Diseases of Human Nervous System

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Mustafa Latif-Aramesh

                The Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project was started in 1990 by Dr James Watson. When it was first set up, it had many goals. Most of the research that helped the HGP reach their goal was done in the UK and the US. Here is a list of the goals it hoped to accomplish by 2005:

  • To work out the order or sequence of all the three billion base pairs in the human genome.
  • To identify all the genes; and
  • To develop faster methods for sequencing DNA.

Each person’s DNA is unique so they took as many different samples of DNA to get an “average sequence”. They took people from many different background and races to make sure that it was an accurate find.

Shotgun Sequencing

Advances in technology meant that they finished it earlier than expected. There are many techniques they use to determine the sequence of base pairs but the technique most used and most accurate is called the “shotgun sequencing”. Shotgun sequencing is very accurate; to do it you have to isolate genomic of the human and then the chromosome you desired. The next step is to treat the DNA with various restriction enzymes. You obtain fragment and you legated them into a cloning plasmid then transform E. coli. You select the bacteria (100th of thousand) that have plasmid with an inserts. You then grow each bacterium separately then isolated the plasmid. Then the sequencing reaction takes place. Computers analyse the sequencing reaction. Then you get thousand of individual fragments that you assemble using computers, and then you get a draft of the chromosome.

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Achievements

The completion of the mapping of the estimated 20,000 genes in the human genome was announced in April 2003

About 11,000 genes in which the genetic code has been sequenced have been mapped to either one of the numbered Chromosomes 1-22 (autosome) or the X or Y sex chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell or to the mitochondria

Treating Anemia

Depending on how sever the anemia, depends on which treatment will most benefit them. For people with an Iron deficiency, the best option would be to change diet (to more iron) and give an iron ...

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