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GCSE: Patterns of Behaviour
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Also if we increased the amount of Sodium Thiosulphate in the solution, the rate of reaction might increase. If there is a higher concentration of the Sodium Thiosulphate to react with the Hydrochloric acid, there will be a greater number of collisions, so leading to a faster reaction time. I will have to keep a number of factors under control and not change a few things. I will have to keep the temperature of the heat roughly the same. This is because different levels of heat would increase or decrease the reaction- if it is different for every test, then it would not be a fair test.
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Variables: Input-The variable in this experiment is the concentration of hydrochloric acid. I tested five different molar strengths of hydrochloric acid by adding it to a50ml of Sodium thiosulphate. Output-The time of reaction is also expected to vary due to changes in concentration Controlled-These are unrelated factors, which could possibly effect the results. They are kept constant to minimize their effects on the outcome. Fair testing: An test must be fair to produce accurate results. To make this experiment a fair test a number of factors must be controlled.
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The aim of this investigation is to find out how the rates of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid are affected by changing the concentrations of the reactants.
Also dealing with temperatures is a difficult task, particularly when you have to keep high temperatures. I am not working with any solids or gasses so it is easy to work with solutions. Likewise a catalyst complicates things, and if undertaken incorrectly, these errors will alter the results and not follow a pattern which will be displayed in a graph. The task, to investigate the rates of reaction, I going to need something more to control it, to slow or speed up; I am going to use water as this dilutes the hydrochloric acid and as it will be demonstrated in a graph, it will hope to prove it speeding and slowing the reaction.
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However I believe there were a few inaccuracies in my preliminary due to the fact that we changed the person who timed the reaction halfway through; this would affect the accuracy because different people have slightly different reaction times, this mistake shall hopefully not be repeated in the actual experiment so that we may retain reliable evidence. However the values for the test with the one molar HCl was the most accurate out of the three experiments we did because we conducted the experiment almost perfectly and this is further proved within the results.
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n this experiment I am going to observe and record the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid.
The Magnesium displaces the Hydrogen in the acid, so it forms Magnesium Chloride and Hydrogen gas. I will first run a pilot test so that so that if any problems occur I can fix them before Background: Particles in a molecule move around. The speed of the particles depends on the energy of the particles. We know that the particles in a solid move slow. The particles in a liquid move fast and the particles in a gas move even faster. The rate of a reaction is the speed at which a reaction takes place. If a reaction has a low reaction rate it tells us that the particles are combining at a slower speed.
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Diagram Prediction My Hypothesis is that the higher the concentration of acid, the faster the rate of reaction. This is because the higher the concentration of acid, the more particles of HCl will be colliding with the marble chip which means that there are more reactions taking place, so more CO2 will be produced. I will also predict that the rate of reaction should double if concentration is doubled; this means that for instance it takes 1.0 Molar Acid 50 seconds to create 100cm� it should then take 2.0 molar acid 25 seconds to create the same volume of gas.
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I chose to use 0.1 molar for the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate and 0.5 molar for the concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid. To insure my results were accurate, I decided to repeat my experiment three times for each temperature. I then chose three different temperatures; 30, 40 and 50 degrees Celsius which I would use to carry out my experiment. There were a number of ways of carrying out this experiment, these included; measuring the time taken for the bubbles produced to stop, measuring the amount of gas given off, measuring the mass change before and after the experiment and finally measuring the time taken for the magnesium to completely dissolve.
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This shows me that the method use is the correct one. However there will be a few small changes, I will use 5 different solutions, all varying in concentration, so that the experiment is more accurate and gives me a wider spread of results. Also I shall do the experiment twice so that I check for anomalous results. List of solutions Thiosulphate (ml) Percentage(%) Water (ml) Hydrochloric acid (ml) 50 100 0 5 40 80 10 5 30 60 20 5 20 40 30 5 10 20 40 5 The hydrochloric will stay at a constant amount of 5 ml because it needs to react with the solution.
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What information do I need to record? In my experiment I will need to record the volume of sodium thiosulphate that is used in the experiment, the concentration of sodium thiosulphate, the amount of acid I used, the time that was needed for X to disappear and lastly the average time taken for each experiment. 7) How will I record this information? I am going to record the results I got of from the experiment on a table of results.
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Prediction I predict that the greater concentration Sodium Thiosulphate solution the faster the chemical reaction will take place. As a result of this I feel that the cross will disappear more quickly than having the solution less concentrated due to the cloudiness. I think this because we know that the more molecules in the solution the greater chance we having of them bumping into each causing the reaction to take place faster. I also predict that the by doubling the concentration it will half the reaction time.
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This is because increasing the concentration increases the probability of a collision between reactant particles because there are more of them in the same volume. Increasing the concentration of acid molecules increases the frequency or chance at which they hit the surface of marble chips to dissolve them. Increasing the concentration of reactant A or B will increase the chance or frequency of a collision between them and increase the speed of product formation. The effect of Pressure If one or more of the reactants is a gas then increasing pressure will effectively increase the concentration of the reactant molecules and speed up the reaction.
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The two molecules will only react if they have enough energy. By heating the mixture, you will raise the energy levels of the molecules involved in the reaction. Increasing temperature means the molecules move faster Surface Area The higher the surface area the faster the reaction will take place. If one of the reactants is a solid, the surface area of the solid will affect how fast the reaction goes. This is because the two types of molecule can only bump into each other at the liquid solid interface, on the surface of the solid.
