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# GCSE: Patterns of Behaviour

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1. ## To find out how temperature affects the rate of reaction using a range of temperatures from 5oC to 55oC.

That rusting happens because the iron in the metal combines with oxygen in the atmosphere. Single reactions often happen as part of a larger series of reactions. These are my preliminary results I based my prediction on these. Temp oC Time (seconds) 5 128.64 55 20.81 This informed my plan because it gave me a slight idea of what the results might look like and I know how to carry out the experiment. I would know if the experiment were taking too long by judging the preliminary results. I done the preliminary to see how I could do it better the next time I done the experiment Sodium thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid ?

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2. ## I am investigating how the concentration of Hcl is affecting its reaction with sodium thiosulphate.

Apparatus: * Measuring cylinder. * Beaker. * Bunsen burner. * Thermometer. * Hcl. Diagram: Other Information: When the particles of reactants collide with each other, reaction between Hcl and thiosulphate takes place. There are 2 diagrams below showing the effect of low and high concentration of acids during the reaction. You can also increase the rate of reaction by increasing the surface area and more particles for collision.

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3. ## Investigate the rate of reaction between HCl and Na2S 2O3

Only particles on the surface of the solid will be able to go though with collisions with the particles in a solution or gas. Temperature Change When the temperature is raised these things may happen: * The peak will be at a higher energy * The peak is lower * The peak is broader * There is a large increase in the number of particles which higher energies Catalysts A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction with out changing its chemical elements.

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4. ## The Effect of Concentration on the Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid.

Besides concentration I know that catalysts, temperature and surface area also affect the rate of the reaction. Therefore I think that the less concentration of sodium Thiosulphate the slower the rate of the reaction will go. We did preliminary work on this experiment, I took a conical flask and put 50cm� of sodium Thiosulphate and added 10cm� of Hcl. Under the conical flask I put a white piece of paper and put a black cross on it. We made sure that our cross was very dark and think because if it was just a thing cross you might not see it so well and think it has disappeared even though with a thicker cross you can still see it.

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5. ## Investigating the effect of changing one of the factors in the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate.

Therefore if you dilute the sodium thiosulphate, more time is taken as it will take longer for the cross to disappear. HCl + sodium thiosulphate � sodium chloride + sulphur dioxide + sulphur + water HCl(aq) + Na2S2O3(aq) � NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l) When making different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate, you should take care to use the same total volume (of sodium thiosulphate plus hydrochloric acid) for the comparison to be correct. The effect of concentration: The more concentrated the solutions, the more quickly they react.

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6. ## Investigating a factor that affects the rate of an acid / metal reaction

acid and magnesium (0,01g) in each reaction. -Same types of reaction vessels (beaker ,test tube) -Take off the oxide layer from the magnesium with sand paper. -Same concentration of Sulfuric Acid each time. Plan 1. Full the beaker with 450 ml of water 2. Put 5 ml of H2So4 high in the test tube 3. Place the test tube and a thermometer in the beaker 4. Put a Bunsen burner under the beaker 5. Light the Bunsen burner , start heating the water in the beaker 6. Take the oxide layer off the magnesium with sand paper 7.

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7. ## Investigation to see how the concentration affects the rate of reaction

Activation energy is the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process can occur. Key Factor: The key factor we are investigating will be concentration, this is because it is the most accurate experiment we could complete, other than temperature. Surface area would be harder to get a set of accurate results for, therefore we would have to use more than the 3 marble chip sizes we have accessible (Small, medium, large). A catalyst would be unsuited to this experiment as catalysts are hard to obtain and are usually quite expensive.

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8. ## The effects of concentration on the rates of reaction

Concentration - The higher the concentration the more collisions that occur and the faster the reaction 4. Catalyst - By introducing a catalyst this will increase the rate of reaction. The way in which we intend to effect the rate of reaction in this experiment is by increasing the concentration of thiosulphate. It is possible that the ambient temperature may also effect the results if the temperature of the solution in the test tube increases. One way to ensure a fair test is to place a thermometer in the flask and note any changes that occur.

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9. ## The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of changing the concentration of a reactant upon the rate of a reaction.

