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GCSE: Patterns of Behaviour
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Rates of reaction. Before I carry out my experiments I will have to draw up a plan to ensure that the experiments are carried out properly. Below is a few things that is essential in a plan:1) Factors: I must have a factor for everything.
- Independent Variable: I must make sure I have notes of all the things I change. - Dependant Variable: I must make sure keep a good eye on the Independent Variable in order for the dependant variable. Temperature: I must make sure the temperature stays same. In a cold reaction mixture the particles are moving quite slowly, particles will collide with each other less often, with less energy, and fewer collisions will be successful. However, if I heat the reaction mixture the particles will move more quickly, the particles will collide with each other more often.
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My aim is to see how concentration affects the rate of reaction.Sodium Thisulphate + Hydrochloric acid sodium chloride
The catalyst lowers the activation energy required, allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly or at a lower temperature. Surface area: the larger surface area the quicker the reaction. Large particles have a small surface area in relation to their volume; fewer particles are exposed and available for collisions. This means less collisions and a slower reaction. The reaction rate is slower. However, small particles have a large surface area in relation to their volume; more particles are exposed and available for collisions.
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An Experiment to Investigate How Amount of Sugar or Temperature Affects the Rate at Which the Product of Fermentation (carbon
I will measure the amount of carbon dioxide given off every 30 seconds for two and a half minutes. I will use a pair of electric scales, set to two decimal places, to make sure my results are reliable. I will also make sure there are no bubbles in the measuring cylinder; this could cause more volume of gas than there should be. Other factors like making the temperature exact or the results could be anomalous. Accurate reading will be hard, but I decided to measure the results to the top of the meniscus.
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Great Expectations, authored by Victorian novelist Charles Dickens, is considered one of his finest works of literature
From the time he was seven years old until he was in his mid-thirties, Pip shows us the important events in his life that shaped who he became. (From Cheema) Pip's story has one main point: no matter what happens to a person in their life, a person cannot change who they are inside.
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Sodium Thiosulphate when added to Hydrochloric acid reacts and gives a product, But does changing the temperature and the concentration change the rate of reaction
This means that the particles collide more frequently with each other and the rate of the reaction increases. Before we did the experiments we did Preliminary experiments. For the temperature we decided to do the experiment at room temperature to see how fast it reacted. This helped us to decide a suitable range for the input variable. For the concentration, we used undiluted Sodium Thiosulphate to see how long it took for the reaction to have fully taken place. This again helped us decide a suitable range for the input variable.
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Equipment Glass beakers (100ml and 250ml) Measuring cylinders (10, 25, 100 and 250ml) Test tubes and boiling tubes Stirring rods Thermometers Stopwatches Water baths (30�, 40�, 50�, 60�) Hydrochloric acid (2moldm-3) Sodium Thiosulphate (40g per litre) Method Pour 5ml of Hydrochloric acid and 30ml of water into a boiling tube/test tube.
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The experiment was repeated many times for different temperatures ranging from 20 degrees Celsius to 60 Celsius. The temperature goes up 5 degrees every time. Fair Test I will make sure that I measure the correct amounts of starch and amylase each time. I will always put 3 drops of iodine in each chamber of the spotting tile, no more, no less. I will clean out the test tube and spotting tile thoroughly each time I repeat the experiment. I will always measure the temperature of the water in the beaker accurately with a thermometer.
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As the solution of starch and amylase become hotter than 40 degrees Celsius the rate of reaction slows down because the reactant ( starch) begins to denature and cannot fit snugly into the ' active site' and therefore cannot be broken down efficiently. Near to 37 degrees Celsius the reactant does fit snugly into the active site and the starch can therefore be broken down quickly and effectively. As a result of the reactant fitting snugly into the active site more of the surface area of the starch comes into contact with the amylase and is broken down quicker.
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I've learnt that if the temperature is high reactions will take place much more quickly and the particles will collide more often. The table and graphs prove my theory. The Calculator was used for calculating the average of the times that was recorded for the reactions to happen. The Beaker was used to mix the chemicals for the reaction to take place.
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3) (i) For b = -1, b causes the value of y decrease rapidly as x increases. This is because when x becomes larger, bx will be a very small number as bx will be small as b is negative while x is positive. For b = 0, y remains constant throughout, no matter what the value of x is. This is because 0x will always give 0. For b = 1, the relationship is the same as in (1), as 1x will always lead to a rapid rate of increase for y when x > 0.
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13 Do elements in the same group have similar chemical or similar physical properties? Similar chemical properties. 14 Elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of what? Increasing atomic number. 15 Which of these elements has the greatest atomic number? Element B. 16 What is the electron arrangement of element C? 2.8.7 17 What is the electron arrangement of element E? 2.8.1 18 Which of the elements are very reactive metal and why? Elements D & E - they are in Group 1 (The alkali metals). 19 Which of the elements is a very unreactive non-metal and why? Element F - it is in Group 0 (The noble gases). 20 Name the first four halogens.
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Investigate the enthalpy values for the reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Oxide with Hydrogen Chloride.
Volume 1000 * Mass of Reactant Moles Ar * H1 for the reaction between CaCO3 + HCl 4.2 x 3 x 50 630_ 0.63 1000 1000 2.471 0.025 Ca ? 40 x 1 = 40 100 C ? 12 x 1 = 12 O ? 16 x 3 = 48 = 100 0.63_ 25.2 0.025 H1 = ?25.2 Kj mol H2 for the reaction between CaO + HCl 4.2 x 10 50 1890 2.1 1000 1000 1.426 0.025 Ca ?
