is added to an acid, the pH of the mixture rises as the alkali reacts with it forming neutral products. An acid added to an alkali causes the pH to fall because the alkali is removed by reaction with the acid.

• Word count: 660
5. History of the Periodic Table

Brand kept his discovery a secret until 1680 when Robert Boyle rediscovered it and it became public. Due to the publicity, many questions were raised as what it means for a substance to be classified as an element. Boyle later defined an element as a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by a chemical reaction. This simple definition severed for nearly 300 years until the development of the notion of subatomic particles. In 1789, a book named Elementary Treatise of Chemistry was published by Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier and was considered to be the first modern chemical textbook.

• Word count: 675