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This can be applied to the area of investigation because it can show how the rate of reaction is affected by different orders of reaction and it directly affects the rate of reaction, as shown in the equation above. Equipment: Gas Syringe, Timer, 100 cm3 beaker, clamps and stands, delivery tubes, 100 cm3, conical flask. Method: Step 1: Set up the equipment, then measure out the correct volume of acid to water, which will vary, and measure out the correct length of Magnesium ribbon, this will ensure the test is fair.
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The experimental evidence of this study makes it possible to control the synthesis of Polystyrene from monomer to polymer. Objectives The following questions will be answered once this experiment has been carried out: * To find out the roles played by Benzoyl Peroxide, Benzoquinone and Nitrobenzene. * To find out how long the induction period lasts. * To find out how Benzoquinone and Nitrobenzene slow down the rate of polymerisation of styrene. * To work out the rate constant for decomposition of Benzoyl Peroxide.
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Preliminary Prediction I think that the 0.2 solution will react faster then the 0.04 solution. Results Concentration (molar) Hydrochloric Acid (ml) Sodium Thiosulphate (ml) Reaction Time (secs) 0.2 20 30 39.15 0.2 30 20 48.18 0.2 40 10 112.66 0.2 10 40 25.69 0.2 5 45 36.01 0.2 5 25 33.15 0.2 5 10 72.43 Concentration (molar) Hydrochloric Acid (ml) Sodium Thiosulphate (ml) Reaction Time (secs) 0.04 10 40 128.56 0.04 20 30 225.09 Findings We will be using 10 & 40. The size of the cross must remain the same size through out the whole experiment.
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PLAN for the investigation into the affect of the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate on its rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid.
Because when the sodium thiosulphate particles will react with the hydrochloric acid I think this will make the solution block out the cross quicker due to the no. of particles of sodium thiosulphate reacting with the acid being larger. Also preliminary work was done and this supports that the more concentrated a solution the faster a reaction and this is shown in my preliminary results and graph below in my preliminary work. Preliminary Work: The preliminary work was carried out using a simulation off the computer.
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The buffer with the faster reaction rate is the most favorable. Introduction Enzymes are catalytic proteins that change the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction. In this experiment, the enzyme perozidase is used to convert toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water and oxygen. Oxygen will react with guaiacol, which turns brown when oxidized. The darker the color of the reaction, the higher the absorbency at 500 nm, indicating more reaction product is being formed. In this experiment, the temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and enzyme concentration was varied to test its effect on the reaction rate.
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This then was measured, as this measurement allowed us to calculate the flow rate of salivary. Next was the acid substances, in this experiment we had to place a small crystal acid on the tongue, then performed the steps in the stimulated secretion to see whether the acid slowed down or speeded up the flow rate of saliva. We then as a group did exercise to see the effect on secretion, the female volunteer, rinsed her mouth with water to remove any traces of acid.
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� Environmental surroundings kept constant otherwise external changes may alter the results. � Room pressure kept constant, as pressure will change the rate of the reaction. � Equipment kept the same varying the equipment means the different scales of readings may have been used and if kept constant all of the results will have been performed under the same conditions. � Light intensity kept the same as light intensity changes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, as it is light sensitive. Materials: * 150mL of hydrogen peroxide * 250mL conical flask * Stopper * Gas carrying tube * Manganese oxide (catalyst)
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I predict that the more concentrated the Sodium Thiosulphate, the faster it will react. This is because there are more molecules and more Sodium Thiosulphate, so they are more likely to collide making the reaction faster. I also think that when the concentration is lower, the reaction will take place slower. In the low concentration, 50% concentration on the Sodium Thiosulphate, you can see that although there are the same amount of molecules, there is water which the Hydrochloric acid will also 'bump' into.
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I will be aiming to find out the rates of reactions for different concentrations of acid and using the acquired information to draw a final conclusion as to how concentration affects rates of chemical reactions. For this investigation, I will be mixing my own concentrations of hydrochloric acid. To make my own concentrations of hydrochloric acid, I will need to put a certain amount of water to the 1.0M hydrochloric acid to make them how weak I want it to be.
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I am going to investigate the rate of reaction using dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon at different concentrations
They gain enough force to react. * Catalysts speed up reactions without being changed or used up. They do this by lowering the energy that is needed to stop a reaction so more collisions are successful. I will solve this problem by keeping all the other variables that I don't want constant and therefore the only variable in the reaction will be the different concentrations of acid. Pilot: In order to prepare for the experiment and to get the most accurate results possible I did a pilot experiment which I repeated 4 times.
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But due to practical limitations the temperature will not be able to be controlled, so will be at the assumed room temperature of 20�C. * The Concentration Of The Products In general terms, if you increase the concentration of the reactants, the reaction becomes faster. Increasing the concentration increases the chances of particles colliding with each other. If the solution is made more concentrated it means there are more particles of reactant knocking about between the water molecules which makes collisions between the important molecules more likely.
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So I was left with concentration and temperature. I decided to use concentration as I believe it will be, overall, an easier experiment to do. I am going to see how concentration affects the rate of the reaction. In this experiment solution A (a mixture of water and sodium thiosulphate) reacts with Hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride, water, sulphur dioxide and sulphur. The Sulphur that is produced during the reaction produces a yellow precipitate of sulphur. I am going to use different concentrations and see how it affects the time it takes for the reaction to complete.
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I do predict that if this plan is carried out then the results will show a change in the physical appearance of all three precipitates. I also predict that there will be a change concerning the rate of reaction of all three precipitates. The general formula would be: C4H8X + H2O C4H8OH + H+ (aq) + X- (aq) (where X is the halogen atom) Here is a list of all apparatus that will be used: 1. 1-bromobutane at 1.28 density/g cm�� 2.
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