• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Factors affecting the rate of Diffusion.

Extracts from this document...


Factors affecting the rate of Diffusion Aim The aim of this experiment is to investigate the factors affecting the rate of diffusion. Introduction In this experiment, agar will be used. It will be the inert medium that we are using to investigate diffusion through. Agar is extracted from seaweed and after dissolving it in hot water it cools to form a 'solid' jelly. The agar that will be used will be made alkaline by adding small amounts of sodium hydroxide and has had the indicator phenolphthalein added to it to give it a pink colour as it is in alkaline conditions. The H+ from the hydrochloric acid will diffuse through the agar and the indicator will go colourless. Method The apparatus will be as follows: 1/2 a petridish of pink agar at a depth of 1cm A supply of 2M HCl A supply of distilled water A cork borer of 4mm depth and 10mm depth A test tube A stop watch A petridish of agar Distilled water Different concentrations of HCl will be made using distilled water to dilute the HCl using a pipette, as it is very accurate. The concentrations will be 2M, 1.5M, 1M, 0.75M, 0.5M and 0.2M. The total volume will always be 10cm3. The first concentration will be put into a test tube. ...read more.


To make different concentrations of HCl acid, the following measurements of acid and distilled water will be used: Concentration in molars Volume of HCl in cm3 Volume of distilled water in cm3 Total Volume in cm3 2M 10 0 10 1.5M 7.5 2.5 10 1M 5 5 10 0.75M 3.75 6.25 10 0.5M 2.5 7.5 10 0.2M 1 9 10 Time taken for acid to diffuse into agar Dependent The time taken for the acid to diffuse into the agar will depend upon the concentration of hydrochloric acid. Size of agar piece Controlled If the size of the agar piece is large, then the time taken for the HCl to diffuse into it will be more than if it were a small piece. A 4mm diameter cork borer will be used to keep the size equal. Temperature Controlled The particles gain more kinetic energy with a higher temperature meaning more collisions, and so the rate of diffusion is faster. The room temperature will be monitored in case there are any drastic changes. Stirring/Shaking Controlled If the test tube is shaken or stirred, the time taken for the acid to diffuse into the agar will decrease. To keep this constant, the test tube will not be shaken. Apparatus used Controlled If different apparatus is used, the results would be different. ...read more.


There could be three main reasons other than the inaccuracies above that there were anomalies. Firstly, the pipette was not accurate enough; it was accurate to within 0.05ml. Secondly, in the agar, there were actual dips on the surface meaning some pieces were larger than others. Lastly, sometimes the agar floated meaning HCl was not diffusing in from some sides, meaning some took longer. As far as the reliability was concerned, there were two inaccuracies with the equipment. The pipette could only measure to within 0.05ml. Also, the stopwatch could only measure approximately to the nearest 2seconds because of human reaction time. This is because, when the endpoint is nearing, it is hard to judge whether the solution is colourless or not. If I were to guestimate the percentage, I would say that it is approximately 10%. On the graph, there are error bars to show where the results could have lied. From these results, an alternative line of best fit has been drawn. An alternative method for this experiment would be to instead of adding agar to the HCl, the HCl would be added to the agar. The agar would be put at the bottom of a beaker, and using a pipette, 20cm3 of HCl would be added right above the centre of the agar piece. The time taken for the agar to turn colourless would be taken. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. An investigation into a factor affecting the rate of diffusion of hydrochloric acid into ...

    We also found that the smaller the well the quicker the rate of diffusion, and with both of these facts vice versa. Temperature is also a factor that could affect the rate of diffusion because if the temperature was higher the diffusion is likely to occur quicker compared to when the temperature was lower.

  2. Investigate the rate of diffusion of Hydrochloric Acid into Gelatine.

    Cube 4 is 12 and cube 1 is 6. From this information I would predict that cube 4 should diffuse twice as quick as cube 1. I have made these predictions by using the secondary sources of my class work, SEG science revision guide and the Internet. The information, which I obtained from the Internet, was from the site www.studentcentral.co.uk.

  1. An investigation into the factors affecting the rate of reaction of indigestions tablets with ...

    However, there are also other variables as well that will affect the experiment if not considered. With a higher concentration there is more particles per volume of substance. This means the more concentrated the acid is, the more particles there are ready to collide with the tablet particles (which are the same in all experiment).

  2. My aim for this experiment is to find out which one of these factors ...

    I will make sure that I time the experiment as soon as the Gel is dropped into the test tube, this could also effect the time taken. I will use the same concentration of acid because this could make a big effect in the results.

  1. The aim of this investigation is to discover if different variables affect the rate ...

    The surface area of the agar For this experiment you would change the surface area of the agar so that the size varied. You would then investigate and see if the diffusion rate changed. The concentration of the HCL For this experiment you would change the concentration of the acid

  2. To investigate the factors affecting neutralisation.

    This is because during a neutralisation reaction such as the one above, heat is given off. Neutralisation reactions are exothermic meaning that the energy released is more than the energy put in (see graph below). As the neutralisation process is continuing more and more heat is being given off as the molecules of both the acid and the NaOH react.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work