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To Determine the Activation Energy of the Reaction between Bromide ion and Bromate (V) ion in Acid Solution
Give an equation for the reaction between phenol and bromine. 2. What is the use of methyl orange in this experiment? The methyl orange is used as an indicator for the reaction. Bromine will be produces during the reaction and it will react with phenol rapidly. Once all the phenol is used up, further bromine produced will bleach the methyl orange immediately. So the rate of the reaction can be calculated from the time for the indicator to be decolorized.
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when the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases. The theory states that if the more concentrated the reactants, the greater the number of collisions between particles increase. As the reaction continues, the concentration of the reacting substances decreases and the rate of reaction decreases. In order for particles to collide and to react with each other there is a minimum amount of energy which is needed to break or form new bonds between the other particles, which is called a successful collision. If the particles have less than this minimum energy required to brake or form new bonds then there would be no reaction and the particles would just simply bounce off each other causing unsuccessful collision.
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G.C.S.E Chemistry coursework: Investigating the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodiumthiosulphate and hydrochloric acid
I will place 50cm3 of sodium thiosulphate and 5cm3 of hydrochloric acid in one conical flask. I will subsequently put the solution which is in the conical flask on a paper which will have a cross on it. When the sodium thiosulphate reacts with the hydrochloric acid it will turn to a milky/cloudy colour. I will then look through the solution and see the cross; the experiment will be timed to check the time it takes for the cross to disappear and at what temperature the solution will be at to make the cross to disappear.
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Investigate how changing the concentration of sodium thiosulphate affects the rate of the reaction with hydrochloric acid
of sulphur is being produced as a waste product of the reaction. FAIR TEST The variables in this experiment are: Concentration of sodium thiosulphate, temperature of both liquids at start of experiment, Temperature of room
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Set up apparatus as shown below 2. put catalyse extract into a syringe and put in water at set temperature for about 5 minutes for catalyse extract to heat up/cool down to correct temperature 3. put 10cm3� of the hydrogen peroxide into the conical flask 4. put 10cm3� of catalyse extract in with the hydrogen peroxide 5. Time for one and a half minutes then take tube out of beehive shelf 6. The oxygen produced by the reaction will pass through the tube into the measuring cylinder giving a measure of the rate of reaction 7.
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In order for the particles to react with each other, they need a minimum amount of energy. This is known as the activation energy. If the colliding particles have less than the activation energy, the particles just bounce off each other and no reaction occurs. When you increase the temperature, the particles gain energy and move around more. This means that they are more likely to collide with another particle and allow the chemical reaction to occur. The fact that there are more collisions taking place in the same amount time, it means that the rate of reaction will have increased.
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Investigate how changing the concentration of sodium thiosulphate affects the rate of the reaction with hydrochloric acid
of sulphur is being produced as a waste product of the reaction. FAIR TEST The variables in this experiment are: Concentration of sodium thiosulphate, temperature of both liquids at start of experiment, Temperature of room at start of experiment, Volume of hydrochloric acid, Volume of sodium thiosulphate, The variable I will be changing in this experiment will be the concentration of sodium thiosulphate and I will be keeping all of the others which I mentioned the same.
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The alkali metals are hazardous substances and are stored under inert (unreactive) oils. When these metals are freshly cut (exposed to the air), they quickly become coated with corrosion products. Alkali metals are kept in oil because: 1. Prevents contact with O2 so the metal does not corrode.
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The investigations can use the normal range of laboratory equipment and should take no more than eighty minutes to complete. Include: * A concise, testable hypothesis, explained by an introduction. * Full experimental details including control of the experimental variables, and number of replicates. * Risk assessment (scalds, cuts, electrocution, slipping, mercury in thermometers). * A table for the collection of raw results.
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Time 2nd attempt (s) Time Avergae 1 25 0.2 10 21 25 28 2 25 0.16 10 60 29 20 3 25 0.12 10 4 25 0.08 10 5 25 0.04 10 Theory: There are fast reactions and also slow reactions. For example toasting a piece of bread would take about two minutes and lighting a match up would take 2 seconds.
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decreases with decrease in the substrate (Hydrogen Peroxide) and so does the rate of the reaction. This is why on the graph the rate of the reaction is in proportion to the substrate concentration, ie. The rate of the reaction decreases as substrate concentration decreases. To explain this, I will take in comparison the highest hydrogen concentration (1.00M) and the least (0.00M).The amount of Oxygen evolved and the rate of reaction in 1.00M is higher than it is in the 0.00M concentration of Hydrogen, this is because in enzyme catalysed reactions, having a high substrate concentration increases the amount of
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This is based on the collision theory which I have outlined in Background Knowledge. In my preliminary work this has always been the case, for example if I used 40 ml of Sodium Thiosulphate and 10 ml of water it was much faster than when I used 10 ml of Sodium Thiosulphate and 40 ml of water. Background Knowledge The rate of a reaction depends on two factors.
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Solution In this experiment, I predict that as I increase the mass of the zinc, the temperature will rise until I have reached a point where the amount of zinc is more than the copper sulphate solution which will then stop the temperature from rising.
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