Reactions should be carried out in a hood or well-ventilated room; some poisonous SO2(g) is produced. Students should be cautioned against leaning over reaction vessel too closely as they observe the "x" under the beaker. Goggles should be worn throughout the experiment. MODIFICATIONS/SUBSTITUTIONS 1. Sodium thiosulphate is available from photographic supply stores as "hypo." "Fixer", also available from photographic supply stores, contains thiosulfate (usually in the form of Na2S2O3) and other chemicals used as hardening agents which do not seem to interfere with the reaction.

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10. ## With high concentrations the rate of reaction will be fast. This is because according to the collision theory the more you increase the concentration of a substance then the rate of collision increases.

If a low concentration of sodium thiosulphate were used then there would be less collision. The more the collision with particles the faster the rate of reaction will be. Whereas with low concentrations the rate of reaction will be slow. With high concentrations there is more collision between the particles therefore they will react quickly and largely because the number of particles increase when the concentration is increased. Hence as the amount of solution is kept the same and only the concentration is varied, the time taken for the reaction to process will be shorter.

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11. ## Why rate increases with concentration

Therefore the rate of reaction depends on how many successful collisions there are in a given unit of time. Why rate increases with concentration. If the concentration of an acid is increased, the reaction goes faster. Consequently if acid is added to a molecule the acid particles will try and collide with this molecule. If there is a low concentration of acid particles then there is less acid particles for reaction. This means there is not much chance of an acid particle hitting the molecule's particles. Hence if the concentration is higher then there are more particles to collide.

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12. ## Investigation into the rates of reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid.

E.g. 1 molar acid is likely to react slower than 10 molar acid because there are more of the acid particles in the same area, therefore there is a higher probability of a faster reaction. Method: To investigate how the rate of reaction changes with the concentration of the acid, I will use a stopwatch to record how long the reaction takes with different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. I will take it that when I can no longer see the magnesium ribbon that the reaction has finished.

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13. ## Rate of reaction for liver and hydrogen peroxide

There are ways to alter particle contact and therefore the reaction rate. One of them is temperature. When temperature increases, the particles move faster resulting in an increase rate of reaction. The particles collide more energetically and because of that are more likely to react. From my research I predict that more gas will be produced but only when the temperature is close to body temperature. Enzymes work best at body temperature and become denatured at higher or lower temperatures. This causes me to think that as the temperature increases to over 50 degrees.

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14. ## Investigation of the effect of temperature on the action of peroxidase enzyme to decompose hydrogen peroxide

Method For accuracy I am using six different temperatures and I will repeat the whole experiment twice. I will record my results in a table. I will then transfer those figures into two line graphs showing gas given off against time. Using these I can then work out the rates of reaction for both experiments and find the averages from the results. Taking the averages I will plot them against the temperatures the experiments were conducted at. By doing this I can finds the temperatures that peroxidase works best at. Doing the experiment 1. Set up the equipment as shown in the diagram.

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15. ## To find how changing the concentration changes the rate of reaction."

Secondary Research... The Graph above is a graph to show the relationship between Rate of Reaction and Concentration. My graph should look similar to this as I am also comparing the same relationship, although it is with different chemicals I don't think it will change. I found this graph in a book named "Chemistry for You." I also found a similar graph at www.Learn.com. Aim- "To find how changing the concentration changes the rate of reaction." Prediction- I think that as the concentration increases the speed of the reaction will increase. Reason- This is because as the concentration increases there are more particles and so there will be more chance of the opposite particles hitting each other Quantified Prediction.

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16. ## Rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

I will change the concentration of the acid by adding water to it. This will be the one that I am going to change because it will be easy and accurate. If I increased the surface area of the limestone by chopping if up there rate of the reaction will be increased because the is more molecules to collide with. If I made a catalyst the rate of the reaction would also be quicker because a catalyst makes a shortcut in the reaction therefore the reaction will be quicker.

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17. ## The aim of the investigation is to investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects the decomposition of limestone (calcium carbonate).

I also predict that the rate of reaction will be directly proportional to the concentration level of the acid. In other words if the concentration level of the acid is doubled, then the rate of reaction measured by the volume of C02 produced in a specified (constant) time will be doubled. Scientific theory for prediction Basically, at higher concentrations, there are more molecules per litre, so there will be more collisions, so the reaction rate should be higher at the same temperature.

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18. ## The Extraction and Uses of Titanium

Titanium is therefore extracted from its chloride by reduction with an active metal. This is expensive but worthwhile as only very pure titanium is useful. The main ore of titanium is called rutile and contains titanium IV oxide. Titanium is manufactured by a two stage batch process.

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19. ## Rates Investigation Report.

What we changed each time we carried out the method was the concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide. We controlled the concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide, we did this by using different amounts of Hydrogen Peroxide mixed with different amounts of water e.g. to create Hydrogen Peroxide with a concentration of 10 we would use 10ml of Hydrogen Peroxide mixed with 10ml of Water. We controlled this because it was one of the factors, which affected the rate of the decomposition Of Hydrogen Peroxide.

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20. ## Sodium thiosulphate reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce a yellow precipitate of sulphur.

Apparatus Conical flask, hydrochloric acid (5cm3), paper with cross on, stopwatch, sodium thiosulphate, water, 2 measuring cylinders (10 & 50 cm3), thermometer. Trial Run Aim: to find the minimum and maximum concertration. Set up apparatus as shown. Results Sodium thiosulphate (cm3) Water (cm3) Hydrochloric Acid (cm3) Time for x to disappear (seconds) 50 0 5 41 10 40 5 217 Conclusion Maximum concentration of sodium thiosulphate: 50 cm3 Minimum concentration of sodium thiosulphate: 10 cm3 Temperature: 19 Celsius The trial run showed me that if you increase the concentration of sodium thiosulphate past 50 cm3 it is hard to stop the stop clock in time because the reaction is to quick to time.

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21. ## The effect of alcohol on reaction times

Method We will make two short lines at the end of the table 1.7 centimetres apart. The inside of the right hand thumb and right hand first finger must be placed along side these. We will place the ruler inside the fingers in the centre with the side with the shortest width touching the table and also facing away from the table. The person's hands should be level with the bottom of the ruler. The ruler will be released without warning the person who is catching it.

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22. ## To show how concentration can affect the speed of a reaction.

All the time an apple is ripening on a tree, chemical reactions are happening. The acids that make the unripe apple sour are being replaced by sugars. Apples ripen very slowly and this may take several moths. In each of these examples, chemical reactions are happening at different rates. The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast it happens. CaCO3 + 2HC1 ? CaC1 + H2O + CO2 Increasing the temperature of a reaction increases the rate of a reaction. At the higher temperatures reactant particles move faster and collide more often and more violently.

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23. ## Reaction between thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.

Acid particle More particles more chance of a successful collision Powdered reactants react more vigorously than block reactants. As they cover a greater surface area therefore there is more chance of a successful collision. Small surface area Greater surface area A catalyst helps to speed up the reaction, but uses less energy, than what the reaction would use without the catalyst. When the reaction has taken place the catalyst remains the same as before the reaction started. No catalyst With catalyst Activation energy Activation energy I have decided to investigate the effect of changing the Sodium Thiosulphate concentration on the rate of reaction.

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24. ## What effect does temperature have on the rate of a reaction?

The minimum energy needed for a successful collision is called the activation energy. For a reaction to take place molecules must collide with each other. When they do so, they must possess enough energy to cause or initiate a reaction. The level of energy needed to start a reaction is called its energy barrier. The actual energy needed to start a reaction is the activation energy e.g. a splint is needed to start a Bunsen burner in the process of combustion.

• Word count: 900
25. ## Investigate the rates of reaction of Sulphur Dioxide and Iodate solutions

To get around this we will add varying amounts of water to the mixtures to keep the volume constant. To give us enough scope for varying the amounts of reactants, we will use 40ml of reactants. This means we will start off with 20ml of each, and then continue to use 20ml of one, 15ml of the other and 5ml of water. Another factor required to keep the test fair is to keep a constant temperature, as this will probably have an effect on the time taken for the clock reaction. Here is how I will execute my experiment: 1)

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